Presentation on theme: "Pursuit of Power Politics in America SOL: Govt.6a-g."— Presentation transcript:
1Pursuit of PowerPolitics in AmericaSOL: Govt.6a-g
2Political Socialization Process by which an individual acquires their values, opinions, and beliefsInformal learning through socializing agents are the most important and accidentalIdeology-a persons values, opinions, and beliefs
3Political Socialization Agents of Political Socialization1. Family2. Church3. Community 4. Media5. Teachers6. Peer Group7. Other
4The Political Spectrum Ideology- a body of ideas or views of the world that reflect the social needs, values, and ides of an individual or groupLiberal-look to the future for changeConservative-feel that governments role in society should be to protect the moral codes of the pastComplete political spectrum questionnaire
7IDEOLOGICAL SPECTRUM Liberal Left Wing, Radical Conservative LiberalLeft Wing, RadicalConservativeRight Wing, TraditionalFavor government involvement, limiting certain activities.1. Favor higher taxes, particularly progressive2. Programs assisting the poor such as Head Start and Medicaid3. Redistribution of income.4. Anti-trust legislation.5. Sympathize with labor in labor-management issues.Oppose Government involvement limiting certain activities1. Favor lower taxes, particularly regressive.2. Fewer programs with the goal of redistributing income3. Oppose government regulation of market4. Sympathize with business in labor-management issues.
9Liberal ViewpointsGroup Responsibility: The government has a responsibility to help those who are disadvantaged or down on their luck. The government should work to equalize opportunities for everyone and also provide support for those who are unable to support themselves.Personal Freedom: The personal freedoms of people must be protected. When rules/laws/norms infringe upon freedoms, they must be changed.
10Liberal ViewpointsNon-Traditional Values: Many traditional values represent old-fashioned ideas that are unfair to women and minorities. These traditional values tend to concentrate and consecrate power held by wealthy white men.Activist government: The government has a responsibility to regulate business to protect workers, the environment, and the public from abuse.
11Liberal ViewpointsUse of Property for Public Good: The government has the right to tell people how to use their personal property in order to maximize the public good.These beliefs manifest themselves more strongly as we move farther left in the spectrum. Recently in the United States, liberals have supported laws that wouldraise some taxes to pay for specific programs, maintain current tax levels, or redistribute the tax burden from lower and middle class citizens to upper class and business tax payers; provide drug treatment and rehabilitation programs for criminals and at-risk youth; prevent landowners from harming endangered species or sensitive habitats on their own land; protect women's ability to have abortions and provide federal funding for women seeking abortions who cannot afford them; extend federal civil rights protections to gays; regulate how businesses treat their employees, and how they dispose of hazardous waste; reinforce our countries tradition of separation of church and state. Socialist governments like those found in Scandinavian countries have large activist governments; citizens pay large taxes and in turn the government provides many of the services that private industry provides for a fee in the U.S. There are few communist governments left in the world, but they are usually marked by communal and government ownership of nearly all property. In practice, many communist governments look a lot like fascist governments.
12Conservative Viewpoints Personal Responsibility: People have a responsibility to follow the rules/laws/norms set by society. Stern punishments should be given to those who break the rules/laws/norms.Traditional Values: People should strive to live by the traditional moral codes that our grandparents followed. There are many dangerous moral trends in society today that we need to reverse. Religion should play a larger part of peoples lives and the government should reflect religious values.
13Conservative Viewpoints Laisez Faire and Decentralized Government: The federal government should not regulate business practices, but instead should let free market forces keep order in the business world. The federal government should be as small as possible, and most power should be vested in the state and local governmentMaximum Benefit: If every individual maximizes their own benefit, everyone will be better off
14Conservative Viewpoints Property Rights: The government should pass and enforce laws that protect personal property.These beliefs manifest themselves more strongly as we move farther right in the spectrum. Recently in the United States, conservatives have supported laws that would:cut taxes (especially taxes that mostly effect businesses and individuals with higher incomes); build more prisons and provide harsher penalties for convicted criminals; remove restrictions on how landowners can use their own property; make it more difficult or illegal for women to have abortions; prevent states from recognizing gay marriages; reduce federal legislation of business; permit prayer in schools. On the extreme right of the spectrum, we usually associate fascist politicians with foreign dictatorships. Fascist states usually direct extreme force toward their citizens in order to enforce rules, laws, and norms.
15Political PartiesPolitical Parties have National, State, and Local organizationsThe primary objective for the two major parties is to organize to win electionsEach party has core set of principles, look to appeal to a majority of voters without compromising those beliefsSOL: GOVT.6a
16Political Parties Two party system in America Democratic Party Republican Party
17Roles of Political Parties Select CandidatesRaise FundsConduct CampaignsIdentify important issuesEducate the PublicMonitor the party in powerStrategy: Have students create graphic organizers regarding the roles of political partiesClasswork: Have students complete educating the public assignment
18Party SystemsOne party systems-one party has control of the government and doesn’t allow other parties to join.Allow elections but they are not competitive because only that parties candidates are on the ballotSoviet Union and Cuba are examples of one party systems
19Party SystemsTwo party systems-exist in only a handful of countries in the world. In U.S., other parties exist but are not believed to have any chance at winning elections.United States and Great Britain are examples of two party systems.
20Party Systems Multi-party systems-more common in the world today. Legislative branch is most important.Little or no separation exists between Legislative and Executive branches.Multi-party systems use proportional representation (10% of vote=10% representation)Encourages parties to form coalitions
21Third Parties Also called minor parties Can have major influence on electionsVotes taken away from one party may help the other winThird parties often force important issues onto the national agenda
22Types of third parties Economic protest parties Splinter parties Party dominated by feelings of economic discontentSplinter partiesSplints from one of the major party because of serious diagreementIdeological partiesParty based on particular set of beliefs or ideologySingle-issue partiesParty focused on one issue
24Third PartiesThe Reform Party and The Libertarian Party are the two major third parties in America.
25The Effect of Third Parties on Vote Distribution Acetate PP–6
26Minor parties play several important roles: “Spoiler Role”Minor party candidates can pull decisive votes away from one of the major parties’ candidates, especially if the minor party candidate is from a splinter party.CriticMinor parties, especially single-issue parties, often take stands on and draw attention to controversial issues that the major parties would prefer to ignore.InnovatorOften, minor parties will draw attention to important issues and propose innovative solutions to problems. If these proposals gain popular support, they are often integrated into the platforms of the two major parties.
27Both of the major parties are highly decentralized and fragmented. The Decentralized Nature of the PartiesBoth of the major parties are highly decentralized and fragmented.Why?The party out of power lacks a strong leader.The federal system distributes powers candidate.The federal system distributes powers widely, in turn causing the parties to be decentralized.The nominating process pits party members against one another because only one person can chosen to be the party’s presidential
28A Theoretical Structure of the American Political Party Acetate PP–1
29State and Local Party Machinery State and local party organization varies from State to State, but usually follow the general principles below.
30The Three Components of the Party Party ComponentsThe Party Organization:Those who run and control the party machinery.The Party in the ElectorateThose who always or almost always vote for party candidates.The Party in GovernmentThose who hold office in the government.
31The Three Components of Political Parties Acetate PP–2
32The Future of Major Parties Weakened connections to political parties:For voters :More people are unwilling to label themselves as “Democrats” or “Republicans”Split-ticket voting—voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same electionFor candidates:Structural changes have increased conflict and disorganization within partiesChanges in the technology of campaigning, especially the use of television and the Internet, have made candidates more independent of the party organizationThe growth of single-issue organizations provides candidates with another source of financial support
38The Political ProcessNational Nominating Conventions are used by both parties to select their Presidential and Vice-Presidential CandidatesState and Local parties choose the method of selecting all other candidatesSOL: GOVT.6b
39Campaign Contributions The Federal Election Campaign Act sets limits on campaign funding for federal electionsThe public can contribute toIndividual CandidatesPolitical PartiesPolitical Action CommitteesSOL: GOVT.6c
41Political Action Committees PAC’s are spin offs of Interest Groups and professional organizations whose goal is to influence electionsThey have increased from about 600 in the mid ’70’s to 4,000 today.They give money to their favorite candidatesIt totals over 200 million dollars in an election cycleSOL: Govt.6cComplete Packet
42Political Action Committees Allows groups access to important decision makers in our governmentMost contributions go to incumbents rather than challengersIt does not favor one political party over another instead the party in power
49Private and Public Sources of Campaign Money Sources of FundingPrivate and Public Sources of Campaign MoneyNonparty groups such as PACsSmall contributorsTemporary fund-raising organizationsWealthy supportersCandidatesGovernment subsidies12Chapter 7, Section 3
50Regulating Campaign Financing Early campaign regulations were created in 1907, but feebly enforced.The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 was passed to replaced the former, ineffective legislation.The FECA Amendments of 1974 were passed in response to the Watergate scandal.Buckley v. Valeo invalidated some of the measures in the FECA Amendments of Most significantly, it also stipulated that several of the limits that the 1974 amendments placed on spending only apply to candidates who accept campaign money from the government, not those who raise money independently.The FECA Amendments of 1976 were passed in response to Buckley v. Valeo.Chapter 7, Section 3
51The Federal Election Commission (FEC) enforces: the timely disclosure of campaign finance informationlimits on campaign contributionslimits on campaign expendituresprovisions for public funding of presidential campaignsChapter 7, Section 3
52Loopholes in the Law “More loophole than law…” —Lyndon Johnson Soft money—money given to State and local party organizations for “party-building activities” that is filtered to presidential or congressional campaigns. $500 million was given to campaigns in this way in 2000.Independent campaign spending—a person unrelated and unconnected to a candidate or party can spend as much money as they want to benefit or work against candidates.Issue ads—take a stand on certain issues in order to criticize or support a certain candidate without actually mentioning that person’s name.Chapter 7, Section 3
53Public Opinion Public Opinion is measured in a variety of ways Public Opinion PollsVotingBuyingJoining Interest GroupsH.W.-Analyze a public opinion poll in a newspaper or on the internet
54Public Opinion Polls Polling has become a valuable tool in Politics It measures how the public feels on issues and candidatesPoliticians use the information to plan strategy and policy
55Public Opinion PollsPolling must be precise in order for the data to be reliableSample must be random and large enough to represent entire populationPolling method must be consistent throughout pollPoll must be current and dates the poll was given should be publishedQuestions should be without biasSponsor of the poll must be known in order to check bias
56Analyzing Polls Who was polled? How many people were polled? How was the polling conducted?What questions were asked?When was the poll conducted?Who sponsored the poll?
57Polling Bias TypesA. Testimonial - Implied endorsements from celebrities.Example Question: Did you know that Pat Robertson does not believe John McCain will make a good president? Do you plan to vote for George Bush or John McCain in the Republican primary?B. Mudslinging – Name-calling or groundless assertions about another candidate.Example Question: Do you favor the economic policies of the Democrats, which will preserve Social Security, or the policies of the Republicans, which will destroy our Social Security system and leave many of our elderly citizens homeless?
58Polling Bias TypesC. Transfer – Use of popular symbols or causes to create a positive connotation for a candidate or the use of negative or controversial symbols and causes to create a negative connotation of the competition’s candidate.Example Question: Knowing that Texas has one of the highest rates of child poverty in the US, who do you think will be the best candidate for president in 2000, Al Gore or George Bush?
59Polling Bias TypesD. Card stacking – Use of statistics in a one-sided manner; the omission of information that is crucial to drawing an informed conclusion.Example: Democratic television ads showing former teachers and college administrators listing republican George Allen’s failings concerning education. What the ads do not show is the reasoning behind why he didn’t support certain bills, and that many of the former teachers and college administrators are disgruntled democrats who lost their appointed jobs under Allen’s republican administration.
60Polling Bias TypesE. Glittering Generalities – Use of very vague words or phrases that may have a positive effect on the viewer and appeal to a variety of interests.Example Question: Do you believe that we need a Washington insider or a fresh new face from outside Washington to lead our country through the next four years?F. Contrast question or Sandwich question – Juxtaposing positive images of one’s candidate with negative images of the competition’s candidate.Example Question: Al Gore trusts the people of the United States, not big corporations. Do you believe Bush, who calls himself a “Compassionate Conservative” or Gore, who is fighting for the people not the powerful, will make a better president for most Americans?
61Political Advertising Advertising has become the costliest expense of modern day campaignsMedia outlets are required to provide equal time all candidates if it gives time to one candidate (equal time doctrine)Easy method for candidates to get their message across in a short amount of timeH.W. – Analyze a political advertisement from the 2001 Virginia Gubernatorial Race
62Political Advertising Important to sort through all forms of political advertising to check for accuracyAll major propaganda methods are used to get message across to the people
63Four Journalistic Periods in America a. Party Press: Early years of republic - Papers subsidized by political parties; addressed small elite; ruthlessly partisanPopular Press: changes in society and technology, like high speed rotary press, made possible rise of a self-supporting, mass-readership daily paper; publishers could become powerful political forces, sometimes associated with yellow journalism
64Four Journalistic Periods in America c. Magazines of opinion: Reaction of middle class to yellow journalism led to less sensationalism and more nonpolitical coveraged.Electronic Journalism: Radio & TV allows for direct politician voter link; get “sound bite”, selective viewing, and need for dramatic to get coverage
65The Role of Mass MediaA medium is a means of communication; it transmits some kind of information. Four major mass media are particularly important in American politics:
66The Media and Politics Electoral Politics The Public Agenda The media play a very large role in shaping the public agenda, the societal problems that political leaders and citizens agree need government attention.It is not correct that the media tell the people what to think; but it is clear that they tell the people what to think about.Electoral PoliticsToday, television allows candidates to appeal directly to the people, without the help of a party organization.Candidates regularly try to use media coverage to their advantage.Newscasts featuring candidates are usually short, sharply focused sound bites—snappy reports that can be aired in 30 to 45 seconds.
67Access to media varies from country to country. Media StatisticsAccess to media varies from country to country.Chapter 8, Section 3
68Bad News About Presidential Candidates Increases Acetate M–4
69Media Influence on Politics a. Gatekeeper: Influence what becomes an issue and for how long; example = crime, VietnamScorekeeper: Make or break politicians reputations; examples = Carter, Gary Hart, George McGovernWatchdog: examining political and personal lives; examples = Gary Hart, Bill Clinton, Gary Condit
70Limits on Media Influence Only a small part of the public actually takes in and understands much of what the media have to say about public affairs.Many media sources mostly skim the news, reporting only what their news editors judge to be the most important and/or most interesting stories of the day.In-depth coverage of public affairs is available to those who want it and will seek it out.
71Regulations in Radio and T.V. a. Equal time rule: If a station sells time to one candidate, it must be willing to sell equal time for opposing candidateRight to reply rule: If a person is attacked on a broadcast other than in a regular news program, that person has the right to reply over the same station.Political editorializing rule: If a broadcaster endorses a candidate, the opposing candidate has a right to reply
72Reporter and Source Bias a. Routine: public events regularly covered by reporters, comparatively little of biasSelected: Public events knowable to inquiring reporters but not usually reported, bias of reporter/editor may figure prominently in selectionInsider: Events not usually public, revealed because someone inside reveals them, problem of the motive of the leaker
73The Nature of Interest Groups What role do interest groups have in influencing public policy?How can we compare and contrast political parties and interest groups?Why do people see interest groups as both good and bad for American politics?Chapter 9, Section 1
74The Role of Interest Groups Interest groups are private organizations whose members share certain views and work to shape public policy.Public policy includes all of the goals a government sets and the various courses of action it pursues as it attempts to realize these goals.Interest groups exist to shape public policy.Chapter 9, Section 1
75Political Parties and Interest Groups Political parties and interest groups differ in three striking respects: (1) in the making of nominations, (2) in their primary focus, and (3) in the scope of their interests.NominationsPolitical parties are responsible for the nominating process, while interest groups hope to influence those nominations.Primary FocusPolitical parties are interested in winning elections and controlling government, while interest groups are interested in influencing the policies created by government.Scope of InterestPolitical parties concern themselves with the whole range of public affairs, while interest groups tend to focus on issues that their members are concerned about.Chapter 9, Section 1
76Valuable Functions of Interest Groups Interest groups raise awareness of public affairs, or issues that concern the people at large.Interest groups represent people who share attitudes rather than those who share geography.Interest groups provide specialized information to government agencies and legislators.Interest groups are vehicles for political participation.Interest groups keep tabs on various public agencies and officials.Interest groups compete.Chapter 9, Section 1
77CriticismsSome groups have an influence far out of proportion to their size or importance.It can be difficult to tell who or how many people are served by a group.Groups do not always represent the views of the people they claim to speak for.In rare cases, groups use tactics such as bribery, threats, and so on.Chapter 9, Section 1
78Reasons for Interest Groups Most interest groups have been founded on the basis of an economic interest, especially business, labor, agricultural, and professional interests.Some are grounded in geographic area.Some are based on a cause or idea, such as environmental protection.Some promote the welfare of certain groups of people, such as retired citizens.Some are run by religious organizations.Chapter 9, Section 2
80Public-Interest Groups A public-interest group is an interest group that seeks to institute certain public policies that will benefit all or most of the people in the country, whether or not they belong to that organization.
81Influencing Public Opinion Interest groups reach out to the public for these reasons:1. To supply information in support of the group’s interests2. To build a positive image for the group3. To promote a particular public policyChapter 9, Section 3
82PropagandaPropaganda is a technique of persuasion aimed at influencing individual or group behaviors.Its goal is to create a particular belief which may be true or false.Propaganda disregards information that does not support its conclusion. It is not objective. It presents only one side of an issue.Propaganda often relies on name-calling and inflammatory labels.Chapter 9, Section 3
83Influencing Parties and Elections Political Action Committees (PACs) raise and distribute money to candidates who will further their goals.Chapter 9, Section 3
84LobbyingLobbying is any activity by which a group pressures legislators and influences the legislative process.Lobbying carries beyond the legislature It is brought into government agencies, the executive branch, and even the courts.Nearly all important organized interest groups maintain lobbyists in Washington, D.C.Chapter 9, Section 3
85Lobbyists at Work They make campaign contributions. Lobbyists use several techniques:They send articles, reports, and other information to officeholders.They testify before legislative committees.They bring “grass-roots” pressures to bear through , letters, or phone calls from constituents.They rate candidates and publicize the ratings.They make campaign contributions.Chapter 9, Section 3
86The Framers of the Constitution purposely left the power to set suffrage qualifications to each State.Suffrage means the right to vote. Franchise is another term with the same meaning.The electorate is all of the people entitled to vote in a given election.Initially, the right to vote in America was limited to white male property owners.Today, the size of the American electorate is greater than 200 million people. Nearly all citizens at least 18 years of age can qualify to vote.
875. The 26th Amendment (1971) lowered the voting age to 18. 1. During the early 1800s, religious, property, and tax payment qualifications were gradually eliminated.2. The 15th Amendment (1870) was intended to end race-based voting requirements.3. In 1920, the 19th Amendment prohibited the denial of the right to vote because of sex.4. The 1960s:The Voting Rights Act of 1965 guaranteed the right to vote for minorities.The 23rd Amendment (1961) granted citizens of the District of Columbia the right to vote for presidential electors.The 24th Amendment (1964) eliminated the poll tax.5. The 26th Amendment (1971) lowered the voting age to 18.
88Voting Requirements Citizenship Most States require United States citizenship in order to vote.ResidenceOne must be a legal resident of a State to vote in elections. Most States require residency for minimum amounts of time in order to vote in the State.AgeThe 26th Amendment requires that no State set a minimum voting age above 18.
89Other QualificationsAll states except North Dakota require citizens to register to vote. Registration is a procedure of voter identification intended to prevent fraudulent voting.Literacy—a person’s ability to read or write—is no longer required in any State to vote, but had been by several States at times in our nation’s history.At one time, poll taxes, or a special tax payment required to vote, were prevalent in the South. Poll taxes are now forbidden by the 24th Amendment.States also have restrictions on the right to vote on certain members of the population, such as those found to be mentally incompetent or people convicted of serious crimes.Chapter 6, Section 2
90Voting 15th Amendment (1870) 17th Amendment (1913) All adult males now have the right to vote17th Amendment (1913)Direct election of Senators19th Amendment (1920)Women’s SuffrageFrequently Asked Questions About Election Day and Voting ProceduresQ. Why are federal elections held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November?A. The Tuesday after the first Monday in November was initially established in 1845 (3 U.S.C. 1) for the appointment of Presidential electors in every fourth year. 2 U.S.C. 7 established this date for electing U.S. Representatives in every even numbered year in Finally, 2 U.S.C. 1 established this date as the time for electing U.S. Senators in 1914.Why early November? For much of our history America was a predominantlyagrarian society. Law makers therefore took into account that November was perhaps the most convenient month for farmers and rural workers to be able to travel to the polls. The fall harvest was over, (remembering that spring was planting time and summer was taken up with working the fields and tending the crops) but in the majority of the nation the weather was still mild enough to permit travel over unimproved roads.Why Tuesday? Since most residents of rural America had to travel a significantdistance to the county seat in order to vote, Monday was not considered reasonable as many people would need to begin travel on Sunday. This would, of course, haveconflicted with church services and Sunday worship.Why the first Tuesday after the first Monday? Lawmakers wanted to prevent election day from falling on the first of November for two reasons. November 1st is All Saints Day, a holy day of obligation for Roman Catholics. In addition, most merchants were in the habit of doing their books from the preceding month on the 1st. Congress was apparently worried that the economic success or failure of the previous month might influence the vote of the merchants.Q. Does my vote really make a difference?A. "Just" one vote can and often does make a difference in the outcome of anelection. Here are some recent examples of real elections decided by one vote.In 1997, Vermont State representative Sydney Nixon was seated as an apparentone vote winner, 570 to Mr Nixon resigned when the State Housedetermined, after a recount, that he had actually lost to his opponent RobertEmond 572 to 571. In 1989, a Lansing, Michigan School District millage proposition failed when thefinal recount produced a tie vote 5,147 for, and 5,147 against. On the original vote count, votes against the proposition were ten more than those in favor. The result meant that the school district had to reduce its budget by $2.5 million.In 1994, Republican Randall Luthi and Independent Larry Call tied for a seat inthe Wyoming House of Representatives from the Jackson Hole area with 1,941votes each. A recount produced the same result. Mr. Luthi was finally declaredthe winner when, in a drawing before the State Canvassing Board, a pingpongball bearing his name was pulled from the cowboy hat of Democratic GovernorMike Sullivan. In 1997, South Dakota Democrat John McIntyre led Republican Hal Wick 4,195 to 4,191 for the second seat in Legislative District 12 on election night. Asubsequent recount showed Wick the winner at 4,192 to 4,191. The StateSupreme Court however, ruled that one ballot counted for Wick was invalid dueto an overvote. This left the race a tie. After hearing arguments from both sides,the State Legislature voted to seat wick 46 to 20.
91Voting 23rd Amendment (1961) 24th Amendment (1964) District of Columbia given the right to vote24th Amendment (1964)Elimination of the Poll Tax26th Amendment (1971)18 year olds given the right to voteFrequently Asked Questions About Election Day and Voting ProceduresQ. Why are federal elections held on the Tuesday after the first Monday inNovember?A. The Tuesday after the first Monday in November was initially established in 1845 (3U.S.C. 1) for the appointment of Presidential electors in every fourth year. 2 U.S.C. 7established this date for electing U.S. Representatives in every even numbered year inFinally, 2 U.S.C. 1 established this date as the time for electing U.S. Senatorsin 1914.Why early November? For much of our history America was a predominantlyagrarian society. Law makers therefore took into account that November was perhapsthe most convenient month for farmers and rural workers to be able to travel to thepolls. The fall harvest was over, (remembering that spring was planting time andsummer was taken up with working the fields and tending the crops) but in the majorityof the nation the weather was still mild enough to permit travel over unimproved roads.Why Tuesday? Since most residents of rural America had to travel a significantdistance to the county seat in order to vote, Monday was not considered reasonable asmany people would need to begin travel on Sunday. This would, of course, haveconflicted with church services and Sunday worship.Why the first Tuesday after the first Monday? Lawmakers wanted to preventelection day from falling on the first of November for two reasons. November 1st is AllSaints Day, a holy day of obligation for Roman Catholics. In addition, most merchantswere in the habit of doing their books from the preceding month on the 1st. Congresswas apparently worried that the economic success or failure of the previous monthmight influence the vote of the merchants.Q. Does my vote really make a difference?A. "Just" one vote can and often does make a difference in the outcome of anelection. Here are some recent examples of real elections decided by one vote.In 1997, Vermont State representative Sydney Nixon was seated as an apparentone vote winner, 570 to Mr Nixon resigned when the State Housedetermined, after a recount, that he had actually lost to his opponent RobertEmond 572 to 571.In 1989, a Lansing, Michigan School District millage proposition failed when thefinal recount produced a tie vote 5,147 for, and 5,147 against. On the originalvote count, votes against the proposition were ten more than those in favor. Theresult meant that the school district had to reduce its budget by $2.5 million.In 1994, Republican Randall Luthi and Independent Larry Call tied for a seat inthe Wyoming House of Representatives from the Jackson Hole area with 1,941votes each. A recount produced the same result. Mr. Luthi was finally declaredthe winner when, in a drawing before the State Canvassing Board, a pingpongball bearing his name was pulled from the cowboy hat of Democratic GovernorMike Sullivan.In 1997, South Dakota Democrat John McIntyre led Republican Hal Wick 4,195to 4,191 for the second seat in Legislative District 12 on election night. Asubsequent recount showed Wick the winner at 4,192 to 4,191. The StateSupreme Court however, ruled that one ballot counted for Wick was invalid dueto an overvote. This left the race a tie. After hearing arguments from both sides,the State Legislature voted to seat wick 46 to 20.Q. What is the order of succession should the President die, becomeincapacitated, or is otherwise unable to finish his term of office?A. The order of succession is as follows: Vice President, Speaker of the House,President Pro Tempore of the Senate, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury,Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, and Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture,Commerce, Labor, Health, Housing, Transportation, Energy, Education, and VeteransAffairs. (Presidential Succession Act of 1947.)
103Why Don’t More People Vote? In 2000 Presidential Election, 51% of the voting age population votedTurnout is lower in off-year elections, primaries, and special elections than in Presidential Elections (about 33%)Activity: Brain storm ways to make the US system better.
104Why Don’t More People Vote? Some people can’t vote20 million don’t vote because they cannotAliens, handicapped, people in prisonReligious beliefs forbid voting
105Why Don’t More People Vote? Political EfficacyBelief that one person can’t make a difference by participating in government and politicsVoter RegistrationCorruption historically made it necessary for states to impose rules regarding votingMust be registered and must vote in specific locationAbsentee ballot
106Why Don’t More People Vote? Time-Zone FalloutMedia outlets declare winners state by stateEastern states are declared before the western states have finished votingResults discourage west coast voters from going out to vote because they believe that their vote doesn’t matter
107Why Don’t More People Vote? Weekday VotingMost countries vote on weekends when people are off workVoter SatisfactionBelieve the outcome won’t affect themBad weather
108Review for Test Complete Study Guide for Test Coincides with Chapter 6-8 in your book