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Merit Badge University 2010 Southeast Missouri State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Merit Badge University 2010 Southeast Missouri State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Merit Badge University 2010 Southeast Missouri State University

2 What is a Fingerprint?  Creates grip and friction, allowing us to pick things up  Traction provided by ridges on toes and soles of the feet  Ridges create patterns that can be transferred with certain substances (oil, dirt, ink, etc)

3 Skin

4 History of Fingerprinting  Cliffs of Nova Scotia – pictures of hand with ridge patterns  Ancient Babylon – fingerprints for business transactions  Chinese – thumbprints to seal documents  Persia – official gov’t papers impressed with fingerprints (b/c no 2 people’s were exactly alike)

5 History Continued  Marcello Malpighi – 1686 Microscope to study fingerprints Described ridges, spirals, and loops  Johannes Evangelista Purkinje – 1823 Classification system for friction ridge patterns  William Herschel – 1858 Started British use of fingerprint by using as signature on contracts in India ○ Not for uniqueness, but as superstition Used fingerprints as way to prove/disprove a person’s identity

6 History Continued  Henry Faulds – 1880 Classification of prints published in Nature First fingerprint application of greasy print on a bottle  Gilbert Thompson – 1882 First American to use fingerprints as identification (own prints on documents to prevent forgers)  Mark Twain – 1883 Life on the Mississippi: murderer identified by thumbprint 1894: book about fingerprints at trial

7 History Continued  Francis Galton – 1892 Finger Prints: described individuality and permanence of fingerprints ○ 1 in 64 billion chances that fingerprints were the same Galton’s details: characteristics by which prints can be identified  Juan Vucetich – 1892 First fingerprint files based on Galton’s details Identified murder suspect from bloody fingerprints at crime scene

8 History Continued  Henry System – 1901 England’s system for non-computerized fingerprint files  First Uses in US – 1902/1903 NY Civil Service Commission began fingerprinting job applicants NY State Prison System – first agency in US to regularly use fingerprints to identify criminals

9 History Continued  Fingerprinting Bureaus – 1904 Leavenworth, KS and St. Louis PD established fingerprint bureaus Leavenworth offered free fingerprinting to law enforcement officers  First American Military Use – 1905 Army for soldiers, then Navy, then Marines  FBI Identification Division – 1924 810,000+ prints assembled from agencies

10 History Continued  International Exchange – 1932 FBI exchanged with foreign countries  First Print Taken from Human Skin – 1979 Miami, FL murder case latent (invisible) print taken from victim’s hand and led to identification of suspect, later convicted  Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System – 1999 FBI computers: fast print searches (2hr max) Share with all agencies 2 types – criminal and civil

11 History Continued  World’s Largest Computer Fingerprint Collection – 2002 FBI accomplished with IAFIS, helps identify and solves thousands of crimes each year

12 Basic Principles of Fingerprinting  Permanence Never change, stay same shape Grow larger as fingers grow with age  Individual No two prints are alike Never repeated on another person Over 100 years of worldwide comparisons, no fingerprints the same (even identical twins are different)

13  Fingerprints combined with dental records and DNA help to identify: Amnesia victims Missing persons Abducted children Corpses Criminals others

14 Fingerprint Pattern Types  3 basic types: Loops Arches Whorls  Formed by skin ridges on fingertips

15 Loops  Ridges begin on one side, curve/turn back sharply, and end on the same side  May slope or lean  Radial loops start and end on thumb side  Ulnar loops start and end on outside of hand  Most common print pattern (65%)

16 Loop Print

17 Arches  Ridges enter from one side and flow out to other side  Slight raise/waive in the center  Tented: taller up-thrust Don’t confuse with loop (arch goes to both sides of finger)  Least common type of print (5%)

18 Arch Prints

19 Whorls  Ridges form circles, spirals, or ovals  30% of all fingerprint patterns  1+ ridges that make a complete circle  Plain whorl 1+ ridges that make a complete loop 2 deltas (like mouth of a river)  Central pocket loop Like plain whorl, but obstruction  Double loop type 2 separate loops  Accidental loop 2+ patterns, 2+ deltas Or meets requirements of 2+ types of patterns

20 Whorl Prints

21 Latent Prints  Faint, invisible print because of transfer of oils and perspiration  Used in criminal investigations  Compared to known, inked fingerprints by a fingerprint specialist to determine suspects  Developed by dusting with a fine powder  Photographed and lifted with tape  If porous surface, can be chemically developed  X-ray can be used to get print off skin

22 Comparing and Identifying Prints  Check general ridge flow/pattern shape  Compare ridge endings (bifurcations)  Compare pieces of the prints, easier than looking at the whole print  Higher level of comparison: Ridge shape and thickness Location and shape of sweat pores  NO DIFFERENCES ALLOWABLE

23 Civil vs. Criminal Identification  Identify parties who commit crime = criminal  Civil = missing persons, amnesia victims, casualties of war, people killed in catastrophes identification  Latent prints on personal belongings when no formal prints exist  Children, soldiers, government employees, and child care workers all fingerprinted

24 Computers and Fingerprints  Automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) – large database for identification Positive match Can limit criteria on other identifying features to limit search (gender, age, etc)  Biometric fingerprint systems – control access to places/systems Similar match

25 Forensic Science  Apply science to detection of crime  Analyze physical evidence of crime Not just fingerprints!  Show how crime committed/prove it occurred  Good with details and puzzles, have endless curiosity

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