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1 Letter to a B Student Text text text text text text text text text text text. BULLETED TEXT Bulleted item here Unit 11 Letter to a B Student

2 Lesson 1: Overview New words and expressions About the author and the text The grading system in American schools Pre-reading Questions

3 New Words & Expressions Reading aloud (page 152) Getting to know the new words Word derivation Word differentiation

4 Norm [n.] Europe ’ s varied cultural, political and ethical norms ( an accepted standard or way of behavior or doing things that most people agree with 规范,标准,准则) Prof. Wang will determine the norm for the test. (level of achievement most students are expected to reach)

5 Shift [v.] The wind shifted to the north. (to move or change from one position or direction to another) Peter is on the day shift and I am on the night shift. ( 上白班,上夜班 ) [n.]

6 Eligibility [n.] The eligibility rules prevent the under-18s being in the team. Are you eligible for early retirement/maternal leave? Only people over 18 are eligible to vote.

7 Repute [n.] He was a writer of repute. (repute: FORMAL = reputation ) My father was held in high repute by his colleagues. (=respected) a place of ill / low repute

8 Offset [v.] He put up his prices to offset the increased cost of materials. (= compensate for) The extra cost of traveling to work is offset by the lower price of houses here. (= cancelled out.) Higher mortgage rates are partly offset by increased tax allowances.

9 Proficiency [n.] It said in the job ad that they wanted proficiency in at least two languages. She is proficient in two languages.

10 Retain [v.] The police retained control of the situation. (=continue to have) English new words are hard to retain, especially for an aged man. (=to keep in mind, remember)

11 Humor [n.] You seem in a very good humor today. She is in an ill ~ today. Just ~ her and she ’ ll be quiet. 只要哄 哄她,她就会安静的。 The meeting dissolved in ill ~. 不欢而 散

12 Frequent [v.] Tourists frequent the old temple at the suburbs of the city. Many foreign ships frequent the new port. I know him, but I don ’ t frequent him much.

13 Flunk [v.] He flunked mathematics. (informal, = fail) Mr. Jackson flunked me in English. He flunked out at 16. (to be dismissed from school/college because of failure) He flunked out of college after four semesters.

14 Resent [v.] He bitterly resents being treated like a child. She ~ed him/his making all the decisions. I deeply ~ her criticism.

15 Gear [n.] reverse/first/second/low/high/top/bottom ~ 倒车 / 一 / 二 / 低速 / 高速 / 最高 / 最低挡 change/shift ~ Careless use of the clutch may damage the ~s. He drove wildly, crashing through the ~s like a maniac.

16 Coercive [a.] The president relied on the coercive powers of the military. The court heard that the six defendants had been coerced into making a confession. [v.]

17 Hew [v.] hew a path through a jungle (To make or shape with or as if with an ax) 丛林 中开辟中一条路 He hewed out an important position for himself in the company. ( 开辟,闯 出了 )

18 Word Derivation N.normassumptioncoordinate V.resent A. N. V.correspondfrequent A.fuzzycoercive normalize normal assume assumed coordinate resentment resentful fuzz correspondence correspondent/ corresponding frequency frequent coercion coerce

19 Word Derivation N.transcriptgear V.shift N. V.offsetshrughew N. V.knit transcribegear shift offsetshrughewer knit/knitter

20 Word Derivation N.eligibilityinadequacy A. N.reputeproficiency A. N.ritual A.apt eligibleinadequate reputed/reputable proficient ritual aptness

21 Word Association Words humor repute offset retain proficiency apt Synonyms disposition reputation/fame counterbalance keep skill likely

22 Word Differentiation We ’ ve had three sets of prospective buyers looking round the house. They are worried about the prospective changes in the law. The editor is obviously writing on market economy from a socialist/Marxist perspective. His experience abroad provides a wider perspective on the problem. Try to keep these issues in perspective.

23 Word Differentiation Mysteriously, the transcript of what was said at the trial went missing. The full transcript/transcription of the interview is attached. Bruce Robinson wrote the script for “ The Killing Fields ”. That line isn ’ t in the original script. She admired his neat script.

24 Word Differentiation Company losses were 50 per cent worse than in the corresponding period last year. A change in the money supply brings a corresponding change in expenditure. Given each picture a number corresponding to its position on the page. The election result was correspondent with the government ’ s wishes in the matter.

25 Word Differentiation She retained her tennis title for the third year. The stunt man swayed the long pole to retain the balance. The roads around the town have been very poorly maintained. Few planets can sustain life. The love and support of his family sustained him during his time in prison.

26 Word Differentiation You can pick up a lot of stations on the car radio but the sound is usually a bit fuzzy. He answered the question with a somewhat fuzzy definition of ‘ in the national interest ’. “ Where do you want to go for lunch? ” “ I ’ m not fussy. ” You should avoid patterned wallpaper and fussy ornaments.

27 Word Differentiation Coffee and the newspaper are part of my morning ritual. She objects to the ritual of organized religion. Sunday lunch with the in-laws has become something of a ritual. You have to go through an invitation rite before you become a full member.

28 Word Differentiation I flunked my second year exams and was lucky not to be thrown out of college. Mr. Jackson flunked me in mathematics. He lost the next page of his speech and floundered (about/around) for a few seconds. She was floundering around in the deep end of the swimming pool.

29 Word Differentiation The baskets are woven from strips of willow. The biography weaves together the various strands of Einstein ’ s life. My granny knitted me a cardigan for me. Knit one row, purl one row. Society is knit together by certain commonly held beliefs. Can you sew a button on for me? They think they have the election sewn up.

30 About the Author Robert Oliphant is an English professor at California State University at Northridge. The text is an excerpt of a sensitive and thoughtful letter to a student on keeping a sense of perspective on grades.

31 The Grading System in the U.S. Grades are given on an A-F system where A is best and F is worst. In some cases, plus and minus modifiers are applied to grades to provide intermediate recognition of performance. (e.g. A-, B+)

32 Questions for Discussion Do you like exams and tests? Is it necessary to test students? What do you think is an ideal way to test students? Should students be graded? What do you think is an ideal way to assess students ’ learning?

33 Group Work Each group is to decide on something that you would like to teach in a 10- minute period. Work out a teaching plan and get ready to practice teaching. Think of a way to assess the learners ’ performance.

34 Thank you! To be continued.

35 Lesson 2: Overview Word Review Structure of the text Analysis of text

36 Word Review Short term contracts are now the n______ with some big companies. Maddie’s a real expert on art, so I feel completely i____________ whenever I talk to her about it. Her attitude lends a fresh p__________ to the subject. norm inadequate perspective

37 Word Review Does the description c__________ with the fact? Coffee and the newspaper are part of my morning r________. He used to f________ the town's bars and night-clubs. They won the election through a mixture of bribery and c_________. correspond ritual frequent coercion

38 Word Review Government officials visited the earthquake zone on Thursday morning to c_________ the relief effort. He is a_____ to get excited over trifles. You’re a father and you can’t simply s____ off your responsibility for your children. I took their offer at f__________ and did not suspect at all that they were trying to trick me. coordinate apt shrug face value

39 Word Review There is absolutely no _________ (coordinate) between the different groups – nobody knows what anyone else is doing. You are well advised to buy your car through a _________ (repute) dealer. While some patients can be __________ (inadequacy) cared for at home, others are best served by care in a hospital. coordination reputable adequately

40 Word Review Almost half the population are ________ (eligibility) to vote in today’s election. She is ________ (knit) her husband a sweater. He watched them, envious and ________ (resent). There are many trees ______ (hew) down by the storm. eligible knitting resentful hewn

41 Word Review Go under; Go round; God broke There are not enough desks and chairs to __________ in the classroom. A lot of small businesses ____________ in the recession. The firm will ____________ unless business improves. go round went broke go under

42 Structure of the Text What are characteristic of a letter? What particular characteristics does this text have? How many parts does the text fall into? What is the main idea of each part? Are there any key words?

43 Structure of the Text Part I (para.1): –An introduction to the topic Part II (para.2-5): –Grades do not mean everything. Part III (para.6-8): –Getting a B in class does not mean one will always be a B performer in life. Part IV (para.9-10): –In a complex society like ours, labels are necessary but they should be kept in perspective.

44 Note (para.1) Gentleman ’ s C (pa.1): a decent grade, for a gentleman is supposed to be a man of decency –He is rather fat, but he has a decent face. A few years ago the Gentleman ’ s C prevails in universities.

45 Note (para.1) Fractions (para.1): Two out of twenty-five=2/25 one out of ten (1/10); five out of eight (5/8) One-tenth (1/10); five-eights (5/8) One in ten (1/10); five in eight (5/8)

46 Note (para.2) Zero-sum game: a form of no-win policy; If the winner is N, the loser will be – N, which means their sum total is 0. All money games fall into three categories: positive sum game; zero sum game and negative sum game. From the winner ’ s point of view, positive sum game offers the best chance.

47 Note (para.2) A zero-sum game: 零和游戏 ; 双方利益针锋相对、 不可能达到妥协的局面,如一方胜,另一方则 败。 (Cf: a win-win situation) In a zero-sum game, the winner’s gain is exactly the loser’s loss. So the total sum of the gain and loss is zero, and the winner’s happiness is accompanied by the loser’s disappointment. In such a game, the sense of success only belongs to the winning party, so there is not enough success to go round. It’s impossible for both parties to share it.

48 Note (para.7) GI-Bill: Servicemen ’ s Readjustment Act ( ). Adopted in 1944, this act offers special allowances for the retired soldiers to enter post-secondary educational institutions for higher education.

49 Comprehension Check What is the change about grades? What has caused the change? What is the essence of success? Is winning important in our society? What does a grade mean and what does it not mean?

50 Language Points Serve as (para.1): perform a particular function as –One room had to ~ as both bedroom and living room. –This incident ~s as a reminder of how dangerous these weapons really are.

51 Text Explanation Far superior to (para.1): very much better than Whatever our norm is, it has shifted upward, with the result that … (para. 1) No matter what our norm is, it has changed to a higher level, …

52 Language Points Climate (para.1) –I don’t think we should expand our business in the current economic ~. –Terrorism creates a ~ of fear.

53 Difficult Sentence … will remove the feeling of disappointment, particularly in a climate where grades determine eligibility for graduate school and special programs. (para.1) … will take away the feeling of disappointment, particularly in an atmosphere where grades determine whether or not you are qualified for graduate school or special programs.

54 Difficult Sentence (para.2) What is the essence of success? There does not exist the situation in which all those who are involved will turn out successfully and no one feels disappointed. Whenever there are winners, there are losers. When someone feels happy about his success, there must be someone else or some others who feel disappointed. In a highly competitive society where the importance of winning is emphasized so much, it is inevitable that those who fail in the competition will feel disappointed.

55 Difficult Sentence … winning is not the most important thing – it’s the only thing. (para. 2) A special type of negation. Winning is of primary importance; nothing could be more important than winning. 胜利不是最重要的,但没有什么能比它 更重要了。

56 More Examples To improve your oral English, practicing is not the important thing – it’s the only thing. Ours is a time of information explosion; to keep up with the times, updating our knowledge is not the most important thing – it’s the only thing.

57 Language Points Go under (pa.2) –The charity will ~ under unless a generous donor can be found within the next few months. –The ship went under just minutes after the last passenger had been rescued. Go broke (pa.2) –Many small businesses went broke during the recession. –His firm has gone broke. –I’m always broke by the end of the month.

58 Language Points Prosperity (para.2): state of being successful or rich; good fortune –He wished the young couple a life of happiness and ~. 他祝这对年轻人生活幸福﹑ 万事如意. –The increase in the country's prosperity was due to the discovery of oil. (=state of being economically successful)

59 Difficult Sentence … where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sigh of salvation in the future. (para. 2) … where success in the present is seen as a clear proof of freedom from difficulty or danger in the future. A sure sign: a clear proof –Those black clouds are a sure ~ (that) it’s going to rain. –The demand for labor is a sure ~ of economic recovery.

60 Difficult Sentence (para.2) … these are deadly sin … salvation in the future. (para.2) Being successful in one ’ s life and career and financially disadvantaged is regarded as shameful or even sinful because in this world people tend to think that only those who are successful now can be saved from evil in the future.

61 Language Points Shrug away/off (para.2) –You’re a father and you can’t simply ~ away your responsibility for your children. –The stock market ~ged off the economic gloom and rose by 1.5%. –It’s unwise to ~ away the voters’ complaints.

62 Language Points My purpose … is to (para.3) –The ~ of conducting a business is to make money. –Troops were sent solely for the ~ of assisting refugees. –He came here with the ~ of carrying out the attack. –We have found a meeting-place that will serve our ~. –The sale was supposed to last for a week, but for (all) practical purposes it's over. (= in reality)

63 Language Points Put … in perspective (para.3) –Total investments for this year reached $53 million, and, to put this into ~, investments this year were double those made in 2001. –Talking to others can often help to put your own problems into ~. –Try to keep these issues in ~.

64 Sentence Explanation My purpose in writing you is to put your disappointment in perspective by considering exactly … (Para. 3) I’m writing to help you make a fair and correct judgment about your disappointment by …

65 Language Points Propose to (para.3): suggest; intend –How do you ~ to complete the project in such a short time scale? –How do you ~ to finance this venture? –I do not ~ to reveal details at this stage. –I ~ to go to London on Tuesday.

66 Language Points Take … at face value (para.3): to accept … for what it appears to be –Tickets were selling at twice their face value. ( 面值) –Taken at face value, the figures look very encouraging. 从表面上看 –You should never take what he says at face value.

67 Difficult Sentence I do not propose to argue that … Rather, I hope to show you that your grade, taken at face value, is apt to be dangerously misleading, … (Para. 3) I do not intend to … Rather, I hope to show you that if you believe your grade is what it appears to be, it tends to dangerously guide you into an erroneous direction, …

68 Language Points Correspond to (para.4) –The money I’ve saved ~s roughly to the amount I need for my course. –The American FBI ~s to the British MI5. –The British job of Lecturer ~s roughly to the US Associate Professor.

69 Language Points It may well be that... (Para. 4): It is very likely that … –In theory, things can only get better; in practice, they may well become a lot worse. –He may well be brilliant, but he is completely impractical. –His appearance has changed so much that you may well not recognize him.

70 Language Points Interpret (para.4): understand … in a particular way –His refusal to work late was ~ed as a lack of commitment to the company. –I didn't know whether to ~ her silence as acceptance or refusal.

71 Language Points At best (para.4): according to the most favorable judgment –The food was bland at best, and at worse completely inedible. –Their response to the proposal was, at ~, cool. –We can’t arrive before Friday at best. 我们无论如何星 期五之前也到不了。 Cf: at one’s best: performing as well or effectively as one is able to 处于最佳状态,在鼎盛时期 –At her best, she's a really stylish player.

72 Language Points In short supply (para.5) –Potatoes are in short ~ because of the bad harvest. –Strawberries are in short ~ at the moment. –Sunshine will be in short ~ for the west coast.

73 Difficult Sentence If you value these characteristics in yourself, you will be valued – and …a piece of paper. (para.5) Value: respect, esteem Value: consider … important, think highly of … –Do you value her as a friend? 你把她当好朋友吗 ? –a valued client / customer 重要的主顾﹑ 顾客 If you consider these characteristics important, you will be far more respected than those whose identities (capabilities) are measured by the scores that they have achieved in a certain test (which are not important at all).

74 Language Points Price tag on a garment (para.5): a small ticket put on an item of clothing showing its price Note the writer’s use of metaphor (comparing “your score” to “a price tag”, i.e. educational label).

75 Language Points Get out of (the service) (para.6) –I’ll see if I can get you out of tonight’s homework. (=avoid) –He tried to get out of helping me. –I reckon her backache was just a way of getting out of the housework. –I can’t ~ out of the habit of waking at six in the morning.

76 Language Points Service (para.6): the armed forces of a nation –He joined the service right after college 大学毕 业后到军队服役 –He joined the navy as a 16-year-old and spent 30 years in the ~. The Services are the army, the navy, and the air force 三军

77 Comprehension Check Are the GI-Bill students easy to handle? How did the author ’ s instructor handle the class? Was his method proved successful? What is the distinction between “ the student as performer ” and “ the student as human being ” ?

78 Language Points In particular (para.7) –What in ~ did you like about the last apartment that we saw? –Are you looking for anything in ~? –This is a crucial year for your relationship in general and your love life in ~. –The documents were identical in almost every particular. (=in every detail)

79 Language Points Make a point of (para.7): make a special and noticeable effort to do (a specified thing) –She made a ~ of taking a walk each day. –He makes a ~ of always being punctual. 总是 Stop in: to make a short visit to a place or person, especially while you are going somewhere else –I'll stop in and see you on my way home. –I need to stop in at the library.

80 Ranks in the US Army Platoon 排长,中尉 Sergeant 中士 Corporal 下士 Captain 上尉 Lieutenant 陆军中尉,海军上尉 Major 少校 (Lieutenant) colonel 上校

81 Text Explanation They enjoyed his company greatly, and he theirs. (para.7) Supply the omitted words: They enjoyed having him with them, and he enjoyed their companies.

82 Language Points Oddly enough (para.8) –She’s gone away for 6 months, but oddly/strangely/funnily enough, her boyfriend doesn’t seem too unhappy about it. –Oddly enough, failure often brings with it a peculiar kind of freedom.

83 Expansion: Adverbials Adjuncts: –People can unintentionally hurt each other by something they say or they do. Disjuncts: –Oddly enough, failure often brings with it a particular kind of freedom. Conjuncts: –The Minister resigned; however, the aura of scandal remained.

84 Decide on the function of each adverbial. Unfortunately they are not part of our curriculum. In a different society, your disappointment might be something you could shrug away. Social labels are basically irrelevant. But these distinctions should never be taken seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in the way we look at ourselves. Disjunct: comment Adjunct: place Disjunct: comment Conjunct: contrast connect Adjunct: manner

85 Difficult Sentence Nor did they resent him for shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a coercive one. (Para. 8) What does the shifting of gear mean? It refers to the change in the instructor’s manner of dealing with his students. When drinking with the students in the pub, he was easygoing and friendly; but in the classroom, he became stern and severe. They did not hate him for he suddenly changed from a friendly company into a relentless teacher, either.

86 Language Points End up (with/as/in) (para.8) –She’ll ~ up penniless if she carries on spending like that. –At first they hated each other, but they ~ed up getting married. –The debate ~ed up in uproar. –If he carries on driving like that, he’ll ~ up dead.

87 Comprehension Check What is the writer ’ s view concerning social labels? How do you interpret the sentence “ To recognize them is to recognize that social labels are basically irrelevant and misleading ” ? How does the writer relate a student ’ s academic performance with his future life?

88 Comprehension (para.9) It is important to see the fact that although they differ in their class status and educational background, human beings are essentially the same. First of all, they are, biologically speaking, constructed in the same way, and then they all share the feelings of fear and joy, and also the common experience of suffering and achieving. This commonality has bound them together. All of them will regard wars, diseases, and disasters, both private and public, as unfortunate big events in their lifetime.

89 Language Points Hew (para.9) –They ~ed a canoe out of a tree trunk. –The statue were ~n out of solid rock. –The monument was ~n out of the side of a mountain. Bonds (pa.9) –Loose his ~ and set him free. –She longed to escape from the ~ of children and housework.

90 Language Points On the basis of (para.9) –Is it safe to predict the result on the ~ of one opinion poll? –Decisions were often made on the ~ of incorrect information. Take … seriously (para.9): to believe that someone or something is worth your attention or respect

91 Language Points In … terms (para.9) –In business terms the project is not really viable, but it would add to the prestige of the company. –It sounds like a good suggestion, but I wonder what it will mean in practical ~. –In ~ of money, I was better off in my last job. in human terms: from the point of view of human beings 用人的思想方法

92 Difficult Sentence Translate the sentence into Chinese: But these distinctions should never be taken seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in the way we look at ourselves. (Para. 9) 但是对这些差别我们不应太当真,不论 是看待别人还是看待我们自己。

93 Language Points Be well/fully/acutely aware (para.10) –They were well ~ that the company was losing money. –I'm (well) ~ that very few jobs are available. –I don't think you're ~ (of) how much this means to me. –Everybody should be made ~ of the risks involved.

94 Text Explanation But academic work is a narrow, neatly defined highway compared to the unmapped rolling country you will encounter after you leave school. (Para. 10) –Real people do not fit neatly into these categories. (= nicely) A neatly defined highway: a nicely outlined highway 一条(在地图上)清楚标出的公路 The unmapped rolling country 地图上未标出 的绵延起伏的区域

95 Language Points Define (para.10): show (a line, shape, feature, etc) clearly; outline –When boundaries between countries are not clearly ~d, there is usually trouble. –The mountain was sharply ~d against the eastern sky. 那座山在东方天空的衬托下显得 轮廓分明. –a well-defined profile 轮廓清晰的侧面像

96 Language Points Find your way about (para.10) : search your way about (around) find one’s way somewhere –Will you be able to find your way back/home? –After a while I pulled myself to my feet and found my way to the street. –She couldn't find her way out of the building. –Only one of her inventions has found its way into the shops. –He eventually found his way into acting.

97 Language Points Locate (para.10): to determine or specify the position of 确定 …… 的位置 –They ~d the town on the map eventually. –I'm trying to ~ Mr Smith. Do you know where he is? 我要找史密斯先生. 你知道他在哪里吗 ? –We are trying to ~ the source of error. (=to find by searching, examining, or experimenting)

98 Language Points Hamper (para.10) –Fierce storms have been ~ing rescue efforts and there is now little chance of finding more survivors. –The search was ~ed by appalling weather conditions.

99 Thank you! To be continued.

100 Lesson 3: Overview Students’ duty report Review of the text Translation practice Teaching practice Exercise highlights

101 Addressing the Envelope

102 Formation of an English Letter Heading (the writer’s address) Inside address (the receiver’s address) Salutation Body of the letter –Block style –Indented style Complimentary close Signature

103 Heading → Inside address→ Salutation → Body → Complimentary close → Signature → Enclosure →

104 Parallelism A popular and important figure of speech

105 Definition Parallelism is the writer’s technique of balancing like with like — nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, infinitives with infinitives, prepositional phrases with prepositional phrases, and so forth.

106 Functions Parallel structure helps to present ideas to a reader in the clearest possible way. In many ways, parallelism also serves the function of transition, carrying the reader easily along from one idea to the next. Almost any kind of sentence element can appear in a parallel form.

107 Single Words Courage, kindness, wisdom, good humor — these are the important characteristics of our species. (para.5) There he would sit and drink, joke, and swap stories with men in his class… (para.7) I felt foolish, self-conscious and clumsy.

108 Phrases To lose, to fail, to go under, to go broke — these are deadly sins in a world … (para.2) But these distinctions should never be taken seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in the way we look at ourselves. (para.9)

109 Clauses The student as performer; the student as human being. (para.6) Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. (by Francis Bacon) You can fool all of the people some of the time and some of the people all of the time, but you can’t fool all of the people all of the time. (by Abraham Lincoln)

110 Sentences No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy. We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air. (by Winston Churchill) Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested. (by Francis Bacon)

111 Paragraphs Disappointment…(para.2) The student as performer; the student as human being…(para.6) Perspective… (para.9)

112 Review of the Text Why is this letter written? What climate is the B student in? Does the writer think grades are unimportant? What does grade mean and not mean? Why does the writer distinguish student as performer from student as human beings?

113 Review of the Text How did the author’s instructor handle his class? How could this example be related to the B student’s disappointment? What does the writer want to tell us when he emphasizes “perspective”? What does the writer compare one’s B label to in the last paragraph?

114 Review of the Text How does the writer achieve clarity in this argumentation? –Use of key words –Making logical distinctions –Example from real life –Vivid and impressive language

115 Metaphors used The essence of success is that there’s never enough of it to go round in a zero-sum game. (para.2) Your B is a price tag on a garment that is quite separate from the living, breathing human being underneath. (para.5) Nor did they resent him from shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a coercive one. (para.8)

116 Metaphors used But academic work is a narrow, neatly defined highway compared to the unmapped rolling country you will encounter after you leave school. (para.10) What do you think are the functions of metaphor?

117 Review of the Text Paraphrase on page 155 Oddly enough, the men whom he flunked did not resent it. (para.8) Disjunct is an adverb or adverbial that is loosely connected to a sentence and conveys the speaker's or writer's comment on its content, truth, or manner.

118 Knowledge Expansion Adjunct is an adverb or adverbial (as heartily in “They ate heartily” or at noon in “We left at noon”) attached to the verb of a clause especially to express a relation of time, place, frequency, degree, or manner Conjunct is an adverb or adverbial (as so, in addition, however, secondly) that indicates the speaker's or writer's assessment of the connection between linguistic units (as clauses)

119 Knowledge Expansion Traditional syntactic grammar focuses on grammatical functions, such as subject and object. Modern functional grammar focuses primarily on how language works to achieve different purposes. –The nominalisation of actions and processes is slightly more common in written language

120 Translation Practice She handled a difficult argument skillfully. 她巧妙地应付了一场艰难的辩论。 各国政府处理失业问题的方法不尽相同。 The governments vary in their way to handle the problem of unemployment. 这位年轻老师不知道如何对付这些淘气的孩子 The young teacher does not know how to handle the naughty children.

121 Translation Practice The corrupt official was removed from office. 这个贪官被罢了职。 所有违规停放的车辆都会被拖走。 Illegally parked vehicles will be removed. 老师的一番话消除了他对考试的恐惧感。 The teacher’s words removed his fears about the examination.

122 Translation Practice The farm was flooded, with the result that most of the harvest was lost. 农场遭了水灾,损失了大部分收成。 我在洗澡,没听见门铃响。 I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the doorbell. 我迟到了, 没能赶上火车 I was late, with the result that I missed my train.

123 Translation Practice I’m afraid there are no enough jobs to go round. 恐怕没有足够的岗位供分配。 前来听讲座的人数超出了原来的估计, 椅子不够分配。 As more people came to the lecture than expected, there are not enough chairs to go round.

124 Translation Practice I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut before I go out. 我出门前总是要检查所有的窗户, 看是否都 关好了. 不论何时我到上海,我一定去参观东方明 珠电视塔。 Whenever I go to Shanghai, I make a point of visiting the Oriental Pearl.

125 Translation Practice Food is apt to deteriorate in summer. 食物在夏天容易变质。 易于许诺的人也易于忘记。 A man apt to promise is apt to forget. 初次在观众面前演讲的人往往会感到既紧张 又兴奋。 Anyone who delivers a speech to an audience for the first time is apt to find himself both nervous and excited.

126 Translation Practice The girl‘s parents were bitterly disappointed at the jury’s verdict. 陪审团的裁决令女孩的父母既失望又难过。 我们对于歌唱比赛的结果感到深深的失望。 We were deeply disappointed at the result of the singing contest. 导师对他在答辩时的表现深感失望。 The supervisor was deeply disappointed at his performance in the oral defense.

127 Translation Practice Mary took his stories at face value and did not know he was joking. 玛丽对他的陈述信以为真, 却不知道他是在开 玩笑。 Some old coins are now worth a great deal more than their face value. 一些古币现在的价值比它的面值大得多。 你不应该总把他的话当真。 You shouldn't always take his remarks at face value.

128 Practice Teaching It’s your turn.

129 Thank you! The end.

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