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EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES Adoption of Constitution did not end political arguments that arose during ratification process By the time George Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES Adoption of Constitution did not end political arguments that arose during ratification process By the time George Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES Adoption of Constitution did not end political arguments that arose during ratification process By the time George Washington left office in 1796, two distinct and sharply opposed political parties had taken shape –Federalist Party Led by Washington, Hamilton, and John Adams –Republican Party Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison

2 THE FIRST CABINET George Washington elected first president Under him were five executive departments created by Congress –Departments of State, War, Treasury, Post Office, and Attorney General –Washington appointed the best qualified men he could find to head these departments Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State

3 ALEXANDER HAMILTON Strongly distrusted and disliked what he called the “common man” –The small farmers and urban workers who made up majority of population –Felt that they had too much liberty for their own good and that they were too stupid, selfish, and easily manipulated to be trusted to govern themselves Hence his promotion of the Electoral College

4 HAMILTON’S PROGRAM I Believed that the wealthy upper class had an inherent right to run the government and that every effort be made to gain their support and participation –Proposed program as Secretary of the Treasury designed to gain support of wealthy by causing them to look at government as sources of profitable investment and protector of their interests

5 HAMILTON’S PROGRAM II Reforms included: –Consolidation and payment of national debt –Creation of a Bank of the United States –New taxes Two purposes: –Create a strong national government firmly under the control of the “rich and well born” –Transform U.S. from a predominantly agricultural country into an industrial nation Results: –Mainly benefited northern businessmen and speculators at the expense of farmers in general and southern plantation owners in particular

6 A QUESTION OF FAIRNESS Hamilton’s reforms did what they were supposed to do –Public debt consolidated –Bank of the United States established –Northern businessmen benefited and became loyal supporters of government Small farmers, businessmen, and urban laborers did not reap similar benefits –But still had to pay for reforms through higher taxes Feeling developed that the Washington administration was not treating all citizens equally

7 THOMAS JEFFERSON Firmly believed that farmers were the salt of the earth Believed that an ideal nation would be a “nation of small farmers” –Each working their little farms, voting intelligently, and enjoying as much liberty as possible Had complete faith that, if educated properly, small farmers could be trusted to govern the nation well through their election of qualified representatives

8 JEFFERSON AND HAMILTON Hated industry because he felt industrial development would drive farmers into cities, deprive them of their property, and turn them into evil urban “mobs” Jefferson’s views were the complete opposite of Hamilton’s –Hamilton favored industrial and urban growth and didn’t like or trust the common man –Jefferson feared industrial and urban growth and idealized the common man

9 BIRTH OF POLITICAL PARTIES Jefferson offered to resign from Washington cabinet –But Washington would not let him –Jefferson stayed on job, bickering with Hamilton continuously Hamilton and Jefferson began to organize followings in Congress and across the country –Hamilton’s followers known as Federalists –Jefferson’s followers known as Republicans

10 DIFFERENCES The most fundamental difference to separate Federalists and Republicans was the question of which direction American was going to go in the future –Towards some sort of elitist oligarchy controlled by northern business and financial interests (Hamilton) –Or towards a more democratic form in which the common man would play a large role (Jefferson)

11 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1796 Washington re-elected president unanimously in 1792 Washington would not run for third term in 1796 and instead backed his vice-president John Adams Republican run Jefferson against Adams Adams wins by 3 electoral college votes John Adams

12 WHOOPS! Constitution at the time did not provide for a separate vote for vice-president –Stated that whoever received the second highest number of votes in electoral college would become vice-president Founding Fathers had not been concerned about the possibility that a losing presidential candidate would end up vice-president Had not anticipated the development of political parties Thomas Jefferson therefore became Adam’s vice-president

13 ADAM’S PROBLEMS Adams was not a particularly good politician –Unable to reconcile the various factions that had emerged within Federalist Party –Unable to maintain party harmony and unity Kept all of Washington’s appointees in office –Most were close friends and allies of Hamilton and looked to him, not Adams, for guidance and advice Adams did not even control his own administration

14 WAR WITH FRANCE Both Federalists and Republicans initially supported French Revolution –Federalists dropped their support as French Revolution became more radical Under Adams, relations with revolutionary France declined to such a point that an undeclared war broke out between the two countries in 1798 –Patriotism engendered by war allowed the Federalists to increase their majority in House and Senate in Congressional elections of 1798

15 ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS Federalist-controlled Congress passed Alien and Sedition Acts in late 1798 –Excuse was to protect the U.S. from dangerous foreign influences during war with France –Real reason was to silence and weaken the Republicans

16 PROVISIONS OF THE A&S ACTS Since recent immigrants tended to vote Republican, A&S made it more difficult for them to vote by lengthening residence requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Gave president authority to deport any alien he considered dangerous Made it a crime to “print, write, or speak in a scandalous or malicious way against the government”

17 AN ELECTION ISSUE? Only 25 people were ever arrested under A&S Acts –Because they were nearly impossible to enforce But they did give Republicans a big issue to upcoming presidential election of 1800 –That Federalists were disregarding the Constitution and illegally persecuting people who happened to disagree with them

18 ELECTION OF 1800 Republicans ran Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr Federalists ran John Adams Republicans won –But Jefferson and Burr received the same number of electoral college votes 73 each

19 CRISIS AVERTED Constitution held that in case of a tie, the House of Representatives would select the winner –Federalists hoped to cause confusion by supporting Burr –Hamilton may have disliked Jefferson but he loathed Burr and therefore gave support to Jefferson Jefferson officially selected president just a few weeks before inauguration Aaron Burr

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