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Federal Aviation Administration Downloaded from www.avhf.com CFI Workshop 5 Core Topic 10 Risk Management for Flight Instructors October 1, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Federal Aviation Administration Downloaded from www.avhf.com CFI Workshop 5 Core Topic 10 Risk Management for Flight Instructors October 1, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Federal Aviation Administration Downloaded from CFI Workshop 5 Core Topic 10 Risk Management for Flight Instructors October 1, 2011

2 2 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from A Crosswind Accident? The pilot lost control after the aircraft touched down on one wheel, swerved sharply, hit several runway lights, left the runway, and came to rest in the airport boundary fence. The winds were at 60-degree crosswind to the runway at 32 kts with gusts to 40. What caused this accident?

3 3 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Joseph T. Nall Report “Accidents occurring during takeoff, climb, maneuvering, descent, approach, and landing tend to result more directly from deficient airmanship, though it may have been faulty decision- making that placed the pilots in situations beyond their skills.”

4 4 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from NTSB CEN09FA393 Probable Cause: The pilot’s poor judgment/decision making in attempting the no-flap takeoff, his failure to comply with weight limitations, and his failure to calculate the airplane’s performance under existing conditions.

5 5 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management: A Definition The part of the decision- making process that relies on Situational awareness Problem recognition, and Good judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight.

6 6 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Teaching Risk Management Identifying hazards Assessing risk Understanding its time-critical nature Including risk- management controls in training

7 7 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Teaching Judgment We’re trying to answer the enduring questions: “Can you teach judgment?” “If yes, how?”

8 8 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Analogous to Checklists Think of (and teach) risk-management as another aircraft system or phase of flight with a checklist/procedure to follow. 5 Ts GUMPS Run the risk-management checklist at important phases of flight (including preflight) and whenever the situation changes or new information arrives.

9 9 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Before you make decisions, you must: 1. Identify risk factors (hazards) 2. Assess their likelihood 3. Evaluate their severity

10 10 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Defining Terms: Hazard A present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident. Is it a source of danger?

11 11 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Defining Terms: Risk The future impact of a hazard that is not controlled or eliminated. 1. Future uncertainty created by the hazard. 2. If it involves skill sets, the same situation may yield different risks. 3. Could also be described as the “degree of uncertainty.”

12 12 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Types of Risk Total Risk: The sum of identified and unidentified risks. Identified Risk: Risk that has been determined. Unidentified Risk: Often identified only after an accident. Unacceptable Risk: Can’t be tolerated. Must be eliminated or controlled. Acceptable Risk: Identified but managed. Residual Risk: Remains after mitigation attempts.

13 13 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management The method used to control, eliminate, or reduce hazards. Unique to each individual based on skills, knowledge, training, and experience. A decision-making process designed to systematically identify hazards, assess risk, and determine the best course of action.

14 14 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 Downloaded from Risk Assessment Matrix

15 15 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 Downloaded from Risk Thresholds

16 16 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Assessment 3 SM visibility — is it a risk? For a student pilot? 100 hr VFR-only private pilot? 500 hr IFR pilot flying in the mountains 1,000 hr IFR pilot with 5 hr experience in a glass cockpit? 1,500 hr ATP pilot flying in busy airspace? Photo AOPA Gallery

17 17 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from A Simple Test Ask three basic questions: Is it safe? Is it legal? Does it make sense?

18 18 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Where to Land? Flying west at 10,500MSL To Portland, Oregon Cessna 172 (TAS 110 KIAS) Snow showers and reduced visibility 5:35 pm local time Fuel remaining is about 90 minutes. What will you do? VFR-Only 200-hr private pilot

19 19 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from 10,500MSL Cessna 172 5:35pm local time 90 minutes fuel

20 20 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from 5:35pm local time 60 minutes fuel Time Critical Framework

21 21 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from 5:35pm local time 90 minutes fuel What Would You Do?

22 22 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from ADM DEFINED Aeronautical Decision Making is a systematic approach to the mental process use by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.

23 23 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Controls 1.Identify hazardous attitudes. 2.Recognize and cope with stress. 3.Develop risk-assessment skills. 4.Use all available resources. 5.Evaluate effectiveness of decisions.

24 24 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes Anti-authority – Don’t tell me. –Follow the rules, they are usually right Impulsivity – Do something – do it now. –Not so fast, think first Invulnerability – It won’t happen to me. –It could happen to me. Macho – I can do it. –Taking chances is foolish. Resignation – What’s the use? –I can make a difference.

25 25 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Identification PAVE Checklist: Pilot Aircraft enVironment External Pressures

26 26 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Evaluating Pilot’s Risk Management Assess the potential risk associated with planned flight during preflight planning and in flight. Explain risk elements with the given scenario and how each was assessed. Use a tool, such as PAVE to assess the risk elements. Pilot – Aircraft – enVironment – External Factors

27 27 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from D.E.C.I.D.E.3P D = DetectPerceive E = EstimateProcess C = ChoosePerform I = Identify(Continuous Loop) D = Do E = Evaluate Photo: Quest Kodiak 100

28 28 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Evaluating Pilot’s Decision Making Use a decision-making process (such as the DECIDE model) when making decisions that affect the outcome of the flight. Pilot should be able to explain factors and alternatives. Detect – Estimate – Choose – Identify – Do – Evaluate Recognize and explain any hazardous attitudes that may have influenced a decision. Decide and execute an appropriate course of action to handle any situation and lead to a safe and successful conclusion of the flight.

29 29 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Including Risk Management in Flight Training Situations to stimulate decision making Practice problem solving Create circumstances that make unsafe judgments look appealing

30 30 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Do You Teach ADM? Seen this?

31 31 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Scenarios According to the Aviation Instructor’s Handbook (p. 2-26), a good scenario: 1. Has a clear set of objectives. 2. Is tailored to the needs of the student. 3. Capitalizes on the nuances of the local environment.

32 32 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Scenario Database At 7:00PM, after an exhausting 3-day business meeting, you load the rental plane and file VFR for a 2-hr flight. You discover your only pair of reading glasses was left back at the hotel. You have no problem seeing distance but can’t read panel gauges or a chart very well. Weather is 3,500 ceiling, 5SM visibility with 15 kt crosswinds at your designation. If you depart in the next 20 minutes you can land before dark. You decide to: A. Depart and fly to land before dark. Purchase a new pair of glasses at your destination. B. Call the hotel, if they have your glasses go get them and takeoff late this evening. C. Call the hotel, if they do not have your glasses, spend the night. Tomorrow purchase a new pair and fly takeoff. D. Call the hotel, if they have your glasses, go get them, spend the night and takeoff in the morning. From:

33 33 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Sources of Scenarios FAA-Industry Training Standards (FITS) The generic syllabi at the FITS website include a variety of scenarios for VFR and IFR pilots. You can easily modify and adapt them for your students and customers. fits/training/

34 34 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from FITS Website

35 35 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from I’M SAFE Checklist

36 36 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 Downloaded from FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 Risk Management Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time

37 37 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #1 Which of the following are hazardous attitudes? a) Tormenter b) Macho c) Recluse d) Quarrelsome

38 38 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #2 Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks. True or False?

39 39 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #3 Is it a “Hazard” or a “Risk” that is a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident?

40 40 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #4 An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the model? a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate b) Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate c) Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate d) None of the above Answers follow ~

41 41 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #1 Which of the following are hazardous attitudes? a) Tormenter b) Macho c) Recluse d) Quarrelsome Answer ~ b) Macho – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

42 42 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #2 Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks. True or False? Answer ~ True – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

43 43 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #3 Is it a “Hazard” or a “Risk” that is a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident? Answer ~ “Hazard” – Risk Management Handbook

44 44 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Risk Management Question #4 An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the model? a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate b) Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate c) Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate d) None of the above Answer ~ a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate

45 45 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Regulatory, Policy, and Publications Changes and Updates

46 46 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from FAASafety.gov

47 47 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Official Sources from FAA FAA Website: Air Traffic Plans and Publications –AIM –Pilot/Controller Glossary Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS) –FAA inspector’s handbook with links to regs and other documents

48 48 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from AIM Updates

49 49 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from AIM Updates

50 50 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from FSIMS

51 51 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Industry Groups SAFE (Society of Aviation and Flight Educators): NAFI (National Association of Flight Instructors): AOPA Flight Training:

52 52 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from FIRC AC 61-83G, which outlines requirements for FIRCs, is in the draft stage. Includes significant updates to the FIRC process (including online courses) and content. Organizations like SAFE are working with FAA to refine the FIRC process to make it more effective and relevant.

53 53 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Downloaded from Updated FIRC Content (Draft) Required Core Topics: Navigating in the 21st Century: Pilotage to GPS Safety Trends in GA Security-Related Special Use Airspace Pilot Deviations Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and CFIs How to Make the Best Use of the FAASTeam and the Pilot Proficiently WINGS Program How to Teach Effectively and Build a Culture of Safety Regulatory, Policy, and Publications Changes and Updates

54 54 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 Downloaded from This completes CFI Workshop Module #5 See you for Module #6


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