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2 Return to Menu Return to Menu Passage A Passage A Passage B

3 Passage A Think About ItThink About ItThink About ItThink About It Read About ItRead About ItRead About ItRead About It Talk About ItTalk About ItTalk About ItTalk About It Write About ItWrite About ItWrite About ItWrite About It

4 1. What do you know about die-hard football fans? 1. Die-hard football fans are those who love the football too much or take it too seriously. Their love affair with a team makes them pay less attention to their work, their study, or even their families. Their self-esteem soars with victory and plummets in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards. Reference:

5 2. Do you have any favorite sports or other recreational activities? Yes, I do. And I think almost everyone has his or her own favorite sports or recreational activities, such as reading, watching TV, playing basketball, watching basketball games and playing cards. Reference:

6 3.What is your attitude toward football fans? Although I am not a hard-core football fan, I like to watch football matches. But the football is just a game, and to me it is a kind of light-hearted display of athletic prowess. Everyone should have his or her own normal life. We can have our hobbies but we should not overdo far. Reference:

7 Read About It Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Content AwarenessContent AwarenessContent AwarenessContent Awareness Language FocusLanguage FocusLanguage FocusLanguage Focus

8 Die-hard football fans hit the heights when their team wins and reaches the depths of despair when they lose. Scientific studies show the love affair with a team may be as emotionally intense as the real thing, and that team clashes have gladiatorial power.intenseclashes Is It Healthy to Be a Football Supporter? — Why Fans Know the Score What’s going on? Why do fervent fans have hormonal surges and other psychological changes while watching games? Why does fans’ self-esteem soar with victory and plummet in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards? Why do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams? Is avidly rooting for a team good or bad for your health? You may find the answers surprising.soarWhy do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams? rooting for

9 THE FAN'S PERSONALITY Psychologists oftenPsychologists often portray die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team, but a study suggests the opposite. It reveals that football fans suffer fewer bouts of depression and alienation than people who never watch Match Of The Day. Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond.portraydie-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a teamHard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond It's possible toIt's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology to a primitive time when warriors fighting to protect their tribes were the true representatives of their race. In modern times, so the theory goes, professional sportsmen are warriors of a city or country fighting a stylized war waged on a football pitch.tracethe roots of fan psychology to a primitive time representatives professional

10 IT'S WAR OUT THERE Some confrontations on the pitch are gladiatorial. In this respect, our sports heroes are our gladiators. A football match, especially between rival teams, isn’t some light-hearted display of athletic prowess. The self is emotionally involved in the outcome because whoever you're rooting for represents YOU. So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare aroused in their forebears. It could even be that these emotions have fuelled the explosion in the popularity of sports over the past 20 years.confrontationsinvolvedSo professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfarearousedin their forebears. STATUS BY PROXY So, through football matches, it becomes possible to gain respect from your rivals, albeit vicariously. This means you can be highly regarded not for your own achievement, but through your connection to a team that wins. Or, if you like, by your connection to individual footballers for their skill, such as midfielder David Beckham, winger Ryan Giggs, and striker Thierry Henry.connection

11 The connection, however, can be fickle. Bragging sports fans tend to claim credit for their team’s success, saying “we won” to describe a victory, but distance themselves from a team’s failure, saying “they lost” describing a defeat. LOYAL TO THE END A raft of studies has found that “highly-identified” fans — both men and women — are unlikely to abandon a team when it’s doing badly. Anyone who’s read Fever Pitch by Nick Hornby knows that this is true of the ardent Arsenal fan. Not only that, they tend to blame their team’s failures on a biased referee or on bad luck, rather than on Arsenal’s mistakes or the other team’s skill. It’s not surprising that these avid fans get more psychologically aroused at games and spend more money on tickets and merchandise.abandonbiased

12 IS TESTOSTERONE A FACTOR? Testosterone levels in male fans rise markedly after a victory but drop just as sharply after a defeat. Apparently the same pattern has been documented in male animals who fight over a female. Biologists think that the human animal may have evolved this way to end conflicts quickly. If so, it provides an interesting biological explanation of football hooliganism after big matches. Science backs up this theory. Testosterone levels were measured in 21 Italian and Brazilian men in Atlanta before and after Brazil’s victory over Italy in soccer’s 1994 World Cup. The Brazilians’ testosterone rose 28 per cent on average, while the Italians’ levels dropped 27 per cent.documented conflictsbacks up

13 CAN BEING A FAN DAMAGE YOUR HEALTH? Yes, it can. Indeed it can be fatal. The tension felt by football fans during penalty shoot-outs can trigger heart attacks and strokes in male spectators. On the day Holland lost to France in Euro 96, deaths there from heart attacks and strokes rose by 50 per cent GROUP IDENTITY Being an ardent fan could be simply the desire to belong to a group or a society — a need once answered by religion and politics. This explains why some fans remain loyal through thick and thin, and despite the repeated failure of their teams. Surrounding yourself at a

14 match with people who so clearly espouse your own enthusiasms, and identifying your tribal membership with hats, scarves, Mexican waves and songs, makes you feel you belong as little else does. What’s more, you’re part of a group where no questions are asked, explanations are unnecessary and where you can always rely on support. With so many traditional institutions like religion and family beginning to break down, the football crowd is the perfect family. A HEALTHIER OUTLOOK? In most cases, a deep attachment to a team is healthy. Several studies show that an intense interest in a team can stave off depression and foster feelings of self-worth and belonging. That applies to all ardentattachmentfoster

15 sports fans. All human beings — including football fans — share the basic psychological need to belong. Without religion, without family, something has to answer that need. Today football, above all other sports, fills that crucial void.crucial (871 words)

16 intense intense adj. — extreme in degree, strength, or size Examples He was sweating due to the intense heat.He was sweating due to the intense heat. The military on both sides are involved in intense battle.The military on both sides are involved in intense battle.

17 clash clash n. —a conflict, as between opposing or irreconcilable ideas Examples Within the government, there was a clash of views.Within the government, there was a clash of views. There have been a number of clashes between police in riot gear and demonstrators.There have been a number of clashes between police in riot gear and demonstrators.

18 soar v. —ascend suddenly above the normal or usual level Examples The temperature in the south will soar to 40ºC.The temperature in the south will soar to 40ºC.

19 root for — support Example She is being rooted for by friends in her effort to surmount the tragedy;She is being rooted for by friends in her effort to surmount the tragedy;

20 portray v. — depict or describe in words Example Dickens portrays his characters to the life.Dickens portrays his characters to the life. The book portrays life long ago.

21 trace to — have origins; be traceable Example They traced the criminal to a house in the city.They traced the criminal to a house in the city. The custom traces to the time of the Warring States.The custom traces to the time of the Warring States.

22 representative representative n. — One that serves as a delegate or an agent for another Examples The representatives were all amazed by what had happened in theThe representatives were all amazed by what had happened in the

23 professional adj — of, relating to, engaged in, or suitable for a profession Examples A lawyer is a professional man.

24 confrontation n. —the act of confronting or the state of being confronted, especially face to face. — the act of confronting or the state of being confronted, especially face to face. Examples a nuclear confrontationa nuclear confrontation The commission remains so weak that it will continue to avoid confrontation with the government.The commission remains so weak that it will continue to avoid confrontation with the government.

25 involve v. —engage as a participant Example He involved the bystanders in his dispute with the police.He involved the bystanders in his dispute with the police.

26 arouse v. —stir up; excite Example The odd sight aroused our curiosity.The odd sight aroused our curiosity.

27 connection: connection: n. —an association or a relationship Example There appeared to be no connection between the two crimes.There appeared to be no connection between the two crimes. Do you believe that there's a connection between smoking and heart disease?Do you believe that there's a connection between smoking and heart disease?

28 Example The scheme's investors, fearful of bankruptcy, decide to abandon the project.The scheme's investors, fearful of bankruptcy, decide to abandon the project. He abandoned his wife and went away with all their money. abandon abandon v. —withdraw one's support or help from; desert — withdraw one's support or help from; desert

29 biased biased adj. —marked by or exhibiting bias; prejudiced Example They gave a biased account of the trial.They gave a biased account of the trial.

30 document v. —support with evidence or decisive information Examples document one's claimdocument one's claim document a thesisdocument a thesis He documented his dealing with the patient very carefully.He documented his dealing with the patient very carefully.

31 conflict v. —1). a state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash Examples Fortunately analysis is not the only way to resolve inner conflicts.Fortunately analysis is not the only way to resolve inner conflicts. —2). be in or come into opposition; differ Examples All these actions by the NATO conflicted with the universally accepted international laws.All these actions by the NATO conflicted with the universally accepted international laws.

32 back up —support, help, aid Example The new evidence backed up my argument.The new evidence backed up my argument. Will you back me up against the others?

33 attachment n. —a bond, as of affection or loyalty — a bond, as of affection or loyalty Example Some models come with an attachment for dusting.Some models come with an attachment for dusting. When you send you can also send a file as an attachment and that file can be a graphic.When you send you can also send a file as an attachment and that file can be a graphic.

34 foster v. —promote the growth and development of; cultivate Example Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities.Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities.

35 crucial adj. —extremely significant or important Examples He had administrators under him but he made the crucial decisions himself.He had administrators under him but he made the crucial decisions himself. Improved consumer confidence is crucial to an economic revival.Improved consumer confidence is crucial to an economic revival.

36 Why do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams. Why are people so attracted by the teams which they form such deep ties to? Paraphrase

37 Psychologists often portray die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team. Psychologists often describe die-hard fans as ones who are disturbingly different from others and who are searching self-esteem by belonging to a team. Paraphrase Words to learn: portray

38 Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond. Hard-core fans also show an ardent and unbreakable link. Paraphrase

39 It's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology to a primitive time. It's possible to have origins of fan psychology in the earliest stage. Words to learn: trace Paraphrase

40 So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare aroused in their forebears. As tribal warfare stirs up the intense emotions in their forebears, professional footballers seem to recreate the same intense emotions in some fans. Words to learn: aroused Paraphrase

41 Content Awareness Read and Choose (Ex. 2)Read and Choose (Ex. 2)Read and Choose Read and Choose Read and Answer (Ex. 3)Read and Answer (Ex. 3)Read and Answer Read and Answer Read and Complete (Ex.4)Read and Complete (Ex.4)Read and CompleteRead and Complete

42 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 1.Psychologists often describe die-hard fans as ______. A) those who suffer fewer bouts of depression than others A) those who suffer fewer bouts of depression than others B) those who are considered to be disturbingly different from others B) those who are considered to be disturbingly different from others C) those who demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond C) those who demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond D) those who never search for self-esteem by identifying with a team D) those who never search for self-esteem by identifying with a team 1.Psychologists often describe die-hard fans as ______. A) those who suffer fewer bouts of depression than others A) those who suffer fewer bouts of depression than others B) those who are considered to be disturbingly different from others B) those who are considered to be disturbingly different from others C) those who demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond C) those who demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond D) those who never search for self-esteem by identifying with a team D) those who never search for self-esteem by identifying with a team

43 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 2. To the die-hard fans, a football match ______. A) is a fight to protect their city or country A) is a fight to protect their city or country B) is a light-hearted display of athletic prowess B) is a light-hearted display of athletic prowess C) is the best way to gain respect from their rivals C) is the best way to gain respect from their rivals D) is a good chance for them to show their enthusiasm for football D) is a good chance for them to show their enthusiasm for football 2. To the die-hard fans, a football match ______. A) is a fight to protect their city or country A) is a fight to protect their city or country B) is a light-hearted display of athletic prowess B) is a light-hearted display of athletic prowess C) is the best way to gain respect from their rivals C) is the best way to gain respect from their rivals D) is a good chance for them to show their enthusiasm for football D) is a good chance for them to show their enthusiasm for football

44 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 3. Which of the following statements is WRONG about the die-hard fans? A) They tend to blame their team’s failures in a biased referee. A) They tend to blame their team’s failures in a biased referee. B) They get more psychologically aroused at games. B) They get more psychologically aroused at games. C) They are likely to abandon a team when it’s doing badly. C) They are likely to abandon a team when it’s doing badly. D) They spend more money on tickets and merchandise. D) They spend more money on tickets and merchandise. 3. Which of the following statements is WRONG about the die-hard fans? A) They tend to blame their team’s failures in a biased referee. A) They tend to blame their team’s failures in a biased referee. B) They get more psychologically aroused at games. B) They get more psychologically aroused at games. C) They are likely to abandon a team when it’s doing badly. C) They are likely to abandon a team when it’s doing badly. D) They spend more money on tickets and merchandise. D) They spend more money on tickets and merchandise.

45 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 4. Why do some fans remain loyal through thick and thin despite the repeated failure of their teams? A) Because they are much more optimistic about their favorite teams. A) Because they are much more optimistic about their favorite teams. B) Because they tend to blame their team’s failures on bad luck. B) Because they tend to blame their team’s failures on bad luck. C) Because they have higher self-esteem than those uninterested in sports. C) Because they have higher self-esteem than those uninterested in sports. D) Because they desire to belong to a group or a society. D) Because they desire to belong to a group or a society. 4. Why do some fans remain loyal through thick and thin despite the repeated failure of their teams? A) Because they are much more optimistic about their favorite teams. A) Because they are much more optimistic about their favorite teams. B) Because they tend to blame their team’s failures on bad luck. B) Because they tend to blame their team’s failures on bad luck. C) Because they have higher self-esteem than those uninterested in sports. C) Because they have higher self-esteem than those uninterested in sports. D) Because they desire to belong to a group or a society. D) Because they desire to belong to a group or a society.

46 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 5. The author thinks that ______. A) being a die-hard football fan can be good for your health A) being a die-hard football fan can be good for your health B) football makes many families break down B) football makes many families break down C) all human beings share the basic psychological need to belong C) all human beings share the basic psychological need to belong D) die-hard fans suffer from a kind of psychological disease D) die-hard fans suffer from a kind of psychological disease 5. The author thinks that ______. A) being a die-hard football fan can be good for your health A) being a die-hard football fan can be good for your health B) football makes many families break down B) football makes many families break down C) all human beings share the basic psychological need to belong C) all human beings share the basic psychological need to belong D) die-hard fans suffer from a kind of psychological disease D) die-hard fans suffer from a kind of psychological disease

47 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 6. The word “void” in the last sentence means _______. A) family bond A) family bond B) psychological need to belong B) psychological need to belong C) religious group C) religious group D) self-satisfaction D) self-satisfaction 6. The word “void” in the last sentence means _______. A) family bond A) family bond B) psychological need to belong B) psychological need to belong C) religious group C) religious group D) self-satisfaction D) self-satisfaction

48 Ex. 2Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 7. We may conclude from the passage that the author’s attitude towards the football fans is ______. A) positive A) positive B) negative B) negative C) indifference C) indifference D) neutral D) neutral 7. We may conclude from the passage that the author’s attitude towards the football fans is ______. A) positive A) positive B) negative B) negative C) indifferent C) indifferent D) neutral D) neutral

49 Ex. 3Answer the following questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words based on the information from the passage. 1.What kind of people do psychologists portray die-hard fans as? Reference: Lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team.

50 Ex. 3 Answer the following questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words based on the information from the passage. 2.Compared to people who never watch a football match, what does the study mentioned in Para. 3 suggest about the football fans? Reference: They suffer fewer bouts of depression and alienation

51 Ex. 3 Answer the following questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words based on the information from the passage. 3.Why does the author say that the fans’ connection to a team is fickle? (Because they say) “We won” (when) describing (the team’s) victory, and “they lost” (when) describing (its) defeat. Reference:

52 Ex. 3Answer the following questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words based on the information from the passage. 4.“Highly-identified” fans tend to blame their team’s failure on a biased referee or on bad luck, rather than _____________. on their team’s mistakes or the other team’s skill. Reference:

53 Ex. 3Answer the following questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words based on the information from the passage. Yes in most cases. Reference: 5.Is a deep attachment to a team healthy according to the passage?

54 Ex. 4Complete the summary of the text. The first letter of the missing word has been given to you, Die-hard football fans are often (1) p________ as lonely misfits, but a study has (2) r_______ that football fans suffer fewer bouts of (3) d_________ and alienation than people who never watch the (4) g______. The research shows that through football matches, fans can win (5) a__________ not for their own achievements, but through their (6) c_________ to a team that wins. portrayed revealed depression game admiration connection

55 Ex. 4Complete the summary of the text. The first letter of the missing word has been given to you, More surprising is that they have higher self-esteem than people (7) u___________ in sports. Some ardent fans remain (8) l_______ to their teams through thick and thin, and this can be explained by the desire to belong to a group or a society. All human beings – (9) i________ football fans -- share the basic (10) p____________ need of belonging. uninterested loyal including psychological

56 Language Focus Vocabulary (Ex. 5)Vocabulary (Ex. 5)Vocabulary Phrases (Ex. 6)Phrases (Ex. 6)Phrases Synonyms and antonyms (Ex. 7)Synonyms and antonyms (Ex. 7)Synonyms and antonyms Synonyms and antonyms Read and Translate (Ex. 8)Read and Translate (Ex. 8)Read and TranslateRead and Translate Read and Simulate (Ex. 9)Read and Simulate (Ex. 9)Read and SimulateRead and Simulate

57 1. There were joyous celebrations all over the country, with parades and the ringing of church bells to honor the great _______.  achievement demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar 2. Your _________ is your good opinion of yourself or your respect for yourself.  self-esteem Ex. 5Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.

58 3.It is a ______ instinct to flee a place of danger.  primitive 4.Later, some of his findings ______ much popular interest in his book..  aroused Ex. 5Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar

59 5.She ______ herself with the campaign against drug abuse.  identified 6.The issue has caused great tension between the two countries and could lead to a military___________.  confrontation Ex. 5Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar

60 7.Your statement is in _______ with the rest of the evidence.  conflict 8.Most of the students have already felt the pressure of ______ inflation. 8. Most of the students have already felt the pressure of ______ inflation.  soaring Ex. 5Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar

61 9.Dozens of homes have had to be _______ as the sea has crept farther and farther inland. 9. Dozens of homes have had to be _______ as the sea has crept farther and farther inland.  abandoned 10.After he won the amateur championship, he turned himself to a ____________ boxer.  professional Ex. 5Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar demonstrate identify arouseachievementabandon conflictconfrontationself-esteeminvolvesoar

62 1. Go ahead with it, and we will stand by you _______________.  through thick and thin 2. Last Sunday evening we went to the school playground to ____________ the school football team.  root for Ex. 6Complete the following sentences with phases or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.

63 3. The new evidence _____________ my argument that they took advantage of the chance.  backed up 4. The garden has ______________ our family for a long time.  belonged to Ex. 6Complete the following sentences with phases or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. 5. For 12 years, we’ve sought to ______ this ultimate threat of disaster.  stave off

64 Ex. 7 The following words occur in this passage. Find 6 pairs of near synonyms and 7 pairs of near antonyms. conflictpsychologicalclash mentaldepressionlight-Hearted feeling sadback up Harmful self-worthintense Support self-esteemhelpful Synonyms _________ is similar in meaning to _______________. Conflict clash psychological.Mental self-worth Feeling sad Self-esteem Back up depression support

65 Antonyms __________is nearly opposite in meaning to ____________. light-hearted helpful intense harmful Ex. 7 The following words occur in this passage. Find 6 pairs of near synonyms and 7 pairs of near antonyms. conflictpsychologicalclash mentaldepressionlight-Hearted feeling sadback up Harmful self-worthintense Support self-esteemhelpful

66 Ex. 8Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 她将她的少年时代描绘成一个幻想和发现的时期。 (portray … as) wonder and discovery She portrayed her childhood as a time of wonder and discovery.

67 Ex. 8Translate the following sentences into English. 2. 试验表明,不抽烟的人比抽烟的人在工作中犯的错误要少。 (fewer … than) experiments show committed Experiments showed that non-smokers committed fewer errors than smokers.

68 Ex. 8Translate the following sentences into English. 3. 球迷经常受到人们的重视,不是因为他们自身的成功,而是 因为他们支持的球队获得胜利。( not … but ) be highly regarded Football fans are often highly regarded not for their own achievement, but through their connection to a team that wins.

69 Ex. 8Translate the following sentences into English. 4. 尽管演员的演技高超,这部长达 3 个小时的电影还是未能吸 引住我们的注意力。 (despite) wonderful acting hold our attention Despite the the actors’ wonderful acting, the three-hour movie could not hold our attention.

70 Ex. 8Translate the following sentences into English. 5. 王教授是我惟一指望能救我儿子的大夫.( rely on ) Professor Wang is the only doctor I can rely on to save my son.

71 Ex. 9Read the following sentences carefully, and then make your own sentences using the patterns in red. 1. Die-hard football fans hit the heights when their team wins and reach the depths of despair when they lose. _____________hit the heights when______________ the depths of despair when ___________________. Arsenal fans hit the heights when Arsenal wins and the depths of despair when it loses. Reference:

72 Ex. 9Read the following sentences carefully, and then make your own sentences using the patterns in red. 2. It reveals that football fans suffer fewer bouts of depression and alienation than people who never watch Match Of The Day. ____________________________ fewer ______________ than ____________________. In the test of short-term memory, non-smokers committed fewer errors than active smokers. Reference:

73 Ex. 9Read the following sentences carefully, and then make your own sentences using the patterns in red. 3. This means you can be highly regarded not for your own achievement, but through your connection to a team that wins. _____________________________not___________________ but __________________. Your achievement in this research is highly regarded not for your own personal success, but also because it aids the company’s advancement in developing new technology. Reference:

74 Ex. 9Read the following sentences carefully, and then make your own sentences using the patterns in red. 4. Not only that, they tend to blame their team’s failures on a biased referee or on bad luck, rather than on Arsenal’s mistakes or the other team’s skill. _____________________blame ________on _____________ rather on _____________. They blamed the failure in the exam on difficulty of the paper, rather on their own mistakes. Reference:

75 Ex. 9Read the following sentences carefully, and then make your own sentences using the patterns in red. 5. That applies to all ardent sports fans. ____________ applies to ____________________. The principle of diligence and frugality applies to all undertakings. Reference:

76 Talk About It Present-day students are believed to face more problems of psychological pressure just because of the competition in their studies. People often have different attitudes towards the pressure in students’ study. Some think it is necessary to have a certain amount of pressure to motivate students. Others think it offers no help to students’ learning. Now work in pairs to discuss or debate the topic: “IS THERE TOO MUCH PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESSURE ON STUDENTS?”. Suppose your friend He Xin works too hard due to the pressure to be at the top of his class; try to ease his stress.

77 Words and phrases likely to be used motivate undue pressure performance-oriented pressure under stress stressed-outdepression

78 Sentence patterns likely to be used Do you think that our teachers put too much pressure on us to succeed? I feel like it is never enough for… Would you study as hard as you do if …? Success should not be measured by wins or losses or passing versus failing grades. Our parents and professors put pressure on us because … Reference

79 IS THERE TOO MUCH PSYCHOLOGIAL PRESSURE ON STUDENTS? He Xin: Li Shasha, do you think that our teachers put too much pressure on us to succeed? Li Shasha: I think they are using whatever means they can to motivate us to perform well. I don’t think it is pressure; I think they want us to work hard, and we are often motivated by success. He Xin: I am asking this question because I feel too stressed. Even though I try my best, I feel like it is never good enough for my professors or my parents. Li Shasha: He Xin, you shouldn’t judge your self-worth by how others perceive you. If you are giving your best effort in your studies, then you should be proud of yourself. For most of us, we need some pressure. Would you study as hard as you do if there was no pressure?

80 IS THERE TOO MUCH PSYCHOLOGIAL PRESSURE ON STUDENTS? He Xin: I probably wouldn’t study as hard if I knew that no one cared; however, I believe there is a healthy balance between showing care and concern and placing undue pressure on students. I’m just afraid that such performance- oriented pressure might drive someone to depression or suicide. Li Shasha: He Xin, we cannot take pressure too seriously. Sure, we are all under stress as students, and none of us wants to fail; however, we must remember that if we do fail, we can try again. Success should not be measured by wins or losses or passing versus failing grades. We shouldbe proud of ourselves if we simply give our best effort because that is the best thing we can do. Our parents and professors should be careful about how much pressure they put on us because they want to see us perform at your best. He Xin: I guess I’m just tired of feeling stressed-out all the time.

81 IS THERE TOO MUCH PSYCHOLOGIAL PRESSURE ON STUDENTS? Li Shasha: Cheer up, He Xin. You have one of the best grades in the class, and everyone likes you. I think you are putting too much pressure on yourself. Let’s go get some ice cream. He Xin: I can’t go, Li Shasha. I have to study for my test next week. Li Shasha: Next week? You can study later in the week! Right now, let’s go and have some fun. Besides, even if you don’t study, you’ll make a higher grade than me. He Xin: OK, I’ll go, but don’t put any pressure on me to beat you on that test!

82 11. Write a paragraph (around 120 words) telling about SPORTS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH. You may begin your writing with the sentence: “Sports do much good to our health. Especially they can be of great value to our psychological health.” You can also write your own beginning sentence.

83 SPORTS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH Sports do much good to our health. Especially they can be of great value to our psychological health. People who are involved in athletics feel more self-sufficient and confident in their abilities. They feel they are in control of their own actions. Sports offer people an opportunity to experience themselves as more competent, more self-reliant and more able to achieve their goals. Sports demand not only physical skill and strength but also courage, enthusiasm, discipline and usually team work. For people, what is learned in the playground often has a deep effect on their character. If each of them learns to work for his team and not for himself on the football field, he will find it natural to work for the good of his country instead of only for his own benefit.

84 Passage B Think About ItThink About ItThink About ItThink About It Read About ItRead About ItRead About ItRead About It

85 Before reading Passage B, discuss the pictures below with your friends If I have a job… If I have nothing to do…

86 Before reading Passage B, discuss the pictures below with your friends If I know how to play… If I have a degree...

87 1. What kind of person do you think is a healthy person? Think about it A healthy person, in general, is a person with high morale and low depression.

88 Think about it 2.Where does pressure usually come from? Give examples. The pressure on a person is usually caused by tasks that are slightly beyond his/her reach. For example, some people want to advance in their professions, and climbing the career ladder can cause pressure.

89 Think about it 3. Do you think that a working man is a happier, healthier man? Why or why not? Yes, I do. Work is good for men, and a successful and accomplished man is a healthy and happy man.

90 Read About It Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Content AwarenessContent AwarenessContent AwarenessContent Awareness Language FocusLanguage FocusLanguage FocusLanguage Focus Reading Skill PracticeReading Skill PracticeReading Skill PracticeReading Skill Practice Translating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill Practice

91 OK, you’re only 30-years-old — or maybe even 40 or 50 — and are already fantasizing about retiring. You’ve got the (fill in the blank: stock options, trust fund, rich wife) in place and now the only question is when. What’s the best time to devote yourself full-time to golf?optionsin placedevote A working man is a healthy man A dreadful thought, perhaps — particularly if working for a living has never agreed with you. But epidemiological analyses of every variety have long concluded that men who retire early don’t live as long as men who keep working late into geezerhood.concluded

92 Given the opportunity to fill our days with nothing but recreational activity, we get in trouble — get beaned by a shanked golf ball, fall off a fishing boat after a beer too many, that kind of thing.nothing butget in trouble Anything that removes us too much from the nurturing world of women is simply bad for our health.Anything that removes us too much from the nurturing world of women is simply bad for our health. That’s not to say that we don’t suffer some ill effects from work. Men are the victims of more than 90 percent of all job-related accidents. Our highly competitive instincts also propel us to advance in our professions and climbing the ladder can be stressful (although interestingly, most CEO’s are in excellent health; they’re highly resilient, born leaders).competitive Any job in which the tasks are slightly beyond our reach is going to cause stress — along with the high blood pressure, depressed immunity and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. But, then, raising children is stressful. Unemployment is really stressful. Vacations can be stressful. Driving in Milan is even a nightmare.along with

93 The point is that, in terms of the picture, not working, whether by choice or not, is worse for us than working. This has always been true, but now there are some modern wrinkles on this truism that reflect changing gender roles.in terms of but now there are some modern wrinkles on this truism thatreflect changing gender roles. REWARDS OF SUCCESS Work is good for men — especially if the proper conditions are in place. For instance — and this is not likely to sit well with social egalitarians — men who are married to “homemaker” wives are more likely to have upwardly mobile careers. That’s the conclusion of the Cornell University Retirement and Well-Being Study, which also found the converse to be true: Men married to women who work full-time are more likely to have downwardly mobile careers. From other data, we know that a successful and accomplished man is a healthy and happy man.and this is not likely tosit well withsocial egalitarians mobile

94 A recent Scottish study also points to the effects changing gender roles are having on men’s working life. The increased number of women in both part-time and full-time work, the researchers say, may indirectly be responsible for rising rates of suicide and depression in men, at least in the British Isles. For men, the resultant loss of status as sole financial provider for the family and the perceived loss of social status could all be risk factors for depression. Family life also affects the benefits a man obtains from work. After having a baby, American men work longer hours, particularly if the child is a boy.

95 “We can only guess that having a son increases the value of marriage and family for men,” says Shelly Lundberg, a psychologist at the University of Washington, an economics professor who did the research. Using data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics, he found that the birth of a first son generated an average increase in a man’s work time of 84 hours every year after the boy’s birth — the equivalent of more than two additional weeks on the job. Men added only 31 hours after having a daughter. They also discovered a “fatherhood premium” that raised men’s hourly wages by about 5 percent every time they fathered a child.generated equivalent RETIRE? Research repeatedly has shown that a working family man with more disposable income is a happier, healthier man.

96 Still not convinced? The findings of people who study retirement suggest some good reasons not to retire. For one thing, newly retired men experience more marital conflict than non-retired men. Your wife simply finds it stressful to wonder whether you’ve been beaned by a golf ball or bobbing in the ocean next to your empty beer can. The good news is that you can regain whatever you may have lost by retiring — and then going back to work. Psychologists Jungmeen E. Kim and Phyllis Moen of Cornell found that men who retire often gain a new lease on life when they decide to go back to work.men who retire often gaina new lease on lifewhen they decide to go back to work.

97 The good news is that you can regain whatever you may have lost by retiring — and then going back to work. Psychologists Jungmeen E. Kim and Phyllis Moen of Cornell found that men who retire often gain a new lease on life when they decide to go back to work. “Post-retirement employment appears to be beneficial for their psychological well-being,” says Kim. Those who are retired and re- employed report the highest morale and lowest depression. And men who are retired and not re-employed experience the lowest morale and most depression.

98 Their study of 534 married men and women between 50 and 74 found the work-status links to morale and depression were regardless of age, income and health. regardless of So suck it up, buddy, and plan to work until you drop. It’s one prescription for longevity that is known to work.So suck it up, buddy, and plan to work until you drop. ( 833 words )

99 option option n. — choice, the power or freedom to choose Examples There are three options open for us in that matter.There are three options open for us in that matter. The government has two options, to reduce spending or to increase taxes..The government has two options, to reduce spending or to increase taxes..

100 in place — fitting one’s shoes; being able to be used Example With everything in place, she started the slide show.With everything in place, she started the slide show. The proposal is not quite in place.

101 devote oneself to — apply oneself to, take up with Example Nurses devote themselves to the care of the sick.Nurses devote themselves to the care of the sick. After he retires, he will devote himself to gardening.After he retires, he will devote himself to gardening.

102 conclude v. — arrive at by the process of reasoning; infer on the basis of convincing evidence — 1) arrive at by the process of reasoning; infer on the basis of convincing evidence Example The jury concluded that the defendant was innocent.The jury concluded that the defendant was innocent. We concluded not to wait any more. — 2) finish, end Example We concluded the meeting at 6 pm that night.We concluded the meeting at 6 pm that night.

103 nothing but — simply Example There was nothing but water.There was nothing but water. He is nothing but a scoundrel.He is nothing but a scoundrel.

104 get in trouble — have a problem; have difficulty Example We get in trouble; this is no time for contention.We get in trouble; this is no time for contention.

105 competitive competitive adj. — liking competition or inclined to compete Examples He is a highly competitive sales representative.He is a highly competitive sales representative. There are a lot of competitive games on weekends.There are a lot of competitive games on weekends.

106 along with — together with Examples Jack packed an atlas along with other books.Jack packed an atlas along with other books. Along with the letters there are answers written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems.Along with the letters there are answers written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems.

107 in terms of — according to Examples Facilities are planned and programmed in terms of their interrelationships, instead of evolving haphazardly.Facilities are planned and programmed in terms of their interrelationships, instead of evolving haphazardly.

108 reflect v. — form an image of; mirror Examples Baseball reflects America's history.Baseball reflects America's history.

109 sit well with — suit Examples This candidate does not sit well with our qualifications.This candidate does not sit well with our qualifications.

110 mobile adj. — capable of moving or of being moved readily from place to place Example The mobile medical team will soon be here.The mobile medical team will soon be here.

111 generate v. — bring into being; give rise to Example When coal burns, it generates heat.When coal burns, it generates heat.

112 equivalent n. —something that is essentially equal to another Examples Some American words have no British equivalent.Some American words have no British equivalent.

113 new lease on life —an opportunity to improve one's circumstances or outlook Example The election has given the government a new lease on life.The election has given the government a new lease on life. Plastic surgery has given many persons a new lease on life.

114 regardless of —in spite of — in spite of Example He says what he thinks, regardless of other people's feelings.

115 Anything that removes us too much from the nurturing world of women is simply bad for our health. It is not good to our health for us to go far away from the caring and loving world of women. Paraphrase

116 … but now there are some modern wrinkles on this truism that reflect changing gender roles. …but now, because of the effects changing gender roles, there are some challenges on this truism. Paraphrase Words to learn: reflect

117 …and this is not likely to sit well with social egalitarians.. …and this may not suit social egalitarians. Paraphrase Words to learn: sit well with

118 … men who retire often gain a new lease on life when they decide to go back to work. when retired men decide to go back to work, they often get new excitement and interest in life. Paraphrase Words to learn: a new lease on life

119 So suck it up, buddy, and plan to work until you drop… So go on working, friend, and plan to work until you cannot Paraphrase

120 Content Awareness Read and Think (Ex. 12)Read and Think (Ex. 12)Read and Think Read and Think Read and Complete (Ex. 13)Read and Complete (Ex. 13)Read and Complete Read and Complete

121 1. In the sentence (Para. 1) “…now the only question is when”, here “when” means ______. A) when to devote yourself full-time to golf B) when to marry a rich wife C) when to retire D) when to have a vacation 1. In the sentence (Para. 1) “…now the only question is when”, here “when” means ______. A) when to devote yourself full-time to golf B) when to marry a rich wife C) when to retire D) when to have a vacation Ex. 12 Choose the best answer to each question with the information from the passage.

122 2. Men who keep working late into geezerhood ______. A) usually work for a living B) usually don’t like recreational activities C) usually get into trouble D) can live longer than men who retire early 2. Men who keep working late into geezerhood ______. A) usually work for a living B) usually don’t like recreational activities C) usually get into trouble D) can live longer than men who retire early

123 Ex. 12 Choose the best answer to each question with the information from the passage. 3. Work is good for men because ______. A) all working men are healthy and happy B) men who are married to “homemaker” wives are more likely to have upwardly mobile careers C) more women coming to work may lead to the rising rates of suicide and depression in men D) raising children and housekeeping are stressful for men 3. Work is good for men because ______. A) all working men are healthy and happy B) men who are married to “homemaker” wives are more likely to have upwardly mobile careers C) more women coming to work may lead to the rising rates of suicide and depression in men D) raising children and housekeeping are stressful for men

124 Ex. 12 Choose the best answer to each question with the information from the passage. 4. Which of the following statements isn’t the good reason not to retire? A) Family life affects the benefits a man obtains from work. B) You can regain whatever you may have lost by retiring. C) You can devote yourself to golf. D) Men should work to support the family. 4. Which of the following statements isn’t the good reason not to retire? A) Family life affects the benefits a man obtains from work. B) You can regain whatever you may have lost by retiring. C) You can devote yourself to golf. D) Men should work to support the family.

125 Ex. 12 Choose the best answer to each question with the information from the passage. 5. Which statement is not true according to the passage? A) We don’t suffer any ill effects from work. B) A successful and accomplished man is a healthy and happy man. C) Newly retired men experience more marital conflict than non-retired men. D) Men who retired early experience the lowest morale and most depression. 5. Which statement is not true according to the passage? A) We don’t suffer any ill effects from work. B) A successful and accomplished man is a healthy and happy man. C) Newly retired men experience more marital conflict than non-retired men. D) Men who retired early experience the lowest morale and most depression.

126 1. What thought is dreadful according to the author? You are only 30-years-old — or maybe even 40 or 50 — and are already fantasizing about retiring. Reference: Answer the following questions with information from the passage. Ex. 13 Answer the following questions with information from the passage.

127 2. What will happen if we fill our days with nothing but recreational activities? We get in trouble — we might get beaned by a shanked golf ball, fall off a fishing boat after a beer too many, that kind of thing. Reference: Answer the following questions with information from the passage. Ex. 13 Answer the following questions with information from the passage.

128 3. In what way we suffer some ill effects form work? Men are the victims of more than 90 percent of all job-related accidents. Our highly competitive instincts also propel us to advance in our professions and climbing the ladder can be stressful. Reference: Answer the following questions with information from the passage. Ex. 13 Answer the following questions with information from the passage.

129 4. What other things also cause stress besides work? Raising children is stressful. Unemployment is really stressful. Vacations can be stressful. Driving in Milan is a nightmare. Reference: Answer the following questions with information from the passage. Ex. 13 Answer the following questions with information from the passage.

130 5. What kind of men are more likely to have downwardly mobile careers? Men married to women who work full-time are more likely to have downwardly mobile careers. Reference: Answer the following questions with information from the passage. Ex. 13 Answer the following questions with information from the passage.

131 6. Can you give us an example about “A working man is a healthy man”? Open. Reference: Answer the following questions with information from the passage. Ex. 13 Answer the following questions with information from the passage.

132 Language Focus Vocabulary (Ex. 14)Vocabulary (Ex. 14)Vocabulary Phrases (Ex. 15)Phrases (Ex. 15)Phrases Collocation (Ex. 16)Collocation (Ex. 16)Collocation Translation (Ex. 17)Translation (Ex. 17)Translation

133 1. Black is a cunning man, but he has finally become a ______ of his own behavior.  victim recreation victim propel depress financial devote nothing conclude regardless beneficial 2. They feared that rising inflation would further ______ the economy.  depress Ex. 14Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary.

134 3. We should ________ ourselves assiduously and faithfully to the duties of our profession.  devote 4. The jury ________, from the evidence, that she was guilty.  concluded Ex. 14Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. recreation victim propel depress financial devote nothing conclude regardless beneficial

135 5. In the Mediterranean, there is a temperate climate ______ to health.  beneficial 6. You can't accept ______ drug use and expect to control the drug problem.  recreational Ex. 14Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. recreation victim propel depress financial devote nothing conclude regardless beneficial

136 7. John is a person ______ by ambition.  propelled 8. Many computer software corporations are experiencing ______ reverses.  financial Ex. 14Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. recreation victim propel depress financial devote nothing conclude regardless beneficial

137 9. Don’t worry about my illness; what I need is _______ but a day’s rest.  nothing 10. We will persevere _________ of past failures.  regardless Ex. 14Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Make changes where necessary. recreation victim propel depress financial devote nothing conclude regardless beneficial

138 1. Inventors are now working on new devices that would be fully placed, _______ a tiny power pack, in the patient’s chest.  along with 2. I quite ______ what you said, though I don’t believe that you can put it into practice.  agree with Ex. 15Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Make changes where necessary.

139 3. Which sport has the most expenses _______ training equipment, players’ personal equipment and uniforms?  in terms of 4. The doctor was asked to _________ the hospital because of an emergency case.  go back to Ex. 15Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Make changes where necessary.

140 5. Beverage companies should ______ collecting and recycling discarded plastic bottles and cans.  be responsible for Ex. 15Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Make changes where necessary.

141 Ex. 16The following verbs or nouns are taken from the passage. Choose the noun or noun phrase that you think collocates with each verb and write them in the blank. If you think more than one noun or noun phrase is possible, write both down.

142 1.to raise1. _____________________________wages. 2.to increase2. _____________________________roles. 3.to experience3. _____________________________an opportunity. 4.to give4. _____________________________children. 5.to climb5. _____________________________ stress. 6.to cause6. _____________________________value. 7.to change7. _____________________________ conflict. 8. ___________________ _________ a ladder. Verbs Nouns Verbs Nouns to increase wages Ex. 16Collocation to change roles to change roles to give an opportunity to raise children to raise children to cause stress to change/to increase value to change/to increase value to experience conflict to experience conflict to climb a ladder to climb a ladder

143 Ex. 17Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 我们认为你的建议不恰当,应该放弃。 (in place) give it up We don’t think your proposal quite in place, so you should give it up.

144 Ex. 17Translate the following sentences into English. 2. 他到家时,发现家里只有一些老人和病人。 (nothing but) the aged and the sick When he arrived, he found nothing but the aged and the sick at home.

145 Ex. 17Translate the following sentences into English. 3. 就这台发动机的状况而言,它能发动也是奇迹了。 (given) start Given the condition of the engine, it is a wonder that it even starts.

146 Ex. 17Translate the following sentences into English. 4. 从就业来说,酒店业是这个国家的第二大产业。 (in terms of) employment industry In terms of employment, the hotel industry is the second largest industry in this country.

147 Ex. 17Translate the following sentences into English. 5. 这个国家里, 不管肤色如何,每一个人都有权住在他想住的 地方。 (regardless of) the color of his skin Everyone in this country has the right to live where he wants to, regardless of the color of his skin.

148 Reading Skills Practice Making Conclusions Reasonable conclusions are built upon facts or evidence, and not upon our own opinions, likes, or dislikes. Careful and thoughtful readers always think about what they are reading, trying to interpret --- explain and understand --- the ideas presented in a reading passage. In doing so they are able to draw conclusions based on what the author tells them. For instance: The attitude of the teacher toward his/her pupils does much to form the opinion that they have of themselves. If he/she expresses faith in his/her pupils, recognizes their strong points, and adjusts the work to their capacities, he/she is apt to condition them to have desirable attitudes about themselves and their work. On the other hand, if he/she displays contempt for their abilities, minimizes their efforts, and is inflexible in his/her requirements, he/she will help develop associations that may give rise to unhappy emotional states. When these associations come to mind, the emotions surrounding them will be restored to the former state. The emotions may be either stimulating or depressing.

149 Making Conclusions Example: 1.Find the sentence that expresses the main idea of this passage. 2. It can be concluded from the passage that a student’s attitude toward a subject is most strongly influenced by _____. A) the student’s likes and dislikes of the subject itself B) the teacher’s likes and dislikes about the subject C) the teacher’s reactions to the student D) the student’s capacity for emotional control

150 Making Conclusions 3. The passage describes two types of teacher. The author seems to ______. A) condemn the inflexible teacher B) approve of the teacher who has faith in her students C) have not made up his mind on his preference for either D) be scientifically objective about them

151 Making Conclusions The opening sentence tells the reader that the teacher’s attitude toward her pupils helps form the pupils’ attitudes and emotions. And the following sentences describe two types of teacher’s attitude. So the opening sentence expresses the main idea of this passage. Since the student’s attitude is influenced by the teacher’s attitude, his attitude toward a subject is influenced by the teacher’s reactions to him. So in question 2, C) is the right answer. Though the passage describes two types of teacher, the author depicts them objectively, so in question 3, D) is the correct answer. Exercises

152 Ex. 18 Read the following paragraph and choose the best answer to each question. The questions require that you reach a conclusion based on your reading of the passage.

153 The real problem with environment is people — the way people think about their environment. We’re all reluctant to accept the fact that our natural resources are fixed. We want to go on using virgin materials. We aren’t educated to reusing resources, or even placing a value on “waste” products. We’re a crisis society. Currently, we are fearful of losing the use of our water and air to pollution. In one context, it’s probably a good thing that we are so concerned because now we’ll begin to adjust our thinking on the values of natural resources and reuse. We once thought of water and air as free. They’re not, not any more than the land is free. People haven’t wanted to be educated on the part they must play in solving our environmental problems.

154 1. This passage is mainly about _____. A) the pollution the world is facing B) people’s attitudes towards their environment C) the solution to environmental problems D) a crisis society 2. From the statement “We’re a crisis society”, we may conclude that “_____”. A) We are pessimistic B) We are a warlike nation C) Pollution is here to stay D) We must be provoked to action 1. This passage is mainly about _____. A) the pollution the world is facing B) people’s attitudes towards their environment C) the solution to environmental problems D) a crisis society 2. From the statement “We’re a crisis society”, we may conclude that “_____”. A) We are pessimistic B) We are a warlike nation C) Pollution is here to stay D) We must be provoked to action

155 3. The environmental crisis can be turned around and solved if people ______. A) stop using virgin material B) adjust to shortages and high prices C) change their basic attitudes D) clean up their rivers and lakes 3. The environmental crisis can be turned around and solved if people ______. A) stop using virgin material B) adjust to shortages and high prices C) change their basic attitudes D) clean up their rivers and lakes

156 名词性从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses) 。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组,因此名 词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从 句和同位语从句。 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses) 。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组,因此名 词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从 句和同位语从句。 Exercises 名词性从句否定转移的翻译

157 That 只起连接主句和从句的作用,本身没有词义, 例如: That he is still alive is sheer luck. 他还活着全靠运气。 John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译

158 The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 事实是近来谁也没有见过他。 The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不 安。 近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不 安。 That- 从句作主语通常用 it 作先行词,而将 that- 从句置于句末。 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译

159 Δ 用 it 作先行词结构的翻译: (1)It is +名词+从句 It is a fact that … 事实是 … ; It is an honor that … 非常荣幸; It is common knowledge that … 是常识 (2)It is +形容词+从句 It is natural that… 很自然 … ; It is strange that… 奇怪的是 … 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译

160 (3) it is +不及物动词+从句 It seems that… 似乎 … ; It happened that… 碰巧 … (4) it +过去分词+从句 It is reported that… 据报道 … ; It has been proved that… 已证实 … 名词性 that- 从句的翻译 名词性 that- 从句的翻译

161 Wh- 词包括 who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever 等连接代词和 where, when, how, why 等连接副词,例如: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。 In one's own home one can do what one likes. 在自己家里可以随心所欲。 The club will give whoever wins a prize. 俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译

162 My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 我的问题是谁将接任该基金会主席职位。 She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取什么名字。 I have no idea when he will return. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 I'm not sure why she refused their invitation. 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们的邀请。 That depends on where we shall go. 那取决于我们去哪儿。 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译

163 Wh- 从句作主语也常用先行词 it 做形式主语,而将 wh- 从句 置于句末,例如: It is not yet decided who will do that job. 还没决定谁做这项工作。 It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 他们何时结婚依然不明。 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译

164 Δwh- 从句常用结构的翻译: What you need is … 你需要的(东西)是 … How +从句+ is up to you. … 的方法 / 途径由你决定。 … 的方法 / 途径由你决定。 Where +主语谓语+ is none of your business. … 什么地方与你无关。 … 什么地方与你无关。 Why +主语谓语+ is a secret. 为什么 … 还是个谜。 It is not clear who… 谁 … 还不清楚。 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译 名词性 wh- 从句的翻译

165 1) think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine 等动词后面 宾语从句的否定词,转移到了主句中,即主句的谓语 动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don’t think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。 I don’ t believe he will come. 我相信他不会来。 名词性从句否定转移的翻译

166 2) seem, appear 等后的从句的否定,转移到了前面。 It doesn’t seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。 It doesn’t appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。 名词性从句否定转移的翻译

167 3) 有时整个从句的否定,转变为对谓语动词的否定。 It’s not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。 名词性从句否定转移的翻译

168 Ex. 19 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying attention to the noun clauses used as subject or predicate. 1. It was essential that the application forms should be sent back before the deadline.  申请表必须在截止日期之前寄回。 2. What the man said under oath was disputed by several other witnesses.  那个男人发誓遭到了其他几位证人的反驳

169 Ex. 19 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying attention to the noun clauses used as subject or predicate. 3. What is remarkable about history of toys is not so much how they changed over the centuries but how much they have remained the same.  在玩具历史上值得注意的一点是,数百年来与其说玩具 变化了多少,不如说玩具有多少保持不变 4. That’s why teachers often encourage the early use of dictionaries and pay attention to content rather than technical ability.  这就是不少教师经常鼓励学生及早使用词典并重视作 文内容,而不是写作技巧的原因。

170 Ex. 19 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying attention to the noun clauses used as subject or predicate. 5. The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak.  一天中当你感到精力最充沛时,也就是你的体温处于其 周期高峰的时候。 6. The fact is that the energy crisis has been with us for a long time now, and will be with us for an even longer time.  事实是能源危机已经伴随我们很长时间了,而且还将 伴随我们更长时间。

171 Ex. 19 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying attention to the noun clauses used as subject or predicate. 7. It is reported that most adopted children want to know who their natural parents are.  据报道,大多数收养的孩子都想要知道他们的生身父母 是谁。 8. That is why it has even been suggested that the present speed limits should be done away with completely.  正因为如此,甚至有人提出应该完全取消现有的速度 限制。

172 Ex. 19 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying attention to the noun clauses used as subject or predicate. 9. Would you kindly tell me how we can get rid of air pollution in cities?  请问我们如何能消除城市中的空气污染呢? 10. Do you have any ideas where I can buy a shirt of a larger size than this?  请问您知道在什么地方可以买到比这件大一些的衣服?

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