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A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE 1969-1980 America: Past and Present Chapter 31.

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Presentation on theme: "A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE 1969-1980 America: Past and Present Chapter 31."— Presentation transcript:

1 A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE 1969-1980 America: Past and Present Chapter 31

2 Nixon in Power Apparent success in first term Triumphs in foreign affairs Nixon cuts himself off from Congress, his own cabinet, and the nation

3 Reshaping the Great Society Nixon and the Great Society more efficient administration shift responsibility to the states shift school desegregation to the courts Shift to conservative Supreme Court appointment of conservatives and moderates Burger Court similar to Warren Court Pace of change slows but continues

4 Nixonomics Nixon and inflation inflation spurred by Vietnam federal spending cuts interest rates forced up 1970--Nixon-induced recession 1971--wage and price controls Economy revives

5 Building a Republican Majority Nixon obsessed about reelection Inactive on desegregation to win South Attack cultural revolution to win “middle America” Democrats try to retain majority by joining crusade against drugs, crime

6 In Search of Détente Foreign-policy assumptions Cold War to be managed, not won America must make a strategic retreat improve relations with China to neutralize Russia February 1972--Nixon visits China

7 In Search of Détente: Outcome of China Visit February 1972--U.S. recognition of Communist China set in motion May 1972--Russians sign SALT I Apparent mutual desire to reduce Cold War tensions

8 Ending the Vietnam War Nixon’s plan - VIETNAMIZATION gradual reduction of American troops intensify American bombing hard line at the peace talks 1970--invasion of Cambodia January, 1973--peace talks conclude with disguised American surrender

9 The Crisis of Democracy June, 1972--Nixon agents arrested for attempted Watergate break-in Nixon stonewalled the press about White House involvement even instructed aides to lie under oath

10 The Election of 1972 Nixon’s opponents American Independent George Wallace-- shot and disabled, followers vote for Nixon Democrat George McGovern--nomination alienates middle class; Staunch Liberal Nixon landslide suggests new alignment middle class shifting to Republican conservatism African Americans, Jews, the poor remain strongly Democratic


12 The Watergate Scandal Summer 1973--Senate investigation damaging Senate hearings on cover-up White House tapes discovered Summer 1974 Nixon must relinquish tapes; “smoking gun” of investigation House Judiciary committee recommends impeachment August 9, 1974--Nixon resigns

13 The Watergate Scandal: Consequences Demonstrated growing power of the executive branch Illustrates vitality of institutions the press the federal judiciary Congress Encourages more cynicism about Washington and politics (politicians)

14 Energy and the Economy U.S. way of life based on cheap energy 1970s energy crisis sparks inflation

15 The October War October, 1973--Yom Kippur War pits Egypt, Syria against Israel U.S. supplies weapons to Israel Arab oil nations retaliate with boycott prices of gasoline and home heating fuel rose sharply

16 The Oil Shocks Effects of soaring oil prices consumer spending plunges recession by 1974 inflation persists through 1970s Tax cut aids consumer spending and encourages recovery 1979--Iranian Revolution causes second surge in oil prices

17 The Oil Shocks: Price Increases of Crude Oil and Gasoline, 1973-1985

18 The Search for an Energy Policy Ford tries to encourage production Carter tries to encourage conservation Congressional legislation to encourage production, e.g. Alaska pipeline encourage conservation, e.g. gas rationing Energy problem persists

19 The Great Inflation Oil prices drive inflation price of goods soars real income declines as buying power diminishes due to inflation Attempted government controls result in record high interest rates (pull $ out of circulation to increase value of $ left in market, thereby decreasing inflation.)

20 The Shifting American Economy U.S. share of world markets declines U.S. heavy industrial production declines…U.S. becomes service industry centered High technology prospers Businesses tend to diversify

21 The Ford Administration 1974-76 Pardon of Nixon unpopular Democratic Congress alienated disclosure of illegal CIA activities under Kennedy and Johnson opposes Democratic bills protecting the environment and civil rights

22 The 1976 Campaign Ford damaged by Watergate Democrat Jimmy Carter wins close vote former governor of Georgia campaigns as outsider calls for decency, morality in government


24 Disenchantment with Carter Carter displays lack of political vision Outsider status hampers effectiveness 1979--Carter blames American people for "national malaise"

25 From Détente to Renewed Cold War U.S. international dominance declined sharply in the 1970s Internal and external events weakened foreign policy

26 Retreat in Asia April 1975--North Vietnam captures Saigon U.S. response--evacuation, no aid Subsequent incidents met with caution, restraint

27 Accommodation in Latin America 1977--treaty returns Panama Canal to Panama 1979--U.S. refuses aid to Nicaraguan government against Sandinistas Carter assists El Salvador against Marxist rebels

28 The Quest for Peace in the Middle East Carter’s success 1978--Camp David Accords 1979--Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty Carter’s failure 1979--Iranian Revolution November--U.S. embassy in Teheran invaded, 58 Americans taken hostage Carter fails to secure hostages’ release

29 The Cold War Resumes Carter, Brzezinski shift from Détente condemn Soviet human rights abuses new missile systems deployed increased aid to China December, 1979--Russians invade Afghanistan

30 A Failed Presidency Carter lost public confidence during the Iranian hostage crisis Double-digit inflation also contributed to voter disappointment

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