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1 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 1 Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery RAPCD: Validating EOS Satellite.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 1 Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery RAPCD: Validating EOS Satellite."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 1 Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery RAPCD: Validating EOS Satellite Ozone Measurements Presented at EOS IWG San Antonio, TX 30 October, 2001 Mike Newchurch Maurice Jarzembski, Bill Lapenta, Jeff Rothermel NASA/MSFC/SD P K Bhartia and Tom McGee NASA/GSFC/Laboratory for Atmospheres Mike Hardesty NOAA/ETL Vandana Srivastava USRA Mohammed Ayoub, Arastoo Biazar, David Bowdle, Sundar Christopher, Kirk Fuller, Noor Gillani, Quingyuah Han, Kevin Knupp, Xiong Liu, Dick McNider Da Sun Atmospheric Science Department Earth System Science Center University of Alabama in Huntsville Jack Fix College of Science University of Alabama in Huntsville

2 2 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Mandate from the Atmospheric Community: Measure the Constituents and Assess the Consequences CEOS, Committee on Earth Observing Satellites : integrate satellite and ground-based systems to provide highly accurate global environmental observations. CEOS Ozone Project: Assess the feasibility of achieving the CEOS objectives regarding ozone sources, sinks, and processes as embodied in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy, IGOS. GAW, SPARC, IGAC, WMO, WHO, UNEP communities contributed requirements. Community recommendations: Coordinate validation activities Long-term commitment Sustained support for ground based facilities Continuous measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere Et al. Hilsenrath et al., SPARC no 16, March, 2001.

3 3 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Stratospheric O 3 was easy: MLO3 Comparison of ozone mixing ratio as a function of pressure for measurements made on August 30, 1995. Lidar and SAGE have been converted to pressure scale for this comparison. McPeters, R.D., et. al., Results from the 1995 Stratospheric Ozone Profile Intercomparison at Mauna Loa (MLO3)

4 4 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Tropospheric O 3 is much more variable in time and space MOZART-2 Movie of Global O 3, CO, NO x Models-3 movie of PBL O 3 in Eastern USA USA Tropospheric Climatology STE from sondes and MM5 Lidar Profiles of Ozone and Aerosols Physical-chemical Complications

5 5 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 MOZART Tropospheric Ozone -- The Movie First, O 3 in green on a horizontal slice at an altitude of ~6km, with CO in red (the isosurface of 200 ppbv (parts per billion)). NOx is added in blue (300 pptv (parts per trillion) isosurface). The horizontal slice is then replaced with the isosurface of 30 ppbv O 3, in green. CO and NOx are products of combustion and high levels can be seen in both industrialized regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and biomass burning regions (Africa and South America). Ozone is produced when CO, NOx and sunlight are all present. Things to watch for:  The location of fires in South America and Africa changes with season.  CO concentrations become high near the North Pole during winter because there is not enough sunlight for the photochemical reactions that destroy it.  High levels of O 3 are seen in the upper troposphere in the tropics as a result of the convection of CO and other chemical species in thunderstorms, and the production of NOx from lightning.

6 6 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Models-3 Calculation of PBL Ozone July 15 1995 1700

7 7 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 USA Ozonesonde Stations Climatology, Back Trajectories, and Strat-Trop Exchange Climatology Back trajectories STE

8 8 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Eisele, H., et al., 1999: High- resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 56, 319-330. Color-coded 4-day series of the ozone mixing ratio during a stratospheric air intrusion starting on 28 May; the episode starts with a tropopause fold reaching the ground in the afternoon of 29 May 1996 and continues in the range above 4 km within the entire period of observation.

9 9 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Boundary-layer Ozone and Aerosols Vertical cross sections of O 3 concentration and aerosol backscatter for the NW-SE flight legs passing over Nashville for the afternoon flights on July 12. Banta, R.M. et al., Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode, Journal of Geophysical Research, 17, 22,519-22,544, 1998.

10 10 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 If the Spatial Gradients don’t get you, the Temporal Gradients Might Figure 1. Kawa et al., [1990] ER-2 measurements (circles with 1  error bars) of NO VMR normalized to the 90  solar zenith angle compared with results of a model simulation (grey line). The measurements occurred at 20 km and 39  N. Figure 3. Retrieved profiles for NO and NO2 without correction (NC denoted with open squares), with corrections computed from zonal-mean conditions (ZC denoted with open triangles), and with corrections computed from simultaneously measured conditions (PC denoted with solid squares) ±1s precision. Newchurch, M.J., et. al., Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2373-2376, 1996

11 11 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 What the UV Satellite Sees e.g., OMI, SBUV, TOMS, GOME Bhartia, P.K., ed., OMII Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document Volume II: OMI Ozone Products, September, 2001 Hasekamp, O. P., and J. Landgraf, Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: The inverse problem solved by regularization. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 8077-8088, 2001.

12 12 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 What the IR Satellites Sees e. g., AIRS, TES Fig. 1.1: A set of synthetic weighting functions representing a typical nadir sounder measuring thermal emission. (**fix scale so Kdz = 1) Rodgers, Clive D., Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice Fig 2.2: The singular vectors of the weighting functions of Figure 1.1. The corresponding singular values are given in each panel. Fig. 1.2: Simulated retrievals using the weighting functions of Fig. 1.1 and a polynomial representation. (a) The original profile; (b) An exact retrieval with no simulated experimental error; (c) An exact retrieval with a 1% simulated experimental error.

13 13 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Where is the Tropopause? From the recent Report on the SPARC Tropopause Workshop: LRT = Lapse-Rate Tropopause CPT = Cold-point Tropopause TTT = Tropical thermal Tropopause STT = Secondary tropical Tropopause TTL = Tropical tropopause layer between STT and TTT CSRT = Clear-sky Radiative Tropopause. These altitudes result from the interplay of thermodynamic, radiative, and chemical processes. The vertical gradient in ozone near all of these levels us usually substantial.

14 14 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Where is the Tropopause?

15 15 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 The AIRS Ozone Validation Plan In the first year, we will assess the total ozone column measurements with Dobson measurements in the most benign atmospheric conditions. Then, with dedicated ozonesonde launches at the Southern Great Plains ARM/CART site, in conjunction with the AIRS intensive validation campaign, we will focus sharply on the accuracy of the ozone retrievals over more difficult conditions including partly cloudy scenes, day/night differences, and difficult viewing geometry. In the second year, we will introduce additional standard correlative data (Umkehr, TOMS, SAGE, lidar) to assess the precision and accuracy of the tropospheric and stratospheric columns and extend the domain of comparison in both time and space. We will also focus on day/night differences using dedicated ozonesonde launches at Huntsville, AL. In the third year, we will investigate the accuracy of AIRS to measure Stratospheric/Tropospheric exchange morphology and convective boundary layer diurnal differences. We will also place the AIRS measurements into the context of derived tropospheric ozone fields and of global 3-d chemical transport models to assess our understanding of tropospheric ozone morphology.

16 16 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 What are the Science Questions? Intercontinental transport, Global/Regional/Local linkages, Sfc/PBL/FT/STE vertical transport Asian dust across the Pacific to California affects Air Quality. African Saharan dust across the Atlantic affects Caribbean and Florida Air Quality and Health. Canadian and Mexican fires affect USA Air Quality Power plant plumes throughout eastern USA affect regional Air Quality. Local sources of ozone precursors affect regional Air Quality through Free Tropospheric transport. Stratospheric/Tropospheric exchange injects very large quantities of ozone episodically into the troposphere.

17 17 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 NSSTC Mission & Vision MISSION STATEMENT: To conduct and communicate research and development critical to NASA’s mission in support of the national interest, to educate the next generation of scientists and engineers for space-based research, and to use the platform of space to better understand our Earth and space environment and increase our knowledge of materials and processes. VISION STATEMENT: To become an exemplary national science and technology environment for the conduct and communication of cutting-edge space research, education, and development in support of NASA's mission to serve the national interest by implementing best business practices using multidisciplinary teams assembled from the university, government, and private sectors to perform that work, and by leveraging the content and conduct of NSSTC activities to enhance university and K-12 educational missions.

18 18 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Discipline Research Centers Global Hydrology and Climate Center Space Science Research Center Information Technology Research Center Propulsion Research Center Advanced Optics and Energy Technology Center Biotechnology Research Center Material Science Research Center

19 19 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 NSSTC At A Glance 287 Employees –132 from NASA/MSFC –96 from UAH and other universities (including IPAs) –59 from USRA and other support contractors Current facility: 123,000 Sq.Ft. –Includes laboratories, classrooms, computer rooms –Annex building (additional 80,000 sq.ft) to be completed July 2002 –Annex will host NOAA Weather Forecasting Office –Facility investment: $27 million Total Budget (FY01 est.): $70 M –NASA: $60 million –Universities: $ 10 million

20 20 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Huntsville Ozonesonde Station

21 RAPCD Platform #3 plan view 42 ft 14 ft 2 outlets, 1 circuit 110 VAC @ 20A + 1 outlet 208 VAC /1 ph / 30 A 2 outlets, 1 circuit 110 VAC @ 20A + 1 outlet 208 VAC /3 ph / 30 A floodlamp 1 pair 2 outlets, 1 circuit 110 VAC @ 20A + 1 data outlet grating girders each outlet in weatherproof box, top even with grating, access hole in grating, conduit anchored to girder platform designed to support total payload of 4000 pounds perimeter safety rail 3 inch open gooseneck PVC conduit to Room 4258 2 outlets, 1 circuit 110 VAC @ 20A + 1 data outlet + 1 phone outlet video post

22 opaque curtains Experiment Bus Bar W W W PC table Upper and Lower Casework Upper & Lower Casework Schematic Floor Plan Remote Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery (NSSTC RAPCD) LIDAR LAB FLOOR PLAN FTIR LAB FLOOR PLAN Filing Cabinets Optics Cabinets Safety Shower Optics Cabinets PC table trop aerosol lidar bench Experiment Bus Bar W scanner Doppler lidar bench FTIR bench visitor lidar bench Upper and Lower Casework Experiment Bus Bar sky-viewhorizontal W FTIR bench 2 ft grid W strat/trop lidar bench Experiment Bus Bar 36” 27” 54”

23 aerosol lidar chimneys/hatches strat/trop lidar chimney & hatch visitor lidar chimneys & hatches Schematic Roof Plan Remote Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery (NSSTC RAPCD) 2 ft grid double-line outline indicates motorized hatches with automatic rain closure 3-meter ObservaDome with ozone lidar transceiver PENTHOUSE ROOF PLAN metal grating ~28” above lower roof metal grating ~28” above penthouse roof penthouse upper wall 7 ft above penthouse roof pent- house upper wall FTIR chimneys & hatches sky-viewhorizontal Doppler lidar chimneys & hatches scanner pent- house stairs and hatch crane posts 27” 54” safety rails safety rail 36” 2 duplexes 110 VAC 2 duplexes, 1 circuit 110 VAC @ 20A + 1 data outlet + 1 phone outlet 1 outlet 208 VAC /1 ph 1 outlet 208 VAC /3 ph 20 A 60 A floodlamp 1 pair 3 inch conduit video post 15 A 20 A 30 A 15 A 30 A 20 A 15 A LOWER ROOF PLAN fused disconnect

24 24 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 RAPCD Penthouse perspective

25 25 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 RAPCD FTIR Lab

26 26 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 RAPCD Lidar Lab

27 27 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 RAPCD Lidar and FTIR Labs

28 28 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 RAPCD LINE OF SIGHT PLATFORM #1 SCHEMATIC Ozone Lidar Doppler Lidar Scanner Locked at zenith Grating Top Dome Floor Roof Top Dome Sidewall Railing Horizontal FTIR Solar FTIR Lid Closed Lid Open Dome Floor Chimney 2 Chimney 4 Chimney 5 Chimney 1 Dome Legs Dome Shutters Dome Chimney 3

29 29 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 The RAPCD Vertical Distribution Science Questions Surface/Boundary-Layer/Free Troposphere/UT/LS Exchange 1.Can we accurately predict surface ozone and aerosol concentrations? 2.What are the vertical and long-range transport processes affecting local air quality? 3.Can we accurately calculate the power plant plume effect on air quality? 4.How are cloud processes, including lightning, different from clear-air processes for chemical effects? 5.What are the mechanisms responsible for nocturnal jet transport of Gulf-H 2 O- initiatiated convection? 6.What is the diurnal behavior of the boundary layer in the Tennessee valley?

30 30 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 The RAPCD Aerosol Science Questions Aerosol Optics and microphysics 1.What role does heterogeneous chemistry play in air quality? 2.What are the composition and optical properties of aerosols? 3.What is the effect of water uptake? 4.What is information content of RS measurements of aerosols? 5.What is the character of complex aerosols (organics, dust, soil, mixes)? 6. What are the roles of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) in ozone and aerosol production? 7.Cross-disciplinary studies: Biohazards, protemics, protonics.

31 31 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 The RAPCD Satellite Calibration/Validation Science Questions EOS Satellite calibration and validation 1.Provide ozone and aerosol profiles for cal/val of AIRS, TES, OMI, QuikTOMS, SAGE III, MLS, PICASSO-CENA, GOME, MISR. 2.What is the climatology and variability of the 3-D aerosol and ozone (and water vapor?) fields? 3.Validation of new Remote Sensing technology

32 32 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30

33 33 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 (Without clutter panels -- 15 min setup time) Mobile Integrated Profiler Configuration

34 34 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30

35 35 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 915 measurements from the 4/6/99 squall line

36 36 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 2 kHz SODAR SNR 8-26-98

37 37 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Example of MSFC Ground-based Doppler Lidar

38 38 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Huntsville Area Mesonet

39 39 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Ozone profiling instrumentation Discussing with Tom McGee and P K Bhartia/GSFC 916 to move their tropospheric ozone and aerosol lidar (Nd:YAG pumped Dye DIAL system) to RAPCD next summer. Discussing adding Raman water vapor profiling capability to the system. Proposing to build a scanning tunable (OPO) lidar for 2 pi steradian mapping of the PBL and Free troposphere.

40 Free Tropospheric Ozone: 2. Role of Lightning-NOx Illustration of charge centers and lightning flashes in thunderclouds. (IC) (CG) CG Total NOx production in cloud layer k in column over cell i j during hour t l Integration over N ijl cloud flashes in column over cell i j during hour t l Energy discharge in cloud layer k due to flash n in column over cell i j Yield of NOx in response to  nijk Common practice All flashes assumed same Q ijl ~ N ijl  Y Potential uncertainty O(10 2 ) Assumed constant for all flashes Assumed constant for all flashes and uniform vertically Gillani, 2001 POTENTIAL NSSTC COLLABORATORS Noor Gillani, Arastoo Biazar, Yuling Wu. Bill Koshak, Dennis Boccippio, Mike Newchurch

41 41 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Free Tropospheric Ozone: 2. Lightning-NOx ….. Cont’d. CG only (multiplicity and peak current). Kennedy Space Center field-mills ( 34 ) and LDAR sites, ( 7 ). NASA Satellites ===> Total (CG + IC) Lightning Low-earth orbitting ===> asynoptic detection during overflights, of lightning optical emissions (only). OTD ( Optical Transient Detector) April 1995 - April 2000 High inclination orbit : + 70° LAT 1300 km x 1300 km field of view 8-12 km resolution Pointing accuracy ~ 20 - 40 km LIS ( Lightning Imaging Sensor ) November 1997 - Tropical inclination orbit : + 35° LAT 600 km x 600 km field of view 4 km resolution Pointing accuracy < 10 km KSC Measured variables FM : E(t) ===>  E ===> Q and charge centers ===> Lightning energetics for IC and CG separately. LDAR : Space-time locations of sources of RF emissions. Use to “calibrate” energetics for NLDN (CG) and LIS/OTD (IC+CG) Gillani, 2001

42 GHCC/USWRP Satellite Assimilation Project FSL * Indicates regions of differential heating * Distinguishes clear/cloudy regions * Have high spatial and temporal resolution AVHRR Land Use GOES Skin Temperature GHCC Activities: Applications of Research: Develop and test GOES retrieval and assimilation algorithm for NWP models Assess quality of NESDIS products Provide model and satellite products to NWS and public via internet Insure transfer of research to operational community Operational Forecasting Regional-Scale Air Quality Studies Improved Understanding Of Land/Atmosphere Interactions The GOES Land Surface Data :

43 43 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 NPS: Annual average extinction coefficients (Mm -1 ) Huntsville, AL. A Researcher’s Paradise for Science of the Atmospheric Aerosol ‘Hot Topics’ in Aerosols and Forcing Chemical composition Speciation Hygroscopicity Physical properties Size distribution Morphology Radiometric Properties Extinction Scattering Absorption Polarimetric Forcing / Remote Sensing Optical depth Albedo Polarization Distribution of scattered light Vertical structure

44 Modeled backscatter based on measured aerosol size distribution and composition in middle troposphere between Darwin, Australia and Tokyo, Japan. Backscatter varies with wavelength and location. Peaks indicate backscatter enhancement. From Global Backscatter Experiment, 1990. Aerosol Backscatter in Pacific Free Troposphere: Multi-Spectral Backscatter Modeling

45 Potential instrument – Polarimeter (II) A spare Galileo Polarimeter (loaned from NASA/GISS, Larry Travis) is going to be mounted on the platform as part of RAPCD system.

46 46 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 RAPCD Summary The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, is designed to address atmospheric chemistry and air quality issues on the National agenda: –Processes controlling tropospheric trace gases and aerosols. –Aerosol characterization and effects. –Satellite calibration and validation. The constituency is broad: NASA, NSF, NOAA, EPA, DOE, State of Alabama. Co-Investigators comprise many NSSTC PIs in addition to several government laboratories and many instruments are already committed. This world-class laboratory facility will be ready July 2002. We are receiving interest from additional PIs to host their instruments. We invite interested investigators to join us.

47 47 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30 Lessons Learned from 28 years of Satellite Measurements 1) Anticipate discoveries: Ozone Hole 2) Verify observations: SBUV trends 3) Sat/sat comparison is critical  SAGE I/SAGE II calibration is good 4) More data is better MLS/CRISTA/MAS : gravity waves, HNO3. 5) Multi-species observations are very helpful: ATLAS/ATMOS/MAS/SSBUV 6) We still needs models. 6) Need longer design lifetimes: UARS/SAGE O3 trends. 7) The troposphere is much more heterogeneous than the stratosphere; we see significant variation at smaller and smaller scales.

48 48 Mike3/papers/tropoz/aguf98 12/2/98 16:30

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