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Electromagnetic waves and Mobile Health and Safety Eng. Medhat El Messiery Prof. Of Biomedical Engineering Physics Cairo University- Faculty of Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Electromagnetic waves and Mobile Health and Safety Eng. Medhat El Messiery Prof. Of Biomedical Engineering Physics Cairo University- Faculty of Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Electromagnetic waves and Mobile Health and Safety Eng. Medhat El Messiery Prof. Of Biomedical Engineering Physics Cairo University- Faculty of Engineering

3 Rapid Global Growth Continues to Drive Wireless Market Global Wireless ( ‘ 98) (Revised/ Mobile only) 3G Deployment Timeframe ,000 1,200 1,400 1, Subscribers In Millions ~600M ~400M Global Wireline Global Wireless ( ‘ 96) (Mobile & Fixed)

4 Year Total (%) % % % % % % % % Mobile Phone Penetration in Europe,

5 India to become 3rd largest mobile population in world by 2007 mobile ownership will pass 100 million in With million forecasted mobile owners in 2007, India ranks 3rd in the world behind only China and the USA. wireless spending increases from $123.4 billion in 2003 to $164.5 billion in 2006, a 10 percent compound annual growth rate.

6 Region North America Western Europe Asia Latin America Other Global US Japan Global Mobile Commerce Revenues, (USD Billions)

7 Evolution of Mobile Data (realistic data rates) GSM CS data services up to 9.6 Kbps GSM HSCSD services up to 38.4 Kbps GSM GPRS service up to 40 Kbps UMTS Up to 400 Kbps Evolution GSM EGRPS (EDGE) Up to 100 Kbps 3G 2.5G 2G

8 Top Markets For 2.5 and 3G Products in 2006 Country2.5G subscribers3G subscribers China48.9 million26.3 million Japan14.4 million21.5 million Germany16.0 million 8.6 million UK14.7 million7.9 million France12.3 million 6.6 million Italy10.5 million 5.7 million US11.1 million 2.8 million Spain 7.6 million 4.1 million Korea 5.3 million Australia 3.9 million 2.1 million

9 CountryTotal Europe251 million China247 million United States208 million Japan96 million Global Users of 3G Data in 2011

10 4G Features: - Data rates up to 100 Mbps - Expansion on the 3G goal to provide a wider range of new and improved multimedia services - Integration of broadcast, cellular, cordless wireless LAN, short-range and fixed wire systems to appear a single seamless network - Machine-to-Machine traffic

11 e-business mania This led telecommunications companies to overbuild in the local exchange market and the long-haul fiber-optic transport market. When wireless became the "next big thing," the private sector piled in, with European telecom companies alone dropping $105 billion on sought-after third-generation (3G) wireless Internet licenses.

12 Factors Affecting m-Commerce Sales Predictions Optimistic scenario: Higher than USD 1.8 trillion Usable applications and devicesUsable applications and devices Ubiquitous and consistent standardsUbiquitous and consistent standards Widespread trustWidespread trust Utility, convenience and value Utility, convenience and value Low access costLow access cost Pessimistic scenario: Less than USD 250 billion Fragmented standardsFragmented standards High perceived riskHigh perceived risk InconvenientInconvenient Low value -High costLow value -High cost

13 Send and receive text s messages Synchronies information with desktop PC Read and edit Word, Excel power point etc. Browse the web to view the latest news Huge data base access Down load video Wi-fi to stay connected on the go Bluetooth™ to connect to accessories View digital pictures Warning against poisonous gases Keep personal medical record Determine your local position Pay your pills Specifications of future handsets

14 Park by Phone Parking Edinburgh, Scotland, accept payment via cell phone Airline Baggage Tracking read/write updating 'on the fly' so that information from shipping dates Vehicle Security System The small transponder can be attached or embedded into ID badges, Key rings, Vehicles and products. More than 16 million vehicles around the world are now equipped Parcel Shipping System In Europe with over 225,000 pieces of luggage having been transferred successfully between airport hubs from Manchester and Munich to London's Heathrow Terminal 1. near to 100% accuracy. RF-ID

15 SHOP LIFTING

16 Money protection The dollar and Euro are provided with a RFID that can be traced Passports and ID

17 1947 Bell Labs, D. H. Ring proposed the cellular concept. Instead of using a single high-power transmitter to reach users within a radius of 40 km, Ring proposed using “cells” as small as 1 km, with lower-power transmitters within each cell and an assignments of channels to each cell. This technique allowed frequency reuse and increased capacity significantly. Network Solution

18 handset Antenna One cell mobile main station Mobile network Line main station

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22 Base station room

23 Mobile network

24 antenna on chimneys Antenna on the power towers

25 Hide base stations

26 Antennas on churches and towers

27 Fatigue Headache High Blood Pressure Temporary Memory loss Slower mental response Loss of concentration

28 Electric sensitivity leads to heat and some physical symptoms on the skin ُ Electric sensitivity Electric phobia Psychological fears of the electric wave leads to serious physical diseases such as epilepsy

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30 Visible Light 44 x10 4 to 70x10 4 GHz. Ionized Radiation From 500X 10 5 GHz X-rays  rays Non-Ionized From 50 Hz to 300 GHz Infra Red IR from 300 GHz. Ultra Violet x10 5 GHz. RF and Micro waves

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32 Electromagnetic waves and Medicine 1890 Treatment with magnet is used for the last 300 years They are used in Physiotherapy They are used as microwaves to treat tumors They are used to diagnose diseases NMR They are used to heal fractured bone They are used in treating depression in stead of electric shocks

33 Thermal effects  WHOLE 1 °C rise physiological effects BODY  EYE °C rise Cataract of the lens  BRAIN 4-5 °C Neuron thermal damage  SKIN 10 °C Thermal damage The most widely accepted effect of RF exposure is a heating effect.

34 First :Define and Put Numbers SAR : Specific Absorption Coefficient The amount of power absorbed by a kilogram of an organ Power intensity: The amount of power received per unit area of the body The Electric field E(Earth 100 V/m) The Magnetic field B (Earth 500  T)

35 The Precautionary Principle When potential damage is both uncertain and significant, it is necessary to act on the basis of the precautionary principle Take precautionary action to protect people and the environment where the scientific evidence is not conclusive الاحتياط واجب

36 Standards All of these standards were developed to identify the potential hazards of RF exposure. Major standards were based on – a comprehensive review of scientific literatures – engineering studies – whole-animal and cellular studies – epidemiological studies

37 Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) (IEEE Standard C ) Uncontrolled Environment (unwillingly individual)

38 Basic limits The SAR WB of 4 W/kg has been established as a reasonable value for adverse effect threshold. Using a safety factor of 50 for the exposure of general population, the limit of 0.08 W/kg is obtained. To avoid excessive hot spots, a limit for the spatial peak SAR is also established. (Eye) W/g (Body) W/g (Limb) W/g

39 WHO approach to EMF research for health risk assessment Develop a database needed to assess health hazards Identify research to fill gaps Replicate research suggestive of health consequence but not substantiated Promote research agenda to funding agencies Growing movement to adopt precautionary approaches to manage health risks with scientific uncertainty

40 Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) (IEEE Standard C ) Uncontrolled Environment (unwillingly individual)

41 Local & global exposure Mobile phone (small indoor BS antenna) – the source is near the head (local limits) – The behavior of the antenna changes with the presence of the head Base station antenna – whole body is exposed (whole body exposure limits) – if the person is far from the antenna, the coupling is low. 0,08 W/kg whole body 2 W/kg over 10g

42 Basic limits The SAR WB of 4 W/kg has been established as a reasonable value for adverse effect threshold. Using a safety factor of 50 for the exposure of general population, the limit of 0.08 W/kg is obtained. To avoid excessive hot spots, a limit for the spatial peak SAR is also established. (Eye) W/g (Body) W/g (Limb) W/g

43 General public & workers The occupationally exposed for adults who are generally exposed under known conditions and are trained to take appropriate precautions. the general public comprises individuals of all ages and of varying health status.

44 Safety guideline for Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) (100 kHz - 6 GHz) General Uncontrolled Exposure Occupational Controlled Exposure < 0.08 W/kg< 0.4 W/kgwhole- body < 1.6 W/kg< 8 W/kgpartial -body

45 Testing the Power

46 Epidemiology, March 2000 vol. 11, No2 More than 195 thausands workersin an electronic factory in the states(Motorola) were studied in the year from 1976 to They were compared with the same number of people who are not dealing with Micro eaves in the same period The diseases of the two groups as well as the causes of death were compared The results showed no significant difference I the rate of cancer of all types between the two groups.

47 Epidemiology, March 2000 vol. 11, No2 More than 195 thausands workersin an electronic factory in the states(Motorola) were studied in the year from 1976 to They were compared with the same number of people who are not dealing with Micro eaves in the same period The diseases of the two groups as well as the causes of death were compared The results showed no significant difference I the rate of cancer of all types between the two groups.

48 Epidemiological Aspects  We cannot prove that something does not cause cancer!  Natural rate for adult brain cancer incidence is 60 cases per million per year.  Mobile phone use in many countries has exceeded phone per million.  So if mobile wave really causes cancer for 1 % of its user then we expect at least 9000 case of cancer per million. Means 2.7 millions Americans would have cancer per year

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50 The youth and the mobile 80% of European teenagers who use mobile phones 140 million mobile phone subscribers in the USA 80% of European teenagers who use mobile phones. Nine out of 10 children under the age of 16 have a mobile phone and 10% talk for more than 45 minutes every day, according to research published yesterday. Almost all the children (96%) send and receive text messages, although only 16% send 10 or more messages a day.

51 Special Precaution for children Their bones are thin cannot absorb the energy of the waves Their nervous system is undeveloped Their immune system is undeveloped

52 mG Magnetic FieldMagnetic Field decreases in strength with distance.

53 Magnetic Field

54 Magnetic Field of Microwave Oven (mG)

55 Findings The studies have reported the following: – no differences in mortality between the users of hand-held portable cellular phones (where the antenna is placed close to the head). – a study of several hundred Swedish brain tumor patients, found no statistically significant associations between use of cell phones and brain cancer. – In summary, there is no evidence, from laboratory or epidemiology studies, that exposure to RF energy at levels below recommended limits has any health significance for humans. – there is no evidence, from laboratory or epidemiology studies, that exposure to RF energy at levels below recommended limits has any health significance for humans.

56 Environmental issue 60 million disposal batteries are thrown away every year in Egypt They usually burned They contain toxic materials such as Antimony Bromine Cadmium Mercury Nickel Lithium Magnesium

57 Environmental Aspects  Accumulation of the EMF radiation from different sources, increases the level of radiation beyond the safety standards  Homes with all RF sources (TV sets Computers, mobiles, micro wave oven, burglar Alarm) 50 mW/m 2  Disposition of Handset Battery, is another environmental issue (several billions are disposed annually) burning them produces dangerous fumes. Efficient scheme of recycling must be introduced Electromagnetic smog

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59 NANOTECHNOLOGY 5 cm

60 Nanotechnology age

61 SIDE EFFECTS No press monopoly Culture invasion Pornography


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