Presentation on theme: "Accelerating Implementation of MDGs: A case of Millennium Village Program in Uyui-Tabora ‘Good practices’ and ‘lessons learned’ from a Millennium Village."— Presentation transcript:
1Accelerating Implementation of MDGs: A case of Millennium Village Program in Uyui-Tabora ‘Good practices’ and ‘lessons learned’ from a Millennium Village Program to eradicate abject povertyGerson Nyadzi, PhDTeam Leader & Science CoordinatorA presentation made during the Poverty Policy Week (PPW)25th-27th Nov, 2013 at Mwalimu J.K. Nyerere International Conference,Dar es Salaam
4BackgroundMillennium Declaration was adopted by 189 countries at the Millennium Summit in September 2000;Agreement to promote peace, security, human rights, democracy, governance, environment, poverty reduction, health and social services;Adoption of 8 goals, 18 targets and indicators with 2015 as timeline;UNDP as UN scorekeeper for the MDGs.
6The MVP Concept Genesis 2001/02: UN Secretary General established the UN Millennium Project (UNMP) to identify practical ways to achieve the MDGs.2005: UNMP releases reports and series of recommendations.2005/06: Millennium Villages Project conceived as proof of concept that MDGs can be achieved in rural Africa, using the UNMP recommendations.
7Concept cont’d ………. MVP Principles: Science-and evidence-based proven implementing technologies and practices;Community-based, with a participatory approach to planning, implementation, and monitoring that contextualizes specific interventions for each village;Enhance local capacity development in technical, managerial and participatory skills - involving different agencies and community.
8MVP Concept cont’d …….. Financial model: based on an average input of USD110 per capita per annum for a 5-year timeframeBreakdown:Community contribution:National + Local Government:Other partners/investors:Project (MVP) donors:direct interventions:project management: -- 10
10MVP Concept cont’d ……..Integrated targeted investments at the community level in 4-5 priority sectors (minimum package):Agriculture, incl. livestock(improved seeds/breeds, fertilizers, best agronomic + husbandry practices, etc.);Health, including HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria control(functional clinics, incl. staffing, adequate supply of drugs, equipment, etc.);Education(functional schools, incl. school meals);Water + sanitationInfrastructure (covering energy, roads, ICT, etc.).
11MVP Pillars based on five initial core objectives and interventions SuccessMalariaBednetsBasic Clinical ServicesSafe Water PointsChildren in SchoolsHarvestsBase-lining and surveysCommunity Engagement/ Government SupportCluster Staff and Office Infrastructure in place
13Site selection criteria: The Millennium Villages NetworkTotal of 14 MVs in 10 African countries (covering some 0.5 million people): Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda (see map)Now expanding into Benin, Cameroon, Liberia, Zambia, Mozambique, and Madagascar; as well as: Haiti, Papua New Guinea, Burkina Faso, DR Congo, Central African Republic, Comoros, the Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Togo;Some countries are up-scaling the good lessons from MVP using own resources: e.g. Mali, Nigeria, RwandaSite selection criteria:(i) typical hunger spot, (ii) abject poverty (>60% on < 1USD per day), (iii) agro-ecology (farming system used by >90% of agricultural population).
19Development Challenges in Mbola MVP Mbola was launched in mid 2006;Baseline surveys conducted in 2006/2007;Following development challenges were identified:High poverty levels (over 60 living under 1USD/capita/day)Poor agricultural management practicesUnreliable rainfall, leading to declining crop yieldsShortage of basic infrastructurePoor education facilities and infrastructureDomination of tobacco as cash cropHigh rate of environmental degradationUnsustainable use of the Miombo woodlandsPoor access to markets.Therefore Mbola is a typical Tanzanian rural village cluster with all the poverty trap characteristics.
20MVP Management Structure National Level:MoF/PEED; UNDP/MPRegional and District level:RC/RAS Tabora, DC/DED UyuiCommunity + Village Level:MVP Council/Baraza, Village Sector CommitteesProject Level :Country Coordinator/MDG AdvisorTeam Leader & Science CoordinatorFinance & Administration ManagerSector CoordinatorsCommunity Facilitators (seconded LGA staff)Local Level support staff: i.e. field enumerators, data entry clerks, community health workers, etc
21MVP Mbola Key Achievements We know that no single intervention is enough. In order to effect lasting change in any one area, we must improve them all.
232015 Target Baseline (2007) Year 5 (2012) MDG / MVP Indicator Report, Year 5 Preliminary Results of Progress to Date for Tanzania, Mbola ver: JULY 5, 2012 Millennium Development Goals and MVP Indicators PRELIMINARY RESULTSPROGRESS AGAINST TARGETS#MDG Indicator2015 TargetBaseline (2007)Year 3 (2009)Year 5 (2012)Average in all MVP in AfricaMDG Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger1.8Underweight among children under 5 years oldReduce by half15.719.79.3%15.8%Stunting among children under 5 years old 46.124.535.5%39.4%Wasting among children under 5 years old 4.014.15.4%5.9% MDG Goal 4:Reduce child mortality4.1Under-5 mortality rateReduce by 2/3704750924.2Infant mortality rate27514.3Measles immunization rate of 1 year-old children≥90%45.891.197.1%86.6%Vitamin A supplementation rate of under-5 children63.976.893.9%85.0% MDG Goal 5:Improve maternal health5.1Maternal mortality rateReduce by 3/43452305.2Skilled birth attendance≥70%47.239.785.7%64.9%5.3Modern contraception use25% + MVP Baseline25.820.738.3%33.0%5.5 (4)Antenatal care coverage - at least four (4) visits with any provider56.051.361.9%56.3%
24Reduce by 1/2 proportion without access #MDG Indicator2015 TargetBaseline (2007)Year 3 (2009)Year 5 (2012)Average in all MVP in Africa MDG Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesPregnant women tested for HIV100%NA92.3%76.3%HIV-infected pregnant women who received ARVs to reduce the risk of MTCT≥85%86.0%59.4%6.7Children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-bednets≥80%10.480.180.9%57.3%6.10(2)Tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed treatment short course Proxy: TB Treatment success rate95.0%84.5%MDG Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability7.8Access to improved drinking water Reduce by 1/2 proportion without access0.027.364.2%78.9%7.9Access to Improved sanitation22.214.171.124%43.8%
25Key Achievements in Community Development Community sensitization and training on participatory approaches in planning and implementation;Village sector committees strengthened - comprising of 523 members (45% are women);35 member MVP Council/Baraza (including women and youths) was formed as a project oversight body – representing each of the 16 villages;Community Innovation Centre at Ilolangulu was built: useful for capacity building, social events, income generation, establishment of a community library, community radio, etc.
26Key Achievements Agriculture and Business (MDG 1) Goal: Increase food production and incomesActivities:Supporting farmers with fertilizer from partners Agrium and Mosaic, along with improved seeds (maize, cassava, orange fleshed sweet potatoes), first as subsidy and gradually shifting to credit.Providing training to farmers in agronomic techniquesDiversifying production with nutritious, high-value crops (sunflower, groundnuts and horticultural crops) and livestock to increase in household income.Building grain warehouses for better storage.15 agriculture sector committees ( 92 members : 50% women) were revived and empowered through training and provided with bicycles and other extension gears;Results:Maize yields have doubled and in some years quadrupled contributing to a one-third reduction in levels of chronic malnutrition among children under two. Farm productivity has improved significantly: from 0.97 tons per ha (in 2006/07) to 5.79 tons per ha (in 2007/08) and maintained at 4 tons/ha for three consecutive years;Efficiency and sustainability of farming practices have been improved.Opportunities for commercial sales have expanded.Crop losses have reduced, income improved, and access for buyers facilitated.Surplus maize production for sale and contribution to the school meal programme (SMP): 9,554 bags (994 tons) of maize were collected in 2007/98 season as community contribution towards SMP.
27AGRICULTURE SECTORIncreased crop diversity and food production <0.97t/ha in 2006 to 5.76 t/haFarmers were supported with farm inputs (fertilizers & improved seeds) coupled with extension services on agronomic practices such as ridging, timely planting, proper spacing, weeding, appropriate fertilizer application, etc. Introduction of new cash crops like sunflower.
29Income and Farming Diversification Introduction of early maturing cassava cultivars and resistant to cassava mosaic, sweet potatoes rich in vitamin A (orange fleshed sweet potatoes), and quality protein maize.Train farmers on good agriculture practices for groundnuts productionIntroduction of improved cockerels and chicken vaccination against New Castle disease.18 diary cows introduced: 12 in the cluster and 6 outside the cluster.
30Income and Farming diversification Agricultural Extension support is crucial to ensure productivityDry seasonfarming
31Agriculture Challenges Erratic rainfall patternsEarly planting, use of early maturing & drought tolerant varieties (Maize hybrid DKC 8053) as well as small scale irrigation – dry season farming.Poor soil fertility combined with high fertilizer pricesUse of both locally produced Minjingu Rock Phosphate and Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), Calcium Ammoniam Nitrate (CAN) and UREA and organic fertilizers such as N-fixing trees/shrubs on-farm, mulching, etc.Climate ChangeAgriculture is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change, manifested through increased drought and flood severity, more intense storms, shifts in the timing and distribution of rainfall, warmer temperatures, and secondary effects such as increased pest and disease pressure.Food security is profoundly affected by climate change, which is occurring on top of rapid population growth, fast-paced urbanization, land-use change, conflict, and degradation of critical environmental services that underpin food and livelihood security.
32BUSINESS AND COOPERATIVE SECTORS Financial Institution
33Key Achievements in Agriculture and Business ... Goal: Transition from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture to ensure sustainability of the project gains.Activities:Forming cooperatives and providing access to financial servicesIdentifying new revenue streams, producing business plans, providing skills and management training, and developing value chains.Forging links with regional buyersFostering entrepreneurship and business development addressed to spur rural economic transformation: 109 groups (96 business + 13 social) identified; 209 members trained in business management;Mbola Millennium SACCOS was established in By Oct 2013 – it has 862 members: 515 male, 267 female and 80 groups.Multi-functional Rural Industry (MFRI) established members of MEMBO (Mbola Sustainable Development Group) trained in agro-processing and value addition, including indigenous fruits;Farm input credit scheme initiated in line with SACCOS.
34Key Achievements in Education (MDG 2) Goal: Increase the quality of education and ensure universal primary educationActivities:Building and renovating classrooms; equipping with desks and text books.Launching the school meals program in partnership with communities, the Table For Two Foundation to boost student attendance, nutrition, and performance.Providing teacher training, computers, and internet access to schoolsEquipping schools with water points, improved latrines and electricity.ResultsAll 17 primary schools with over 10,200 pupils have been rehabilitated and refurbishedInfrastructure improvement: newly built 16 classrooms desks, 6 teachers’ houses, 17 school kitchens + improved energy stoves, 8 teachers’ offices; renovated 10 classrooms and three schools installed with solar power and provided with computers; two schools connected to national grid electricity;Improvement of learning environment:148 school committee members trained in management, including SMP; 128 school teachers received refresher training on participatory teaching methodologies (child-centred approach); adolescent girls (class 4-7) provided with sanitary towels; 19 gender-based VIP latrines (with 106 drop holes); 34 pairs of game facilities provided for sports.Four community secondary schools built and Scholarships given to 159 secondary students (105 girls and 54 boys) from poor families ( ). For details visit Connect To Learn program (www.connecttolearn.org)Computers and laptops have been distributed to schools, including those donated by Lenovo for on- and off-grid and ICT kiosks.School Meal Programme covering over 10,200 pupils in all 17 primary schools – using food (maize) contributions from the community and from partners e.g. Table For Two Foundation.Has established Community Education Workers to influence students enrolment and attendance to schools.
35Key achievements cont’d ….. Those facts from community members show that community has started changing their mind sets towards valuing education as the first and foremost pivot to keep them free from the wretched poverty.
36Achievements in education delivery in the cluster Increased attendance rate: 60% (2006) to 82.2% (2012).Enrolment rate raised from 70% (2006) to 98% (2012).Girls to boys’ enrolment ratio rose from 90% over 100% in 2012 (1.03:1 ratio).Introduction of school meals in all 17 primary schools covering over 10,000 pupils now (from 7,400 in 2006).Improved school infrastructure i.e. classrooms, teachers houses, kitchens, latrines, etc;Improved performance: MVP schools being among the top ten in academic performance and sends students to government special schools.Girls scholarships (49) through Connect To Learn ProgramChallengesInsufficient infrastructure to meet the increased school enrollment and attendanceConstruction of additional classrooms and teachers houses.Inadequate teachers (high pupils to teachers ratio)Requested Uyui Local Govt Authority (LGA) to allocate more teachers.
37School Meal ProgrammeCooking using three stones fireImproved cook stoves
38Gender Equality (MDG 3)Goal: Improve gender equality and empower women.Emphasizing to parents the importance of education for girlsInstalling gender-separate latrines in schoolsFacilitating girls clubs and other girl-focused servicesPrioritizing maternal and reproductive healthSupporting women’s participation in all levels of the project.ResultsGirls’ enrollment and attendance in primary and secondary and school has increased.The gender parity index for Mbola site increased to 1:03 indicating that the number of girls enrolled in school exceeds the number of enrolled boys.Number of women-run businesses, women’s cooperatives, and women in leadership roles has increased through the Millennium villages.
39Health and Nutrition (MDGs 4, 5 and 6) Goal: Decrease rates of HIV/AIDS, TB, and Malaria, and improve maternal and child health.Activities:Training community health workers, constructing and equipping clinics, and improving nutritional security with support from partners.Distributing free bed nets, immunizations, and supplementsPrioritizing maternal and newborn health through antenatal care, skilled birth attendants, and emergency obstetric care.Results:Initials interventions: Malaria Control + Treatment:WHO recommended anti-malaria drugs (ALU/coartem) used;Indoor residual spraying (IRS) conducted;Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing (mRDT) introduced at both the health facility and at the household level;Bed Nets (LLITNs) to all sleeping sites/universal coverage (total of 33,000 were distributed in 2007 and new 35,000 LLITNs have been distributed in 2012 to all sleeping sites in the cluster and all surrounding villages).
40HEALTH Improved Delivery of Health Services A newly constricted dispensary at MbolaConstructed 3 new dispensaries and renovated 3 other existing health facilities.Recruited well trained & motivated staff.Introduced 60 Community Health Workers (CHWs) equipped with the necessary working tools.Regular provision of additional drugs and equipment.HIV/AIDS Control: VCT and PMCT services introduced in all 6 dispensaries. Number of adults taking an HIV test increased - many people are tested; patients receiving care + treatment; Five HIV/AIDS clubs formed; MVP/UNAIDS Collaboration with formalized since 2010; antenatal HIV testing rates are at 90%.Family planning utilization increased.Increased delivery in health facilities from 38.5 in 2007 to 99% in 2012.
41Health cont’d ……. Malaria prevalence has dropped by 72%. Improved transport and communications: one ambulance procured.Over 160 android phones donated by Ericsson with airtime topped up by Airtel Company are used by the CHWs and project health personnel and sector coordinators. Ericsson also built three mobile phones transmission towers in the cluster and commissioned to Airtel Company.Average out patients attendance per dispensary doubled: between 2006 and 2009, mostly from neighboring villages and more people now seek medical advise and check up.E-health program (e.g. ChildCount+, CommCare) established.
42A newly constricteddispensary at IbiriImproved health servicesfrom additional staff
43Health Challenges Influx of patients from outside the cluster Use of Community Health Fund (CHF) cards to cluster households members.Outsiders pay Tshs 1,000 per person per visit. However despite this user fee, many people are still coming to get health services in the cluster.Shortage of staff housesConstruction of staff houses around health facilities continues, budget exhausted.Stock outsLack of medicines and drugs has increased in recent months in clinics handed over to local government
44Environment (MDG 7) Goal: Ensure environmental sustainability Activities and Results:Planting trees to provide fuel wood and to reforest depleted areas.Training farmers in integrated soil fertility management practices to sustainably improve harvests.Building erosion control structures to protect farmland and promote restoration of degraded lands.Most trees planted are N-Fixing and for firewood – woodlots.However, deforestation is still a main challenge in the area.
45Environment continue…. Community and schools tree nurseries. More than 285,000 N-fixing plants distributed to selected farmers, schools and dispensaries. On average 35,250 seedlings raised in community nurseries every year.Other tree seedlings planted on farms and around schools and fields.Beekeeping: 8,567 bee-keepers identified and 32 were trained (ToTs) on modern beekeeping and honey processing; 86 modern beehives + protective gear provided on credit.Number of farmers practicing compositing, inter planting, and proper fertilizer application has increased, bringing sustainable support of higher crop yields.
46Key Achievements in Water and Sanitation (MDG 7) AFTERBEFOREBEFOREAFTER
47Key Achievements in Water and Sanitation (MDG 7) Goal: Increase access to safer water and adequate sanitationActivities:Making improved water available closer to homes by drilling and rehabilitating wells and boreholes, installing improved new pumps, and protecting watershed areas.Installing piped water systemsBuilding ventilated improved pit latrinesResultsAccess to improved drinking water has increased from 13% at baseline (2006) to 66% (2013).More than 42km of water pipe have been installed in three villages of Mbola Millennium Villages cluster donated by project partner JM Eagle.Access to improved sanitation has increased from less than 2% to 40% in research villages and to only.
48Key Achievements in Communication and Information Mobile phones (donated by Ericsson and powered by Airtel) have enhanced communications;Donated computers and laptops have improved computer literacy in the area;Media houses have visited the site - BBC, CNN, TBC, Channel Ten, Star TV, ITV, etc. have covered MVP activities on regular basis; numerous features articles in local newspapers and international papers;MVIS (Millennium Villages Information System) inaugurated in early 2010 (for details:
49INFRASTRUCTUREUse of improved cooking stoves in 17 primary schools and individual households.Two schools and two dispensaries in two villages connected to grid electricity.Four dispensaries installed with off-grid (solar power).Life Innovation Container donated by Panasonic Corporation.Some classrooms rehabilitated and connected with solar power.Improved communication services by provision of cell phones and three transmission towers in the cluster supported by Ericsson and Airtel companies and ambulance for referral cases.Challenges:Poor roads network: Road works is costly & high risk leading to slow implementation
50ICT SECTOR ICT training at Ibiri SS using CTL laptops Students are sharing ideas during School to School Connection
51Late evening training sessions using Life Innovation Container at Mbola Primary School
52Global Partnerships MVP-ERICSON & Airtel has improved connectivity MVP-Panasonic CorporationMVP-KOICAMVP-IITAMVP-UNAIDSVarious international and local visitors/missionsIncluding Vital Signs Group today
53Major ChallengesInadequate community participation (seasonal), mainly due to weak commitment by some local leaders;Dependency syndrome by local community, which undermines self help spirit;Inadequate professional staff in all sectors at local level (health, education, agriculture, etc) - leading to slow implementation of planned activities; remoteness of Uyui/Tabora not attractive to professionals;Influx of outside patients to MVP Mbola health facilities (due to quality) thereby constraining health delivery;Dependency of ground water (boreholes, shallow wells), leading to piping at high costs; decreasing sharply of ground water levels;School meal programme constrained by inadequate community food contributions during lean years and lack of dining halls.
54Major Challenges cont’d….. Hand hoe agriculture, erratic rainfall patterns, lack of cash/credit for farm inputs, outdated agric + animal husbandry practices and post-harvest loses;Local contributions to project activities (USD 10), mainly in kind (collection of water, stones), is constrained by gender roles, with women burdened by many HH chores;High cost of infrastructure projects (e.g. rural roads, electricity supply, etc); funding from Government and donors limited;High expectation on MVP support (both community and local leaders);Up-scaling of good lessons from MVP - doubts on integrated rural development approaches;Inadequate support from LGA - in terms of adequate provision of professional staff and other resources to ensure the MVP as proof of concept succeeds – MVP perceived as another development project.
55The MV Scale up strategy Package Lessons from ‘What works’Establish a National Level Collaborative frameworkKnowledge Development and sharingTheScaling up StrategyDevelop Ambitious Government-led Strategies for Scaling up MDG SectorsContinuous Policy Reforms to Secure Sustained Government support and FundingProgramme Implementation, M&E.Resource MobilizationCapacity building based on needs in the public sector
56Sectors with good up-scaling lessons Community sensitization + engagement Integrated rural development, involving the communities themselves.Agriculture: aspects of Green Revolution/Kilimo Kwanza;smart farm input subsidies, private sector participation, value addition/processing, market access, etc.Business development and group formation/SACCOsEducation: Gender parity enforcement, school meal programme, education committees;Health: functional basic health system; effective village health committees; community health workers (combined with ICT), malaria control (LLITNs, universal coverage, mRTDs, IRS), etc.;Environment: environment restoration; energy saving technologies.56
57Scalability and Integration to National Strategies Bottom line: rural communities can only achieve MDGs and escape from extreme (abject) poverty, if and when there functioning clinics, schools, safe water points and sanitation, agricultural upgrading, and roads and power - lessons from MVP seem to point out that it is feasible to eradicate abject poverty.Some examples:(1) Expansion of existing MV clusters to larger administrative scales, such as Millennium Districts - following the minimum package approach (agriculture, health, education, water + sanitation, business development).(2) Expansion to new MV sites: Nigerian strategy to expand MVs to cover 20 million people across 36 states using own resources (HPIC relief).
58Scalability cont’d………. (3) Targeted support to the poorest communities: Mali has identified the 166 poorest communes (with a total population of approx. 2 million people) that require targeted cross-sectoral support, following on the MV lessons from MV Tiby;(4) National expansion of specific successful interventions: Malawi advanced the nation- wide agricultural input support programme based on the MV Mwandama achievements; Kenya and Tanzania used the MV experience in the distribution of LLITNs; Tanzania (through Prime Minister’s Office) documented MVP Mbola lessons for nationwide dissemination using the minimum package approach.
59Scalability cont’d………. (5) Rounding out service delivery among existing community development programs to “MDG-ize” them:Most community development programmes (Government or NGO - led) focus on a limited number of sectors e.g. education projects are located in different villages than water projects, which are in turn usually disconnected from income-generation projects or women’s empowerment projects and therefore the MV concept can be used (minimum package) and help other organizations identify opportunities for sectoral expansion in their initiatives, and to partner with complementary organizations.The UN’s “delivering as one,” can use the MV model for coordinating the substantive support from different development partners around a cohesive and common set of objectives e.g. UNAIDS and UNFPA are currently working closely with MVP.
60Moving the strategies forward… Stronger country level push; stronger partnerships between MDG Centre and others a must.Serious attention to resource mobilization for district, regional and country level strategies.Stepping up the MDG ‘knowledge hub’Linking knowledge to policy dialogue for greater impact of scaling up strategies.E.g. Parliamentarian seminar on MVP
61Going beyond one: Millennium Villages in Tanzania: now and future Mbola MV1 & MV2Micheweni, Pemba (MV2), ZanzibarMserekia (MV3), Tanganyika Plantation Company (TPC) MoshiGeita Ashanti Gold Mine (MV3)Grumeti Fund (MV3), SerengetiMCI TaboraSeven agro-ecological zones of TanzaniaProposal to Government: one MV per zone (withminimum package) - strategize with PMO, MoF andother key Ministerial Departments.District Development Plans (DDP) as entry point,starting with all districts in Tabora Region, where MV Mbola is being implemented.
62The strategy now and tomorrow Management/cost sharingTimeProjectCommunity and governmentThe Process:Community mobilizationHeavy investments – MVPEmpowerment/trainingSupport for business developmentGradual hand over management to communityCommunity groups/cooperatives take charge
63Concluding RemarksThe results after eight years of MVP implementation in Mbola (and elsewhere) have clearly demonstrated the value and feasibility of integrated community-based investments to eradicate abject poverty, compared with the conventional one-by-one investment strategies too often deployed in rural areas.Todate, the project has shown that simple interventions applied through an integrated approach can bring substantial change. The minimum package approach (agriculture, health, education, water + sanitation, business development plus community involvement) is among the lessons to speed eradication of abject poverty.
64Thank You for Listening ENDThank You for Listening