3LET US ASK OURSELVES…What do we know about aquatic biodiversity, and what is its economic and ecological importance?How are human activities affecting aquatic biodiversity?How can we protect and sustain marine biodiversity?How can we manage and sustain the world’s marine fisheries?How can we protect, sustain, and restore wetlands?How can we protect, sustain, and restore lakes, rivers, and fresh water fisheries?
4What do we know about aquatic biodiversity, and what is its economic and ecological importance? The greatest biodiversity occurs in coral reefsThe economic importance of coral reefs- Sponges and mollusks located there, contain antibiotic and anticancer properties.Biodiversity increases near coasts and near the bottom region of the ocean.Ecological importance-more species in an aquatic ecosystem leads to a higher survival rate of a species in said ecosystem b/c everything is interconnected.Higher biodiversity= more economic benefitsMore species to fish= more food=more money
5How are human activities affecting aquatic biodiversity? Rising sea levels due to human induced climate change and coastal development has lead to wetland and coral reef degradation.OverfishingThe introduction of alien species into aquatic ecosystems.Nile perch in Lake VictoriaHumans have degraded a large proportion of coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and mangroves.Some 90% of fish living in these ecosystems are under intense pressure of human activities.
7How can we protect and sustain marine biodiversity? Create Marine reserves0.3% of ocean is protected by marine reservesEducation… of courseHIPPOHabitat destruction and degradationInvasive SpeciesPollution(Human) Population GrowthOverexploitationEstablish laws and international treaties.U.S. Endangered Species ActCITESGlobal Treaty on Migratory SpeciesMarine Mammal Protection Act of 1973International Whaling Commission
8How can we manage and sustain the world’s marine fisheries? Create protected marine sanctuariesCreate zoning rules to protect and manage resources for entire bodies of waterCreate maximum sustained yield modelsRegulating fish harvest
9How can we protect, sustain, and restore wetlands? Limit urban developmentMitigation banking- allow the destruction of existing wetlands as long as an equal area of the same type of wetland is created or restored.Limit agricultural developmentHire people to restore evergladesEx: Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERR)
10How can we protect, sustain, and restore lakes, rivers, and freshwater fisheries? Limit dam production due to the restriction of water flow.Set fishing limits in rivers and lakesKeep nonnative species out of watersProtect populations of desirable speciesDecrease populations of less desirable species
19Exclusive economic zones Areas of ocean where only certain quotas of fish are permitted
20High seasOceans beyond the legal jurisdiction of any country
21Marine Protected Areas Partially protected from human areas
22Marine ReservesAreas where no extraction is permitted.
23Integrated Coastal Management Community-based effort to develop and use coastal resources more sustainably.
24Maximum sustainable yield To maximize the number of fish that can be harvest without population drop.
25Precautionary principle- sharply reducing fish harvests and closing some overfished areas until they recover and we have more info. About what levels of fishing can be sustained.
26Co managementwhen coastal communities and the government can work together to manage fisheries.
27Mitigation bankingallows the destruction of existing wetlands as longs as an equal area of the same type of wetland is created or restored.
28Realistic Actions we can take to protect our water. Turn off the water in the shower while you apply soap to your hair and body.Avoid TunaTuna is known for high levels of Bycatch due to the fishing methods to obtain such a large fish.Dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, etc.Turn the water to a low flow when you wash your hands or do dishes.Use gray water to wash your hands.Don’t litterWaste eventually ends up in a water wayTake the island of garbage that is close to the size of Texas, floating around the Atlantic OceanEat less meatThis limits the amount of runoff that goes into fresh water ways from cattle waste