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 Contraception: › Deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation through the use of various devices, agents, drugs, sexual practices, or surgical.

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Presentation on theme: " Contraception: › Deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation through the use of various devices, agents, drugs, sexual practices, or surgical."— Presentation transcript:


2  Contraception: › Deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation through the use of various devices, agents, drugs, sexual practices, or surgical procedures.  Post Partum Taboo: › Cultural belief that forbids sexual intercourse for a specified period of time after the birth of a child.

3 Historical Look:  Two thousand years ago the Chinese inserted oil-soaked paper into the vagina to cover the cervix.  In Oceania, moss plugs were used.  Ancient Egyptians used crocodile dung and honey.  Ancient Athens, women rubbed their cervix with an oil of cedar and an ointment of lead.  Sixth Century Greek used a cervical cap made by cutting a pomegranate in half, scooping out the flesh of the fruit and then inserting it into the vagina prior to intercourse.

4 Historical Look:  Contraceptive sponge in use in the 1800’s was soaked in a solution of quinine prior to insertion and had a string attached for easy removal.  Diaphragm was invented in  Roman soldiers reputedly made condoms from the muscles of dead enemies.  Small intestines of animals, fish bladders, and lambskins were condoms also.  1564 a linen sheath was used as a condom and for protection of venereal disease. Two other ancient and widespread forms of contraception that are still practiced today are coitus interruptus and interfemoral coitus.

5 Coitus Interruptus: Sexual intercourse deliberately interrupted by withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation. Secretions from the Cowper’s gland sometimes carry live sperm. Interfemoral Coitus: Sexual activity in which the male rubs his erect penis between the thighs of a woman without insertion into the vagina. No likely to result in conception, but It is possible that sperm deposited just outside the vagina could cause a pregnancy and this method offers not protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

6 Barrier methods of Birth Control:  Conception occurs when a sperm fertilizes an ovum.  The fertilized egg, then attaches to the wall of the uterus and develops into a viable fetus.  There are two ways of preventing this event: › The sperm are blocked from reaching the egg. › Any eggs that have been fertilized by sperm are prevented from developing further.


8 Combination birth control pills (oral contraceptives):  Loestrin and Ovcon contain estrogen and progestin. › Higher levels of estrogen inhibit FSH production, so the message to ovulate is never sent. › Higher levels of progestin keep cervical mucus very thick, making it difficult for sperm to get through.  The use of combination pills is one of the most effective methods of birth control.

9  Varying levels of estrogen and progestin: › Most women do best with no more than 30 to 35 micrograms estrogen.  Triphasic pill (Ortho Tri-Cyclen) - Three phases in progestin levels.  Progestin-only pills (Micronor, Nor-Q-D, and Ovrette) - Also called mini-pills.

10  Serious side effects associated with use of the pill include: › Slight but significant increases in certain diseases of the circulatory system. › The pill may aggravate already existing cancers. › The amount of vaginal discharge and susceptibility to vaginitis increases. › About 20 percent of women report increased irritability and depression.

11 Pill, Patch and the Ring:  The patch (Ortho Evra): › Contains the same hormones as combination birth control pills but is administered through the skin.  The vaginal ring (NuvaRing): › Flexible, transparent ring made of plastic and filled with the same hormones as the combination pill but with slightly lower doses.  Emergency contraception: › Available in pill form for such emergencies as rape or a condom breaking.

12 Injections:  Depo-Provera (DMPA): › Progestin administered by injections. › It works by:  Inhibiting ovulation.  Thickening cervical mucus.  Inhibiting growth of the endometrium. › More effective than the pill. › Must be repeated every three months for maximum effectiveness.

13 Intrauterine device ( IUD ):  Small piece of plastic that is inserted into the uterus and remains in place until the woman wants to have it removed.  Immobilizes sperm that reaches the uterus and prevents them from moving into the fallopian tube.  Most common side effects are increased menstrual cramps, irregular bleeding, and increased menstrual flow.

14  Diaphragm: › Inserted into the vagina and fits snugly over the cervix. › A contraceptive cream or jelly must be applied. › Diaphragm blocks entrance to the uterus, while cream kills any sperm that gets past the barrier. › Failure rate of 20 percent due to improper use.  Cervical cap: › Fits more snugly over the cervix than the diaphragm and should also be used with a spermicidal cream.


16 Condoms: (Male)  A thin sheath that fits over the penis. › Widespread use for contraception and protection against diseases dates from about › Catches semen and prevents it from entering the vagina. › Perfect-user failure rate is about 3 percent. › Typical-user failure rate is about 18 percent.  Many failures result from improper or inconsistent use. Condoms: (Female)  One ring of the female condom is inserted into the vagina while the other is spread over the vaginal entrance. › Prevents sperm from entering the vagina and blocks the entrance to the uterus. › Perfect-user failure rate is 5 percent. › Typical-user failure rate is 21 percent.


18 Spermicides:  Come in a tube or can along with a plastic applicator which is filled and inserted into the vagina.  Applicator’s plunger pushes spermicide into the vagina near the cervix.  Consists of chemicals that kill sperm and an inert base that blocks entrance to the cervix.  Failure rates can be as high as 25 percent.

19 Withdrawal:  Coitus interruptus (pulling out): › The most ancient form of birth control. › With a failure rate of around 19 percent it is not a very effective method. › Over long periods of time may contribute to sexual dysfunction in the man and woman.

20  Rhythm methods are the only form of “natural” birth control. They require abstaining from intercourse during the women’s fertile period. › Calendar method is based on the assumption that ovulation occurs about 14 days before the onset of menstruation. › In the standard days method ( SDM ), a woman who knows that she is regular, with a cycle length of between 26 and 32 days, abstains from days 8 to 19.

21 Basal body temperature method ( BBT ):  Woman waits for her daily temperature to rise sharply on the day after ovulation.  Intercourse would be safe beginning about three days after ovulation. › Additional rhythm methods are the cervical mucus method and the sympto-thermal method. › The typical failure rate of all rhythm methods is around 25 percent.

22 Sterilization:  Voluntary surgical contraception (VSC) is a surgical procedure whereby an individual is made permanently sterile. › Vasectomy:  The male sterilization operation. › Vasovasostomy :  The surgical procedure to reverse a vasectomy. › Minilaparotomy/Laparoscopy:  Two of several techniques used to sterilize a woman.  In some cases it is possible to reverse female sterilization by using highly refined microsurgery techniques.




26 Attitudes toward Contraception:  Attitudes and emotions play an important role in making a person more or less likely to use contraceptives effectively. › Erotophobes :  Don’t discuss sex.  Have sex lives that are influenced by guilt and fear of social disapproval.  Have intercourse infrequently with few partners, and are shocked by sexually explicit films. › Erotophiles :  Just the opposite and are more likely to be consistent, reliable contraceptive users.

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