Presentation on theme: "Psoriasis. Definition Psoriasis is a common, chronic, disfiguring, inflammatory and proliferative condition of the skin; in which both genetic and environmental."— Presentation transcript:
Definition Psoriasis is a common, chronic, disfiguring, inflammatory and proliferative condition of the skin; in which both genetic and environmental influences play a critical role characterised by red, scaly, sharply demarcated indurated plaques of various sizes, particularly over extensor surfaces and scalp.
Aetiopathogenesis Genetic predisposition: HLA-B13, B17, and Cw6 Epidermal hyperproliferation Antigen driven activation of autoreactive T-cells Angiogenesis Multifactorial inheritance Overexpression of Th1 cytokines such as IL 2, IL 6, IL 8, IL 12, INF - γ, TNF α
Trigger factors Trauma (Koebner phenomenon): Mechanical, chemical, radiation trauma. Infections: Streptococcus, HIV Stress Alcohol and smoking Metabolic factors: pregnancy, hypocalcemia Sunlight: usually beneficial but in some may cause exacerbation
Patient Profile Sex: Adults (M=F) but in adolescents (F>M) Age: 2 peak age ranges 1st peak : years 2nd peak: years Earlier age of onset: Female sex Positive family history 3-fold higher risk in siblings of patients with onset before 15 years of age
History Patients give H/O Prominent itchy, red areas with increased skin scaling and peeling. New lesions appearing at sites of injury/trauma to the skin (Koebner phenomenon) Actual clearance of lesions following trauma to the skin (Reverse Koebner phenomenon) Exacerbation in winter, improvement in summer Significant joint pain, stiffness, deformity in %
Morphology Classical Lesion: Erythematous, round to oval well defined scaly plaques with sharply demarcated borders Scales: Psoriatic plaques typically have a dry, thin, silvery-white or micaceous scale. Sites: Elbows, knees, extensors of extremities, scalp & sacral region in a symmetric pattern. Palms/ soles involved commonly
Morphology Auspitz sign: Removing the scale reveals a smooth, red, glossy membrane with tiny punctate bleeding points Grattage test: On grattage, characteristic coherence of scales seen as if one scratches a wax candle(‘signe de la tache de bougie)
Morphology Koebner’s phenomenon Linear distribution of the plaques seen along scratch marks or at sites of trauma Woronoff‘s ring Psoriatic plaques occasionally appear to be immediately encircled by a paler peripheral zone.
Morphological Types Chronic plaque psoriasis: plaques with less scaling Follicular psoriasis: follicular papules. Linear psoriasis: linear arrangement of plaques Annular/ figurate psoriasis: ring shaped or other patterns. Rupoid, elephantine and ostraceous psoriasis
Morphological Types Guttate psoriasis: Common in children, good prognosis Pustular psoriasis: Crops of pustules based on erythema ◦ Localised / generalised ◦ Impetigo herpetiformis Erythrodermic psoriasis: 16-24% of all cases of exfoliative dermatitis
Distributional Variation Scalp psoriasis Palmoplantar psoriasis Nail psoriasis: pitting, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, or the oil-drop sign. (25-50%) Mucosal psoriasis Inverse psoriasis: ◦ spares the typical extensor surfaces ◦ affects intertriginous (i.e, axillae, inguinal folds, inframammary creases) areas with minimal scaling.
Psoriasis in children and in HIV Psoriasis in children: Plaques not as thick as in adults, less scaly Diaper area in infants, flexural areas in children Face involvement more common than in adults Psoriasis in HIV: Acute onset Severe flares Poor prognosis
Psoriatic arthritis Seen in 5-10% of psoriatic patients Types: 1. Classic (16%)-DIP joint involvement 2. Oligoarticular (70%) 3. Rheumatoid type(15%) 4. Psoriatic spondylitis (5%) 5. Arthtritis mutilans (5%) Contd…
Psoriatic arthritis Associations: Tenosynovitis Enthesitis Osteolysis New bone formation Joint fibrosis & ankylosis
Histopathology Skin biopsy findings: Parakeratosis Microabscesses of Munro in the horny layer Absence of granular layer Regular elongation of rete ridges (camel-foot shaped) Suprapapillary thinning of st.malphigii Spongiform pustules of Kogoj Dilated and tortuous capillaries in dermal papillae Superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate
Differential diagnosis Nummular eczema Tinea corporis Lichen planus Secondary syphilis Pityriasis rosea Drug eruption Candidiasis Tinea unguium Seborrheic dermatitis
Treatment General measures: Counselling regarding the natural course of the disease Weigh reduction in obese patients. Avoidance of trauma or irritating agents. Reduce intake of alcoholic beverages. Reduce emotional stress Sunlight and sea bathing improve psoriasis except in photosensitive
Topical therapy Emollients: white soft paraffin & liquid paraffin Corticosteroids: Potent steroids like fluocinolone acetonide, betamethasone dipropionate or clobetasol propionate 5-10% Coal tar: for stable but resistant plaques 0.1-1% dithranol: for few stable, thick, resistant plaques Contd…
Response to topical therapy Effects of topical therapy evident in 2-3 weeks Clearing of scale is usually observed first, followed by flattening of the treated plaques Resolution of erythema may take 6-8 weeks
Phototherapy 1. Extensive and widespread disease 2. Resistance to topical therapy
PUVA photochemotherapy (PUVA) Combined use of a photosensitizing drug methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralens) with UVA irradiation ( nm) Mechanism of action: 1. Interferes with DNA synthesis → decrease cellular proliferation 2. Induces apoptosis of cutaneous lymphocytes (localized immunosuppression).
Method of administering PUVA 0.6mg/kg of 8-MOP(methoxypsoralen) given 2 hrs before irradiation Initial dose of UVA is 2-5 J/cm 2 with exposure time of 5 mins PUVA administered 2-3 times per week in an outpatient setting. Every week UVA dose increased by 20% and exposure time by 5 mins Maintenance treatments every 2-4 weeks until remission Relief with treatments
Side Effects Nausea, pruritus, burning sensation. Long-term complications ◦ photo damage to the skin ◦ skin cancer
UVB phototherapy Irradiation with light of wavelength nm Effective for moderate to severe psoriasis Usually combined with one or more topical treatments like tar or anthralin Narrow-band UVB phototherapy Use of a fluorescent bulb with a narrow emission spectrum that peaks at 311 nm (UVB spectrum, nm). More effective than broadband UVB for the treatment of plaque-type psoriasis
Systemic Agents Indications: Resistant to both topical treatment and phototherapy Active psoriatic arthritis. Physically, psychologically, socially or economically disabling disease Steroids: only used in life threatening situations like erythrodermic & pustular psoriasis. Cyclosporin: Immune modulator ◦ Used in erythrodermic & resistant psoriasis ◦ Limitations: expensive & nephrotoxic and hypertensive
Systemic Agents Methotrexate: ◦ Three doses of mg orally 12 hrly or mg single dose; administered every week. ◦ Contraindicated in hepatic & renal diseases. Close monitoring of blood counts & hepatic function essential. Acitretin: ◦ For widespread psoriasis; combination with PUVA reduces total cumulative dose of UV irradiation ◦ Contraindicated in pregnancy & women of child bearing age
Biological therapies Selective, immunologically directed intervention at key steps in the pathogenesis of the disease. Mechanism of action: Inhibits the initial cytokine release and Langerhans cell migration Targets activated T cells, prevents further T-cell activation, and eliminates pathologic T cells; Inhibits proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF
Prognosis Course of plaque psoriasis is unpredictable. Characterised by remissions and relapses Often intractable to treatment Relapses in most patients Improves in warm weather Poor Prognostic factors: Early onset, Family history, Stress, HIV infection