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Section A - Reading Question 4: Language Comparison Approaching and answering Question 4.

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1 Section A - Reading Question 4: Language Comparison Approaching and answering Question 4

2 Language devices used by non-fiction writers. Which can we recall? In a different colour, suggest a typical effect of these devices. Hint: Think about Question 2

3 Question 4: Language Comparison 16 marks 16 marks 30 minutes, including active reading time 30 minutes, including active reading time You need to identify 3 or 4 devices (techniques, or features) used in two texts You need to identify 3 or 4 devices (techniques, or features) used in two texts Analyse the effect of some of these devices; comment on similarities and differences of the two texts Analyse the effect of some of these devices; comment on similarities and differences of the two texts

4 How is language used for effect? Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commenting on specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of language a writer uses, noticing what kind of words are used, or what kind of tone or style is created by language and structure. Look at these examples… Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise and perhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue. The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like “I’m” “don’t” and “can’t”. The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked. Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden” and “spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his surroundings.

5 Common linguistic devices 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint) 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint) Directly addressing the reader Directly addressing the reader Imperatives Imperatives Rhetorical questions Rhetorical questions Register - Formal/Informal language Register - Formal/Informal language Diction - Simple/Complex vocabulary Diction - Simple/Complex vocabulary Figurative Language & Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/ Figurative Language & Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/ Personification etc. Word play & puns Word play & puns Alliteration Alliteration Rhyme & Rhythm Rhyme & Rhythm Anecdote & Allusion Anecdote & Allusion Slogan & Catchphrase Slogan & Catchphrase Statistics & Facts Statistics & Facts Exaggeration & Hyperbole Exaggeration & Hyperbole Repetition Repetition Humour Humour Lists Lists Emotive language Emotive language Punctuation type Punctuation type Expert advice Expert advice Short sentences Short sentences Superlatives Superlatives

6 Some common linguistic devices. What are they? Example Name of Language Device(s) “According to UK government calculations, 214 of the most senior eurocrats get paid more than David Cameron's £178,000 a year.” “Human lives are nothing but a series of unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.” “Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax avoidance controversy” “Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax credit threshold? Who's fighting against families being rehoused miles away from their children's school? Who's calling for more social housing?” “The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks, vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and people.”

7 Some common linguistic devices. What are they? Example Name of Language Device(s) “According to UK government calculations, 214 of the most senior eurocrats get paid more than David Cameron's £178,000 a year.” “Human lives are nothing but a series of unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.” “Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax avoidance controversy” “Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax credit threshold? Who's fighting against families being rehoused miles away from their children's school? Who's calling for more social housing?” “The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks, vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and people.” Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition, alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration… Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition, alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration…

8 Question 4: A Model Response The purpose of Text 1 is to inform Daily Echo readers about the achievements of Holly Budge and impress them with information about her accomplishments. Text 2 is a descriptive piece which tells readers about a significant event in the life of the narrator: an Apache Indian. Readers will empathise with the narrator and respond with sympathy to the awful event described in the extract. Facts and statistics are used in Text 1 in order to stress the significance of Holly’s achievements. They serve an evidential purpose. Holly climbed “29,500 ft”; she has made “more than 2000 jumps”; she intends to “raise £30,000” for charity. This information impresses readers as the numbers involved are large and significant. These facts portray Holly as a brave and remarkable young woman who has singlehandedly achieved great things. The figures suggest that her feats are extraordinary. The superlative “highest” is repeated throughout the article. Holly climbed the world’s “highest mountain” as well as achieving the “highest drop zone” by a parachutist. The repetition of this word reinforces the idea that Holly’s exploits are unique and admirable. The article uses complex vocabulary: a diction exclusive to Holly’s profession which the reader may not be familiar with. The article uses terms such as “high altitude”, “free fall” and “oxygen cylinder”. These technical terms are not common phrases, so they give further authenticity to the report. Unlike Text 1, Text 2 uses figurative language in order to describe the setting in the story and the narrator’s relationship with it. In her first-person account, Landman talks of how a tree “lowers itself to greet me” and refers to its “spirit singing”. This use of personification suggests that the narrator has a close, deep relationship with her environment; it portrays her as at peace with her surroundings. This contrasts sharply with the distressing events later in the extract. In contrast to Text 1, Text 2 uses a list in order to portray the Apache Indians as admirable, multi skilled people who are in sync with their environment and daily lives. As well as “tending the fire, stirring a cooking pot”, a mother is stitching fabric and looking after her children. Again, this harmonious description makes later events seem even more shocking and heightens the reader’s sympathy. Another difference between the texts is that Text 2 uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked. This kind of language evokes sympathy in the reader, and perhaps revulsion at the attackers who have disrupted the Apache’s harmonious existence. As both of these texts have such different purposes and evoke very different responses from readers, they use contrasting effects. Text 1 relies on effects which authenticate the story and impress the reader, such as facts, numbers and complex diction, whereas Text 2, which elicits a far more emotional response, employs descriptive, dramatic and emotive language for effect. Now you know what kind of thing you need to write about in your response to Question 4, you are going to see a model answer. Notice: How the student introduces their answer How the student introduces their answer How many points about language are made for each text (Highlight language devices analysed!) How many points about language are made for each text (Highlight language devices analysed!) When and how the student compares and contrasts When and how the student compares and contrasts Then, look at the mark scheme and suggest a mark. Now you know what kind of thing you need to write about in your response to Question 4, you are going to see a model answer. Notice: How the student introduces their answer How the student introduces their answer How many points about language are made for each text (Highlight language devices analysed!) How many points about language are made for each text (Highlight language devices analysed!) When and how the student compares and contrasts When and how the student compares and contrasts Then, look at the mark scheme and suggest a mark. Question 4: A Model Response

9 The purpose of Text 1 is to inform Daily Echo readers about the achievements of Holly Budge and impress them with information about her accomplishments. Text 2 is a descriptive piece which tells readers about a significant event in the life of the narrator: an Apache Indian. Readers will empathise with the narrator and respond with sympathy to the awful event described in the extract. Facts and statistics are used in Text 1 in order to stress the significance of Holly’s achievements. They serve an evidential purpose. Holly climbed “29,500 ft”; she has made “more than 2000 jumps”; she intends to “raise £30,000” for charity. This information impresses readers as the numbers involved are large and significant. These facts portray Holly as a brave and remarkable young woman who has singlehandedly achieved great things. The figures suggest that her feats are extraordinary. The superlative “highest” is repeated throughout the article. Holly climbed the world’s “highest mountain” as well as achieving the “highest drop zone” by a parachutist. The repetition of this word reinforces the idea that Holly’s exploits are unique and admirable. The article uses complex vocabulary: a diction exclusive to Holly’s profession which the reader may not be familiar with. The article uses terms such as “high altitude”, “free fall” and “oxygen cylinder”. These technical terms are not common phrases, so they give further authenticity to the report. Unlike Text 1, Text 2 uses figurative language in order to describe the setting in the story and the narrator’s relationship with it. In her first-person account, Landman talks of how a tree “lowers itself to greet me” and refers to its “spirit singing”. This use of personification suggests that the narrator has a close, deep relationship with her environment; it portrays her as at peace with her surroundings. This contrasts sharply with the distressing events later in the extract. In contrast to Text 1, Text 2 uses a list in order to portray the Apache Indians as admirable, multi-skilled people who are in sync with their environment and daily lives. As well as “tending the fire, stirring a cooking pot”, a mother is stitching fabric and looking after her children. Again, this harmonious description makes later events seem even more shocking and heightens the reader’s sympathy. Another difference between the texts is that Text 2 uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked. This kind of language evokes sympathy in the reader, and perhaps revulsion at the attackers who have disrupted the Apache’s harmonious existence. As both of these texts have such different purposes and evoke very different responses from readers, they use contrasting effects. Text 1 relies on effects which authenticate the story and impress the reader, such as facts, numbers and complex diction, whereas Text 2, which elicits a far more emotional response, employs descriptive, dramatic and emotive language for effect.

10 1.1. Highlight the key words in the question. The language question is always the same: It will ask you to compare Text 3 (or ‘Source 3’) with either Text 1 or Text 2. You need to be writing about how language is used in the two texts, identifying and analysing language devices. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Common purposes and effects of non-fiction writing

11 2.2. IN GROUPS Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts of the text where language creates a certain effect, and serves the purpose of the article (e.g. to inform, persuade or describe). Highlight words, phrases, passages, statistics etc. that will help you answer the question. You might like to annotate the texts very briefly with ideas that will help you answer the question. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.

12 2.2. Jigsaw Activity We noticed… Language is often emotive, so the reader… Repetition is used… Facts and stats give authenticity… Similarly, expert advice… We think this is hyperbole…

13 3.3. Now you’re ready to write up your ideas, you need a clear introductory sentence introducing each article. See the model answer for help. Then, talk about how language is used for effect in one of the texts, and then the other (making brief comparisons with the one you’ve already written about). Conclude by giving reasons for similarities / differences. Pepper your points with short quotes which give examples of how language is used for effect. They need to be analysed, as you need to suggest how these effects are created by the writers. Writing up ideas IN PAIRS

14 Connective The author / language in the text… The reader… (or ‘we’…) Firstly Secondly Thirdly As well as this Furthermore Moreover Finally Lastly Likewise Similarly Unlike As well as In contrast to Advises Argues Builds Connotes Contrasts Conveys Creates Demonstrates Describes Depicts Emphasises Evokes Exaggerates Gives the impression Gives a sense Highlights Informs Implies Indicates Juxtaposes Narrates Persuades Realises Recognises Refers to Reflects Represents Reveals Signifies Suggests Symbolises Shows Tells Is made aware Is informed Is told Is shocked / fascinated / persuaded / made to sympathise etc. Learns Discovers Realises 3.3. USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES

15 Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. ON YOUR OWN

16 Question 4: Language Comparison – Sample Mark Scheme

17 ON YOUR OWN Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.


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