Presentation on theme: "A. The World War I Era B. The World War II Era C. Communism and the Cold War D. Independence Movements in Asia and Africa E. Globalization and the World."— Presentation transcript:
A. The World War I Era B. The World War II Era C. Communism and the Cold War D. Independence Movements in Asia and Africa E. Globalization and the World Since 1980 F. Women since 1914 G. Summary Era 5 Review: 1914 to the Present
A. World War I Era By 1914 most of the world was either colonized by Europe, or once was colonized by Europe: nationalism resulted When the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist while visiting Bosnia in 1914, war quickly followed Alliances already existed in Europe with the power hungry monarchs of the time: Triple Alliance/Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany Entente Powers/Allies: Britain, France, Russia (later, US) Zimmerman Telegram: Germany luring Mexico into war, US public opinion turns from isolationism to war Results: 8.5 million soldiers died; government takeover of industrialization, price controls, etc. (moved left); colonial empires were hit hard with deaths and disease
Treaty of Versailles: Make the Germans Cry 1919; brought official end to WWI; Germany had to pay reparations, release territory, downsize military Departure from Wilson’s 14 Points, which hoped to establish future peace (League of Nations) Created conditions for WWII Russian Revolution: WWI ruined Russia Started with world’s largest army, severe losses made conditions so bad Czar Nicholas abdicated throne Alexander Kerensky made provisional gov’t, which shared power with “representative” groups called soviets Soviets, representing the working peasants and soldiers, got behind the Bolshevik party Lenin, Marxist leader of Bolsheviks, mobilized the workers and took command of the gov’t, withdrew from WWI Created the Red Army to put down violent struggles A. World War I Era
B. World War II Era Soviet Union: Under Stalin goes Totalitarian Lenin had instituted his New Economic Policy (NEP) in the 1920s, was based on agriculture Stalin came to power and began the Five Year Plans—rapid agricultural production by overtaking private farms and making them state-run: collectivization Made large, national factories—not communist because people didn’t share the wealth—totalitarian—many died in famines but USSR was successfully industrialized Great Depression: Capitalism crashes, Germany Burns WWI was expensive. Financial headquarters of world shifted to US, Europe relied on American credit US stock market crash of 1929 caused a spiral of monetary problems around the world-no credit for Europe: no reparations payments from Germany, no money in Europe FDR in US makes lots of gov’t programs (Alphabet Soup) to get boys working and public projects done.
Fascism: subset of Totalitarianism Totalitarianism uses a dictator to rule every aspect of life. Fascist rulers are right-wing because they use traditional institutions to enforce and are nationalistic. Communist totalitarians like Stalin are left-wing because they destroy traditional institutions and class distinctions. Both militaristic Rise of Hitler: Germany’s economic crisis left door open Nazi party rose to power in 1920s with Hitler as head, first elected democratically; his fascist rule known as Third Reich He began rebuilding German army and started restoring Germany to its pre-WWI borders, then some. But the rest of Europe was hit hard by the Great Depression and ignored this—actually gave him some territory—appeasement Signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 B. World War II Era
Japan: kicked out all Europeans after Meiji Restoration, started industrializing After WWI (had fought with Allies and done well) sent 21 Demands to China for trading rights and gov’t control; war ensued The war: tens of millions died, Holocaust occurred, nuclear weapons used Consequences: Holocaust, two super powers left, Europe torn up, decline of colonialism, big changes for women, creation of international organizations, start of Cold War B. World War II Era
C. Communism and Cold War Power Grab: Soviets and Americans seek allies at every turn Germany and Eastern Europe were divided into “spheres of influence” at conferences like Yalta and Potsdam USSR incorporated much of Eastern Europe East vs. West: pointing weapons at each other and creating a two-sided world Containment policy—US will aid any country against USSR takeover— proxy wars (Afghanistan) China: Communism grows Sun Yat-sen led Chinese revolution 1911, created communist gov’t Mao Zedong created People’s Republic of China Implemented the Great Leap Forward in 1950s—agricultural production as focus, but huge famine killed 30 million Cultural Revolution—trying to erase Western influence, many sent to cultural retraining on farms; universities shut down, reopened as communism factories By 1970s reopened to Western ideas: likes the money, not the ideas
Korea and Vietnam: North Communist, US/Europe backed South; lost both really, still present there Cuban Revolution: Communism too close to US Germany: decline of communism and Soviet bloc led to reunification of Germany (previously split into east and west), back to a market democracy Soviet Union collapsed when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985. Most nationalities in USSR wanted their own countries— mostly peaceful, some exceptions: like genocide in Balkans By 1991 Cold War was over, US only Superpower left C. Communism and Cold War
D. Independence Movements After WWII independence movements ended European imperialism; as US and Europe fought to let post-Cold War countries fight for self-determination, old colonies had to be given same right India: Indian National Congress had formed in 1885 Gandhi in 1920s: huge protests against colonial rule; passive resistance/civil disobedience, boycotts, increased violence between Muslims and Hindus: India and Pakistan were created Africa: most wanted independence, but had been raped of resources, most were uneducated, borders drawn according to European conveniences, not ethnic boundaries Rwanda: genocide because of ^ South Africa: though independent longer, faced apartheid
Middle East: fall of Ottoman Empire after WWI left most lands under League of Nations protection Israel: Balfour Declaration by Britain said Jews should get a homeland—said shouldn’t displace Palestinians 1948 Jews get a state, Palestinians get an area, have been fighting ever since Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) trying to negotiate a homeland, complicated by terrorist uprisings (intifada) Iranian Revolution: the Shah was ousted from power, sought refuge in US, Iran invaded by Iraq Quran became basis of legal system; bad elections since, hostility with US OIL: OPEC seeks steady prices, rules the world. D. Independence Movements
E. Globalization and the world since 1980 Terrorism: educated, bored, hopeless boys in the Middle East Saddam Hussein, Osama bin Laden, Al Queda, Taliban… Global Organizations: globalization of trade has created agencies and organizations to protect trading interests Group of Six (G6) was US, Great Britain, West Germany, Italy, Japan and Poland. Now joined by Canada and Russia—G8. They are the world’s most powerful leaders and meet annually Environmental concerns: started with Industrial Revolution, now fueled by scientific concern over climate change and the ruination of the landscape; water problems in one area contrast sharply with bottled water and sprinkler use in other areas Technology: 1970s and 80s: silicon chip for storing data… has exploded from there.
F. Women Beginning of 20 th century, worldwide right to vote Education to vote? Largely absent worldwide Family structure changed as birth control became available, workforce was opened to females, and education became widespread In agricultural economies, not the case
G. Summary The contrast between self-determination at beginning of time period with globalization of culture at end of time period Globalization not well-received by Islamic cultures… … a clash of civilizations?