Presentation on theme: "Textual Evidence Integrating Quotations into Paragraphs."— Presentation transcript:
Textual Evidence Integrating Quotations into Paragraphs
What is textual evidence? Evidence from any textual source you use to support your thesis In terms of literary analysis: examples from the text you are working with and/or other texts that you need to support your thesis
Why use textual evidence? Add ethos to your argument Specific examples make your argument clear To bring in an outside opinion or idea that supports your argument
Ways to integrate evidence Paraphrase Parenthetical within the text –Short quotes –Blocked quotes
Deciding What & When to Quote Ask yourself: Which point of mine does the quote illustrate? Why am I considering quoting this particular passage? Why should this particular passage be quoted rather than paraphrased? What do I need to tell my readers about the author of the quotation?
How much should I quote? Consider quoting a passage from one of your sources if any of the following conditions holds: 1. The language of the passage is particularly elegant or powerful or memorable. 2.You wish to confirm the credibility of your argument by enlisting the support of an authority on your topic. 3.The passage is worthy of further analysis. 4.You wish to argue with someone else's position in considerable detail.
Condition 3 useful in essays for literature If an argument or a factual account from one of your sources is particularly relevant to your paper but does not deserve to be quoted verbatim, consider –paraphrasing the passage if you wish to convey the points in the passage at roughly the same level of detail as in the original – summarizing the relevant passage if you wish to sketch only the most essential points in the passage
Quoting the Exact Words of the Original If you omit words or passages from the original use an ellipsis (three dots separated by spaces) If you omit words at the end of the source’s sentence at the end of your own sentence, use the sentence period followed by three ellipsis dots-- four dots in total If you add your own words or change a word(s) in the original do so in brackets [ ]
Example What we learn in the family structure and in school determines what type of place in society and in the career we will be prepared to fill. Educational researcher Marge Blanstone points out how social stratification results when “some individuals must be socialized to occupy high- status positions, while others [usually form minority groups] must be socialized…to fill low- status positions” (134). Author named Page number for quotation Explanation added by student
Introducing a Quotation You must provide an introductory phrase before you: –Quote a complete sentence –Paraphrase a piece of another work –Summarize a piece of another work Include the first time referenced: –Full name –Brief explanation of credentials or expertise Use only last name in subsequent referencing Include the page number in parenthesis at the end of the quotation followed by a period
Verbs and Phrases to Introduce Quotations Familiarize yourself with the various verbs commonly used to introduce quotations. Here is a partial list: argues writes points outconcludes Commentsnotes maintains suggests insists observes counters implies states claims demonstrates says explains revealsillustrates Each verb has its own nuance. Make sure that the nuance matches your specific aims in introducing the quotation. There are other ways to begin quotations. Here are three common phrasings: –In the words of X,... –According to X,... –In X's view,...
Example (Good) The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. As Hannah Arendt points out in On Revolution, "we must turn to Roman antiquity to find the first justification of war, together with the first notion that there are just and unjust wars" (12). Yet the Roman conception of a just war differs sharply from more modern conceptions.
Example (Better) The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. In On Revolution, Hannah Arendt points to the role the Romans played in laying the foundation for later thinking about the ethics of waging war: "we must turn to Roman antiquity to find the first justification of war, together with the first notion that there are just and unjust wars" (12). Yet the Roman conception of a just war differs sharply from more modern conceptions.
Block Quotes If your quotation is longer than 4 lines do integrate it into your paragraph, but offset it and get rid of the quotation marks
Example Although Dickens never shied away from the political controversies of his time, he never, in Orwell's view, identified himself with any political program: The truth is that Dickens' criticism of society is almost exclusively moral. Hence his lack of any constructive suggestion anywhere in his work. He attacks the law, parliamentary government, the educational system and so forth, without ever clearly suggesting what he would put in their places. Of course it is not necessarily the business of a novelist, or a satirist, to make constructive suggestions, but the point is that Dickens' attitude is at bottom not even destructive.... For in reality his target is not so much society as human nature. (416)