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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM.

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Presentation on theme: "THE SKELETAL SYSTEM."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

2 I. BONE STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
There are 206 bones in the body. FUNCTION Support Protection Movement due to muscles Blood formation aka hematopoesis Electrolyte Balance stores and releases calcium and phosphate Acid Base Balance Buffers blood by storing and releasing alkaline salts Blood formation: Red bone marrow Electrolyte Balance: stores and releases calcium and phosphate Buffers blood by storing and releasing alkaline salts

3 Skeletal system is divided Into 2 parts:
Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Parts of the skeletal system include: bones (skeleton); joints, cartilage, & ligaments Blood formation: Red bone marrow Electrolyte Balance: stores and releases calcium and phosphate Buffers blood by storing and releasing alkaline salts blood by storing and releasing alkaline salts

4 IV. The Skeleton Organization Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral Column
Vertebrae Ribs Appendicular Skeleton limbs girdles Osteoblasts within the membranous layers form bone tissues.

5 Two types of Bone Spongy (cancellous) Compact Bone
Lamellar bone is mature bone that is organized into thin sheets or layers called lamellae. The two kinds of lamellar bone are compact and cancellous or spongy bone tissue.

6 B. Microscopic Anatomy Mature Bone Osseous Tissue
compact bone has fewer spaces than spongy bone. Both compact and spongy bone are strong and resist bending. Mature Bone Osseous Tissue

7 3. Mature Bone Called Lamellar bone Two kinds of bone Compact
Spongy (cancellous) Lamellar bone is mature bone that is organized into thin sheets or layers called lamellae. The two kinds of lamellar bone are compact and cancellous or spongy bone tissue.

8 Spongy (cancellous) contains trabeculae contains spaces

9 3. Mature Bone Compact Bone Dense, few spaces Haversian canals
Compact bone is more dense and has fewer spaces than cancellous bone. Blood vessels that run parallel to the long axis of the bone are contained within central, or Haversian, canals. Haversian canals are lined with endosteum and contain blood vessels, nerves, and loose connective tissue. Concentric lamellae are circular layers of matrix that surround a common center, the haversian (central) canal. Dense, few spaces Haversian canals Concentric Lamellae

10 Osseous Vocabulary & Anatomy
Osteon (Haversian System) is a unit of bone. Central (Haversian) Canal is an opening in the center of an osteon that carries bloodvessels & nerves.

11 Osseous Vocabulary & Anatomy
Perforating (Volkman’s) Canal runs perpendicular to the central canal & carries blood vessels & nerves.

12 Osseous Vocabulary & Anatomy
Lacunae are cavities holding the mature bone cells (osteocytes). Arranged in concentric rings.. Lamella are the concentric rings around the central canal that holds the lacunae

13 Osseous Vocabulary & Anatomy
Canaliculi are the tiny canals radiating perpendicularly from the central canal through the lamella creating a transport system from nutrients.

14 Blood vessels that run parallel to the long axis of the bone are contained within central, or Haversian, canals. Haversian canals are lined with endosteum and contain blood vessels, nerves, and loose connective tissue. Concentric lamellae are circular layers of matrix that surround a common center, the haversian (central) canal.

15 Osseous Vocabulary & Anatomy
Osteoblasts are young bone forming cells that cause the hard extracellular matrix to form. Osteoclasts are bone dissolving cells Osteocytes are mature bone cells.

16 Osteoblasts

17 Osteocytes Osteoclasts

18 Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Osteocytes

19 C = Osteoclast D = Osteoblast E = Osteocytes Name C, D & E
A= bone matrix B = bone marrow E = Osteocytes

20 I. BONE STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
4 Shapes of Bone: Long bones Have a shaft with heads at both ends & Contain mostly compact bone. Short bones Generally cube-shape & contains mostly spongy bone. Flat bones thin, flattened, usually curved & has thin layer of compact bone surrounding spongy bone. Irregular bones Do not fit into other bone classification categories Long: longer than they are wide Short: about as broad as they are long Flat: relatively thin, flattened, usually curved Irregular: don’t fit other categories

21 Long bones Short bones

22 Flat bones Irregular bones

23 Classify the bone types to the left

24 B. Structure Epiphyses AKA: head Parts of Long Bone
Contains red bone marrow Spongy bone and compact bone Epiphyses: ends of long bones; covered w/hyaline cartilage (called articular cartilage); articulates w/other bones; contains red bone marrow which produces RBC, WBC, and platelets Cancelleous bone: spongy bone of the epiphysis

25 Parts of a Long Bone Diaphysis: Shaft of bone
Contains yellow bone marrow w/in medullary cavity Spongy and compact bone Diaphysis: contains interior Medullary cavity lined with endosteum; filled with yellow bone marrow which stores fat

26 Diaphysis of Long Bone Medullary cavity contains yellow marrow (fat & minerals) in adults.

27 Parts of a long bone Epiphyseal plate Articular Cartilage:
Allows for growth in bone Found only in children Articular Cartilage: Covers the epiphyses Made of hyaline cartilage Decreases joint surfaces Periosteum: tough outer membrane covering bone In children, an epiphyseal plate separates the epiphysis and diaphysis. It allows for growth in length. Found only in children. The epiphyseal plate will eventually ossify, at which point bone growth will stop.

28 Parts of a long bone Periosteum: outer covering of diaphysis
Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpey’s Fibers: Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries: Supply bone cells w/nutrients Periosteum: tough outer membrane covering bone In children, an epiphyseal plate separates the epiphysis and diaphysis. It allows for growth in length. Found only in children. The epiphyseal plate will eventually ossify, at which point bone growth will stop.

29 D. Membranes Periosteum: The external covering of bone endosteum:
Found on internal bone surface covers trabeculae of spongy bone in marrow cavities The external covering of bone, except in areas where tendons and ligaments insert into bone, and on the surfaces covered by articular cartilage. Consists of two layers outer fibrous layer:  Collagenous connective tissue that contains many blood vessels.  Branches of the blood vessels penetrate the inner layer of periosteum to enter Volkman’s canals and eventually communicate with the vessels in the osteonic canals inner cellular layer:  layer that contains osteoprogenitor cells that have osteogenic potential Sharpey’s fibers:  Bundles of periosteal collagen fibers that penetrate the bone matrix and strongly adheres the periosteum to bone.

30

31 II. BONE GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Two Patterns of Bone Formation Intramembranous bones originate between sheet-like layers of connective tissues Osteoblasts within the membranous layers form bone tissues.

32 II. BONE GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Two Patterns of Bone Formation Endochondral bones begin as masses of hyaline cartilage that bone tissue later replaces. The primary ossification center appears in the diaphysis, while secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses. An epiphyseal plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers to allow for lengthening of the bone.

33 II. BONE GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Growth in Long Bones grow by interstitial growth at epiphyseal plates rate of cartilage growth is balanced by replacement with bone end of growth as cartilage cells slow down division The primary ossification center appears in the diaphysis, while secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses. An epiphyseal plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers to allow for lengthening of the bone.

34 Bone Growth in Long Bones

35

36 II. BONE GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Growth in Long Bones 2. bones grow in width by appositional growth Osteoblasts in periosteum: secretes bone matrix Osteoclasts in endosteum: removes bone matrix (a little slower) The primary ossification center appears in the diaphysis, while secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses. An epiphyseal plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers to allow for lengthening of the bone.

37 New bone forms at ridges around blood vessels
Appositional Growth The surface of a bone consists of grooves and ridges. Blood vessels in the periosteum tend to lie in the grooves. New bone is added to the ridges (arrows), building them up. New bone forms at ridges around blood vessels Periosteum becomes endosteum

38 More bone added forming osteon
Appositional Growth When the bone built on adjacent ridges meets, the groove is transformed into a tunnel. The periosteum of the groove becomes the endosteum of the tunnel. Appositional growth by osteoblasts from the endosteum results in the formation of a new lamella. Additional bone apposition fills in the tunnel, thus completing the osteon. New lamella formed More bone added forming osteon

39 II. BONE GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Hormones 1. growth hormone from pituitary: stimulates growth in childhood Gigantism: excessive growth hormone dwarfism: not enough growth hormone or thyroid hormones The primary ossification center appears in the diaphysis, while secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses. An epiphyseal plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers to allow for lengthening of the bone.

40 II. BONE GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Hormones 2. thyroid: regulates activity of growth hormone 3. sex hormones: promote growth spurt, induce epiphyseal plate closure estrogen: maintains bone density The primary ossification center appears in the diaphysis, while secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses. An epiphyseal plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers to allow for lengthening of the bone.

41 III. Bone Maintenance & Repair
Bone remodeling: Life long process 2. Local areas of bone are destroyed and rebuilt 3. Repairs microdamage caused by normal wear and tear

42 quiet, no remodeling occuring
osteoclasts reabsorb small area of bone creating a weak area osteoblasts lay down new bone the amount of refilling can vary with age, health, and other

43 bone breaks cleanly, does not break through skin
Fractures 1. Simple bone breaks cleanly, does not break through skin

44 broken ends protrude through the skin, risk of bone infection
Fractures 2. Compound broken ends protrude through the skin, risk of bone infection The primary ossification center appears in the diaphysis, while secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses. An epiphyseal plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers to allow for lengthening of the bone.

45 Does not break completely
Fractures 3. Greenstick Does not break completely Greenstick: (children)

46

47

48

49 Impact Fx of distal radius & ulna @ Epiphyseal Line

50 Facial Comminuted Fx

51 Tibial Oblique Fx

52 Greenstick Fx of Ulna

53

54

55

56 III. Remodeling and Repair
C. Repair 1. Hematoma forms 2. Spongy bone forms in area of hematoma forming a soft callus 1. Hematoma - a clot forms 2. Capillaries and fibroblasts grow into the hematoma, transforming it into a soft callus of granulation tissue.

57 C. Repair 3. Osteoblasts lay down new bone matrix converting the soft callus into a hard callus of spongy bone 4. The boney callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch 3. Osteoblasts deposit minerals converting the soft callus into a hard callus of spongy bone 4. Osteoclasts remove excess tissue from the hard callus. Spongy bone is remodeled into compact bone. Healing is complete

58 III. Types of Bone Repair
Bone healing occurs in stages: fracture granulation callus lamellar bone normal contour 1. Hematoma - a clot forms 2. Capillaries and fibroblasts grow into the hematoma, transforming it into a soft callus of granulation tissue.

59 III. Calcium Homeostasis
Blood Ca2+ Level Has a very narrow range Ca2+ Required for For normal muscle contraction Nerve impuses Osteoblasts within the membranous layers form bone tissues.

60 III. Calcium Homeostasis
Blood Ca2+ Level Abnormal levels Hypocalcemia causes marked jitteriness and convulsive seizures Osteoblasts within the membranous layers form bone tissues.

61 III. Calcium Homeostasis
Blood Ca2+ Level Abnormal levels Hypercalcemia the most common life-threatening metabolic disorder associated with cancer Osteoblasts within the membranous layers form bone tissues.

62 III. Calcium Homeostasis
Bone’s Role Major storage site for calcium Calcium moves Into bone as osteoblasts build new bone Out of bone as osteoclasts break down bone

63 III. Calcium Homeostasis
Bone, Calcium and Hormones Parathyroid Hormone – Increases blood Ca2+ levels Calcitonin Decreases blood Ca2+ levels

64 D. Homeostatic Imbalances
III. Calcium Homeostasis D. Homeostatic Imbalances Osteopenia – Inadequate ossification Osteoporosis – Bone absorption outpaces deposition – Fractures common – More common in elderly women

65 D. Homeostatic Imbalances
Rickets – Lack of vitamin D or calcium during growth – Bowed legs – Deformed pelvis Rickets

66 D. Homeostatic Imbalances
Osteosarcoma  – Bone cancer – Usually between ages – Survival rate is about 50% with amputation

67 D. Homeostatic Imbalances
Bone spur – Abnormal projection at one site of bone due to overgrowth – Common in aging bones

68 Bone Markings Bony markings are the surface features of a bone.
They are sites of attachments for muscles, tendons & ligaments. They can serve as passage ways for nerves & blood vessels. There are 2 Categories of Bony Markings Projections & processes – outward growths on the bone surface. Depressions or cavities – indentations on the surface of the bone.

69 Bone Markings – 1. Kinds There are three basic types of bone markings:
Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint.

70 1. Kinds For muscle attachment For formation of a joint Openings
Depressions & Enlargements 1. Kinds Articulating Surfaces For muscle attachment For formation of a joint There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. Openings To allow blood vessels or nerves to pass through

71 Bone Markings – 2. Articulating surfaces Head
A rounded projection set off from the body of a bone by a constriction (the neck) ex. head of femur There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint.

72 Bone Markings – 2. Articulating surfaces
Any large articulating surface, may be concave or convex There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. Condyle

73 Bone Markings – Facet 2. Articulating surfaces
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. A smooth, flat surface, generally small

74 Bone Markings – Fossa 2. Articulating surfaces A shallow depression
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. A shallow depression

75 Bone Markings – 3. Enlargements & Processes Process
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. generic term for bone projection that serves as a point for attachment of other structures

76 Bone Markings – 3. Enlargements Epicondyle
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. projection or swelling to the side of or above a condyle

77 Bone Markings – Spine 3. Enlargements
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. a sharp, slender projecting process

78 Bone Markings – 3. Enlargements Tubercle a small rounded projection
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint.

79 Bone Markings – 3. Enlargements Turberosity
a large rounded roughened projection There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint.

80 Bone Markings – 3. Enlargements a large blunt projection Trochanter
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint.

81 Bone Markings – Crest 3. Enlargements a prominent border or ridge
There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint.

82 Bone Markings – A major branch or division off of the main body of a bone 3. Enlargements There are three basic types of bone markings: Processes* that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment. Processes that help to form joints. Depressions, cavities, and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through a bone. * Generally, a bone process is an extention from the main body of a bone that serves as a site of muscle attachment or helps form a joint. Ramus

83 Bone Markings – 4. Openings
Here are the common depressions and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through bones: Meatus: Canal-like passageway. Sinus: Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane. Groove: Furrow. Fissure: Narrow, slit-like opening. Foramen: Round or oval opening through a bone.

84 Bone Markings – 4. Openings Meatus Canal like opening
Here are the common depressions and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through bones: Meatus: Canal-like passageway. Sinus: Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane. Groove: Furrow. Fissure: Narrow, slit-like opening. Foramen: Round or oval opening through a bone.

85 Bone Markings – 5. Depressions Sulcus A shallow groove
Here are the common depressions and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through bones: Meatus: Canal-like passageway. Sinus: Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane. Groove: Furrow. Fissure: Narrow, slit-like opening. Foramen: Round or oval opening through a bone.

86 Bone Markings – 5. Depressions Fovea A very shallow groove
Here are the common depressions and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through bones: Meatus: Canal-like passageway. Sinus: Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane. Groove: Furrow. Fissure: Narrow, slit-like opening. Foramen: Round or oval opening through a bone.

87 Bone Markings – 5. Depressions Fissure A deep groove
Here are the common depressions and openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through bones: Meatus: Canal-like passageway. Sinus: Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane. Groove: Furrow. Fissure: Narrow, slit-like opening. Foramen: Round or oval opening through a bone.

88 Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal part of the skeleton.
Divided into 3 parts: Skull Vertebral Column Bony Thorax

89 The Skull The skull is divided into 2 parts: Cranium Facial Bones
The cranial bone joints are called sutures. Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint.

90 Lateral view of the Skull

91 Frontal view of the Skull

92 Transvers section of Inferior, Internal Skull

93 Inferior, External view of Skull

94 Sinuses The sinuses are hollow portions of bone within the skull surrounding the nasal cavity. They lighten the face/skull, act as resonance chambers & amplify the voice.

95 The Hyoid Bone The only bone in the body that does not articulate w/another bone. It serves as a moveable base for the tongue.

96 The Fetal Skull The fetal skull is large compared to the infant’s total body length. Fontanels are fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones The fontanels allows the brain to grow. The fontanels converts to bone within 24 months after birth.

97 The Vertebral Column The Vertebrae are separated by intervertebral discs made of fibrocartilage, connective tissue. The spine has a normal “S” curvature. Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location.

98 Bony Thorax Made of 3 parts: Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae
The bony thorax forms the rib cage that protects the thoracic internal organs.

99 The Appendicular Skeleton
Includes the: Appendages (limbs) Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle

100 Pectoral – Shoulder Girdle
Made of 2 bones: Clavicle aka collarbone Scapula aka shoulder blade The pectoral girdle allows the upper limb to have free range of movement

101 Pectoral – Shoulder Girdle

102 Pectoral Girdle – Posterior View

103 Upper Extremity Bones Includes the: Humerus (upper arm bone)
Radius (thumb side of forearm) Ulna (pinki side of forearm) & the Hand Anterior Humerus Posterior Humerus

104 Upper Extremity Bones The distal head of the radius is larger than the proximal The proximal head of the Ulna is larger than the distal.

105 Upper Extremity Bones The Hand includes:
Carpals – short bones of the wrist. Metacarpals – long bones of the palm of the hand. Phalanges (Digits) – Proximal, Middle, Distal fingers.

106 Pelvic Girdle Made of the Coxal Bone (hip) which is 3 bones fused together: Ilium Ischium Pubic Bone The total weight of the upper body sits on the pelvis. The pelvis protects the reproductive organs, urinary bladder, & part of the large intestine

107

108 Lateral View of Pelvis

109 B. Male vs. Female Skeleton - Pelvis
spines farther apart in male hole in ischium: smaller and triangular in female angle across pubic symphysis = pubic arch: less than 90° and more sharply angled in male spines farther apart vs. more straight “up-and-down” in male shape of hole in ischium: smaller and triangular in female vs. larger and rounded in male angle across pubic symphysis = pubic arch: less than 90° (acute angle) and more sharply angled in male, greater than 90° (obtuse angle) and more rounded in female inner diameter and distance between ischia larger in female--big enough for head of baby to pass through distance between ischia larger in female

110 Male & Female Pelvic Differences

111 Lower Extremity The lower extremity is made of: Pelvis Femur (thigh)
Tibia (shin) Fibula Foot Anterior Femur View Posterior Femur View

112 Lower Extremity The flat superior portion of the tibia is called the Tibial Plateau. The distal head of the tibia is called the medial malleolus while the distal head of the fibula is called the lateral malleolus

113 Lower Extremity The Foot is made up of the :
Tarsals – short bones of foot Metatarsals – long bones of foot Phalanges (Digits)- long bones of the toes

114 The Arches The bones of the foot make up 3 arches. The 2 long arches are the lateral & medial longitudinal arches. The arch across the foot is the transverse arch.

115 Joints Joints are where 2 or more bones come together.
Joint Functions: Holds bones together. Allows for mobility. Classified either Functionally or Structurally.

116 Joint Functional Classification
Synarthrosis – immovable joints These joints permit no movement. Certain fibrous joints fall into this category. Amphiarthrosis – slightly moveable joints. These joints permit only a little bit of movement. Some cartilaginous and fibrous joints are in this category. Diarthroses – freely movable joints. These joints permit a variety of movements. Synovial joints fall into this category.

117 Joint Structural Classification
Fibrous Joints – immovable joints. Formed by dense fibrous connective tissue Cartilaginous Joints – slightly moveable joints. Formed by cartilage Synovial Joints – freely movable joints. Formed by a synovial capsule

118 Joint Structural Classification
Fibrous Joints Exaples: Sutures of Skull Syndemoses – Allows slightly more movement than sutures Medial Mallelous Lateral Mallelous

119 Joint Structural Classification
Cartilaginous Joints Examples: Pubic Symphysis Intervertbral joints

120 Joint Structural Classification
Synovial Joints: Bones are separated by a joint cavity & surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Synovial fluid fills the joint cavity/capsule. Ends of bones covered w/hyaline cartilage. Ligaments reinforce these joints.

121 Structures associated w/ Synovial Joints
Bursa – flattened fibrous sacs filled w/synovial fluid. Tendon Sheath – Elongated bursa/membrane that wraps around a tendon to hold it together & protection.

122 Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-socket joint Hinge joint Pivot joint Gliding or Plane joint Saddle joint Condyloid or Ellipsoid joint

123 Types of Synovial Joints
Gliding or Plane joint –allows a wide range of side-to-side movements. Ex. Carpals & Tarsals Hinge joint - permit an angular motion along one plane, which is similar to the opening and closing of a door. Ex. Knee, elbow, PIP, MIP, DIP joints. Pivot joint – This allows a rotation similar to the turning of a dial. Ex. Radius pivots w/ulna.

124 Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-socket joint –produce a wide array of movements. Ex. Hip & shoulder Saddle joint – joints resemble a saddle in which one bone’s articular surface rocks back and forth upon another. Ex. Metacarpal & carpal or Metattarsal & tarsal. Condyloid or ellipsoid joint –a ball-like articular surface rests against the curve-shaped end of another articular surface. This articulation allows a circular or elliptical pattern of motion. EX. Metacarpal & phalange

125 Joint Homeostatic Imbalances
Bursitis – inflammation of the bursa usually due to trauma or friction Tendonitis – inflammation of the tendon usually due to overuse.

126 Joint Homeostatic Imbalances
Arthritis – inflammation or degeneration of a joint. It’s the most widespread & crippling disease in the US. There are over 100 different types. Osteoarthritis - Most common type, due mostly to aging.

127 Joint Homeostatic Imbalances
Rheumatoid Arthritis – an autoimmune disease where the body sees it’s joints as a foreign threat & will try to destroy them. Symptoms are bilateral joint pain & can lead to deformities. Gouty Arthritis – inflammation caused by deposits of uric crystals from the blood. Typically occurs in big toe. Usually due to diet.

128 That’s All Folks!


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