Presentation on theme: "PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Chapter 15 Issues in Labor Markets: Unions, Discrimination, Immigration PowerPoint Image Slideshow."— Presentation transcript:
PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Chapter 15 Issues in Labor Markets: Unions, Discrimination, Immigration PowerPoint Image Slideshow
FIGURE 15.1 In 2011, thousands of people in Wisconsin protested against a bill that would eliminate the right to collective bargaining over everything except wages. (Credit: modification of work by Fibonacci Blue/Flickr Creative Commons)
FIGURE 15.2 The share of wage and salary workers who belong to unions rose sharply in the 1930s and 1940s, but has tailed off since then to 11.3% of all workers in 2012.
FIGURE 15.3 Without a union, the equilibrium at E would have involved the wage We and the quantity of labor Qe. However, the union is able to use its bargaining power to raise the wage to Wu. The result is an excess supply of labor for union jobs. That is, a quantity of labor supplied, Qs is greater than firms’ quantity demanded for labor, Qd.
FIGURE 15.4 Jobs in services have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Jobs in government have increased modestly. Jobs in manufacturing have not changed much, although they have trended down in recent years. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
FIGURE 15.5 The ratio of wages for black workers to white workers rose substantially in the late 1960s and through the 1970s, but has not changed much since then. The ratio of wages for female to male workers changed little through the 1970s, but has risen substantially since the 1980s. In both cases, a gap remains between the average wages of black and white workers and between the average wages of female and male workers. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
FIGURE 15.6 This figure shows projected changes in the ethnic makeup of the U.S. population by 2060. Note that “NHPI” stands for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. “AIAN” stands for American Indian and Alaska Native. Source: US Department of Commerce
FIGURE 15.7 The number of immigrants in each decade declined between 1900 and the 1940s, but has risen sharply in recent decades. (Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011, Table 1)