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Chapter 4 AP US Government and Politics Mrs. Papish.

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1 Chapter 4 AP US Government and Politics Mrs. Papish

2 Shared Values  Classic Liberalism-stresses the importance of the individual, freedom, equality, private property, limited government and popular consent

3 American Political Culture  Liberty  Equality  Individualism  Power to the people  Democratic consensus  Justice and the rule of law  Nationalism, optimism, and idealism

4 Liberty  Most revered value

5 Equality  Social Equality-no titles, no nobility “We hold these truths to be self-evident that…”  Political Equality-right to equal protection under the law, equal voting power-GOAL not reality  Equal Opportunity-background should not limit one in regards to improving econ status

6 Individualism  Citizens have rights and responsibilities  Concern for preserving individual freedom of choice

7 Democracy Democratic Consensus-as to government and the Constitution 1. Majority Rule-minority rights 2. Two-party system and regular elections 3. Popular sovereignty-power to govern Where do Americans differ…over what certain constitutional provisions require or over the precise meaning of the framers’ original intent

8 Justice by the Rule of Law  Government based on a body of law applied equally and by just procedures

9 Nationalism  Optimism and idealism—our nation is better, stronger and more virtuous than others

10 Political and Economic Change  Industrial transformation from agrarian to industrial  Consequence? Inequality in dist. of wealth- Robber barons  Led to different opinions in politics  Monopolies led to unsafe work conditions and anti-trust leg.  Americans believed gov should “promote the general welfare” by regulating business

11 Great Depression and New Deal ~Turned to gov to improve conditions for jobless and homeless ~Today, most support semi-regulated or mixed free enterprise system ~Second Bill of Rights called for economic security and independence ~Civil and voting rights legislation & war on poverty defined ideological and political fights of last century

12 The American Dream  A complex set of ideas about the economy and its relation to individuals; it speaks to our most deeply held hopes and goals.  The U.S. is the “Land of Opportunity”  Endorsement of capitalism  Recurring issues-tax fairness  Conflict between those who value competitive economy and egalitarian society

13 Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Second Bill of Rights”  The right to a useful and remunerative job  The right to affordable food, clothing, and recreation  The right of every farmer to earn a livable income  The right of every business[person] to trade in a monopoly free environment

14 Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Second Bill of Right” – con’t.  The right of every family to a decent home  The right to affordable and adequate medical care  The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment  The right to a good education

15 Political Ideologies  Liberalism  Socialism  Conservatism  Environmentalism  Libertarianism

16 Liberalism  Classic liberalism of 19 th Century-min. gov. involvement  Modern Liberalism-  ~Support for government sponsored social programs  ~Support for government intervention in economy  ~Opposition to government interference with personal morals or activities  ~Opposition to expansion of the military

17 New Types of Liberalism  ~New Deal Liberals  ~Social Liberals-Peace Liberals  ~Neoliberals-lost faith in welfare programs

18 Conservatism ~Opposition to government intervention in the economy…Pro-business ~Opposition to government sponsored social programs ~Favors dispersing power broadly to avoid concentration of power at the national level ~Support for a strong military ~Belief in a free-enterprise system with property rights

19 Conservatism ~Support use of military force as a means to an ends ~Support balanced budget ~Support limited taxation

20 New Right  1980’s strong desire to impose social controls  Christian coalition of 90”s  Neo Cons-Left the Democratic party over busing, Vietnam issues, support intervention in Iraq both times and still do in our involvement in Afghanistan

21 Socialism  DIVISIONS  Democratic Socialism- Great Britain, Germany, France, Scandinavian nations ~Support democratic system ~Gov reg and ownership of major industries ~Support for production and distribution of goods and services ~Support for gov planning to protect citizens’ welfare

22 Socialism, contin…  Totalitarian socialism-same as communism such a People’s Republic of China  Beliefs  Support for revolution against existing systems  Gov regulation and ownership of industry  Support for gov planning to protect citizens’ welfare and interests

23 Libertarianism  Ideology that cherishes individual liberty and sharply limited gov  Preaches opposition to gov and just about all programs  Opposes all government regulation

24 Environmentalism  “Green movement” –taken hold in parts of Europe.  U.S. Green party stresses social justice, diversity, gentler farming techniques, energy efficiency, integrity of nature  2000-Ralph Nader won 3% of popular vote in the Presidential election

25 Criticisms of Liberals  Too much reliance on governmental solutions  Forgets government has to be limited  Big government tends to dictate  Too many controls and too much taxation

26 Criticisms of Conservatives  Gov seen as counter productive and inconsistent  Critics argue conservatives have selective opposition to big government  Gov spending grew during all Rep administrations since the 80’s  Insensitive to social needs  Too much faith in the market  Failure to acknowledge and endorse policies dealing with racism and sexism

27 Where do attitudes about the role of government come from?  Family  Schools  Media  Workplace  Religious or political activities

28 Americans and Political Ideology  More Conservatives than liberals  Fewer extreme liberals or conservatives, most in the middle  Ideological Views  Provides a lens through which to view politics  Americans don’t always fit either ideology  Attitudes toward issues are inconsistant  Most Americans distrust big business more than big government

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