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*Nguyen Tri Hoan, Le Quoc Thanh Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences * Pham Dong Quang Minister Of Agriculture and Rural Development *Ngo Van giao.

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Presentation on theme: "*Nguyen Tri Hoan, Le Quoc Thanh Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences * Pham Dong Quang Minister Of Agriculture and Rural Development *Ngo Van giao."— Presentation transcript:

1 *Nguyen Tri Hoan, Le Quoc Thanh Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences * Pham Dong Quang Minister Of Agriculture and Rural Development *Ngo Van giao Vietnam Seed Trade Association *Duong thanh Tai Southern Joint-stock Seed Company RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYBRID RICE IN VIETNAM contraints and perpectives

2 I. INTRODUCTION Land and population of Vietnam Of the total area of 33 million ha, about 55% (18 million ha) is now under “production use” of which 40% is under agriculture and the remainder under forest. In per capita terms, Vietnam’s cultivated land resource base is among the lowest in the world. The cultivated area per capita averages over 0,1 ha The population of Vietnam is about 90 million with 54 ethnic groups. The annual population growth rate is around 1,7- 2%. The rural population is about 70% of the total. Agriculture provides a livelihood for some 23,4 million labours, or 62% of the labour force.

3 Role of agriculture in Vietnam’s economy Vietnam is predominantly an agricultural economy, based on paddy rice production. Among the other edible crops, maize, sweet potato, cassava, vegetables are most important. Rubber, coffee, tea, coconut, sugarcane are the most important industrial plants Vietnam is an agriculture-based country with more than 73% of population depending on the agriculture Rice is the most important crop with cultivated area is ,6 million ha, maize 1.2 mil ha; Almost rice variety are inbred ones, hybrid varieties accounting for around 700,000 ha. Rice variety improvement is on the top of priority for rice research during last two decades

4 Achivements in rice production in Vietnam during 20 years, from : Average yield of rice increaced from 2.81 to 4.93 tons/ha (1.7 times ) Total rice production increased from 16 to 36 million tons; Rice export increased from 0.06 to 5.2 million tons (2013 : Aver. yield 5,58 tons/ha, production 44 mill.tons, exported 6.7 mil.tons)

5 Year Area (1000 ha) Yield (ton/ha) Production (1000 tons) 20017, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,053.0 Table 1: Area, Yield and production of rice in Vietnam during (Source :Statitical Department )

6 Year Rice exported Quantity(mili. ton) Value (mil.USD)Price (USD)/ton Table 2 : Rice exported of Vietnam during

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10 2. Investment, especially in irrigation system 3. Application of advanced technologies New rice improved varieties: varieties from 1986 to ,1% VN rice varieties were applied in the production New advanced technologies widely applied: INM, IPM, ICM, “3 giam 3 tang”, … Hybrid rice: ha/year

11 II. PROGRESS IN HYBRID RICE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM

12 1.Historical of hybrid rice development ; Rice breeders started to introduced and evaluated A and B line from IRRI At CLRRI and VASI Vietnam Introduced F1 seeds from China for testing and demonstration in the farmers fields : +Rice breeders introduced A Lines,B Lines from IRRI, China for hybrid rice breeding in Vietnam. + Hybrid Rice Research Center belonged to VASI was established by MARD., + MARD gave subsidized fund for hybrid rice seed production and hybrid rice commercial production. + FAO supported Vietnam TCP Project provided training rice breeding in China, Provided International consultant on seed production and hybrid rice breeding, provided some equipments for hybrid rice research.

13 : +:Second TCP Project supported by FAO for seed production and training at IRRI and China + ADB/IRRI Hybrid rice Project supported for Parental lines purification and Hybrid rice breeding +Hybrid rice breeding and seed parent purification Funded by MARD. MARD gave subsidized fund for hybrid rice seed production : + Hybrid rice Research project funding by MARD ( USD pêr year) +Local hybrids ( 3 lines and 2 line hybrids) have been developed and released for F1 seed production ha of hybrid rice seed production have been done per year with the yield of tons/ha obtained

14 2, Status and trend of hybrid rice development 2.1, Progress of hybrid rice research

15 2.1.1,Exploitation of imported CMS lines and Developed new CMS lines for breeding suitable 3 line hybrids * IR A developed by IRRI

16 ** Developed new CMS Table 3 : Characteristics of newly developed CMS lines CMS lines Character IA/ BK BC9 25A/ B BC8 D62A/ R623BC 6 II32A/ OM BC11 BoA/BK25BC8BoA/ BK BC9 Duration to heading 10 %(day) Stigma exert.(%) Panical/hill8,911,410,210,210,810,3 Off type (%) Plant height(cm) Plant height(cm)76,387,675,281,662,473,5 Sterile pollen (%) ,898,59097 Phenotype Acceptability (score) Grain shape. Round RoundLongLongLongRoundLong

17 2.1.2, Results of developing new tropical TGMS lines in Vietnam The new TGMS lines had stable pollen sterility under critical temperature of 23-24oC, uniform in phenotype combined with good combining ability were developed viz. AMS30S (827S),T196S,103S,TGMS1 The new TGMS lines had stable pollen sterility under critical temperature of 23-24oC, uniform in phenotype combined with good combining ability were developed viz. AMS30S (827S),T196S,103S,TGMS1 Some newly developed TGMS lines have been used as female of promising two line hybrids viz. VL20, TH3-3, TH3-4, HC1, TH5-1, HYT103, HYT102, VL24 HYT108, LHD5 and LHD6. Some newly developed TGMS lines have been used as female of promising two line hybrids viz. VL20, TH3-3, TH3-4, HC1, TH5-1, HYT103, HYT102, VL24 HYT108, LHD5 and LHD6.

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19 2.1.3, Developed new TGMS based on adapted maintainer line and restorer lines of 3 line hybrids Aimed: Overcome instability of some exiting CMS Overcome instability of some exiting CMS Limited number of available CMS lines for 3 line hybrid system. Limited number of available CMS lines for 3 line hybrid system. Exploiting good flower characteristics, good combining of exiting parental lines Exploiting good flower characteristics, good combining of exiting parental lines Parental lines used : 4 TGMS lines were CL64S, 7S, CN26S, TG125S 4 TGMS lines were CL64S, 7S, CN26S, TG125S Maintainer lines were II-32B, Jin 23B, IR62829B, BoB, IR58025B, 97B, Maintainer lines were II-32B, Jin 23B, IR62829B, BoB, IR58025B, 97B, Restorer lines were Gui99, Ce64, Fuhui838. Restorer lines were Gui99, Ce64, Fuhui838.

20 Table 4: Characteristics of newly developed TGMS lines derived from exiting CMS lines TGMSlines Duration to heading (days)Plantheight(cm)Panicle/hill Spikelet/ panicle Stigma exertion Stigma color AMS35S GoodWhite AMS35S GoodBlack AMS36S Very good Black AMS37S ,36,6197,3 Black AMS34S ,78,5156,0 Black

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22 2.1.4, Results of development for parental lines having WC gene The conventional high yielding varieties, adapted to Vietnamese condition as Xi23, Q5, Chiem77, R242, BM9855 etc… were used as male to cross with donor having WC gene viz. Peiai 64S, N22, Palawan, Dular, Calotoc, Lambayeque1, Moroberecan. The conventional high yielding varieties, adapted to Vietnamese condition as Xi23, Q5, Chiem77, R242, BM9855 etc… were used as male to cross with donor having WC gene viz. Peiai 64S, N22, Palawan, Dular, Calotoc, Lambayeque1, Moroberecan. Single crosses were done and selection for parental lines followed 2 directions: Single crosses were done and selection for parental lines followed 2 directions: (i) Select fertile plant in segregating generation (i) Select fertile plant in segregating generation to male parent having WC gene to male parent having WC gene (ii) Selected sterile plants in segregating (ii) Selected sterile plants in segregating generations of single crosses or in back crossing generations of single crosses or in back crossing generations. generations.

23 Table 6 : Characteristics of newly developed TGMS having WC gene (HRDC, ) Characters D52SD59SD60SD116S springsummerspring sum mer spring spring Day no. to flowering Stigma exertion (%) Pollen sterile (%) Fertile pollen(%) Tiller No./hill 9,014,09,515,09,014,09,515,0 Plant height (cm) Plant height (cm) 72,5-78,2-72,5-78,2-

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25 Selection of male lines containing WC Along with observation and study in field, leaves of the male lines were collected to analyse AND by using PCR reaction with molecular marker RM225, RM253, linked with WC gene which was determined in the previous study. Using 2 molecular markers RM225 and RM253 to select lines which bring QTL/WC gene, showed in figure 21, 22 following:

26 Combination two analyses result with two marker RM225 and RM 253, we obtained 16 perpective male lines which absolutely contain WC gene: D16-3, D27, D18-3, D22, D27-5, D14, D25-2, D1-5, D17, D16-1, D16-6, D26, D19, D52, D46 và D67.

27 Order. Ch ara.s Hybrid Duratio n (day) Plant height( cm ) Pan.no/ m 2 Filled rain no//Pan. Sterile rate(%) P1000 (gr) Theory yield(To ns/ha) Actual yield(Tons/ ha) 1SL ;97 2SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL o SL SL12(c heck) , Table 9: Yields for promising super hybridrice(Indica/japonica),on the Spring 2014 at Daklak,Taynguyen

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32 2.1.5,Diseases and insects resistance study * Studies on disease resistance

33 * Determine the existence of molecular markers linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance genes Check the existence of molecular markers (MM) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance genes. Extracting AND and analyzing PCR products to determine the diversity of parental lines: * Two molecular markers (STS_MP1, MP2) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa4 * One molecular marker (RG556) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene xa5 * One molecular marker (P3) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa7 * One molecular marker (P3) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa7 * Two molecular markers (PTA818, PTA248) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa21 * Two molecular markers (PTA818, PTA248) linked to the bacterial leaf blight resistance gene Xa21

34 Molecular marker linked to gene Xa7 (STS – P3) Figure 2: PCR products of gene Xa7 from parental lines, F1, F2 of IR24 x IRBB7

35 IR24 BB21 F1 Quần thể phân ly F2 IR24 BB21 RR RR Rr rr rr rr Rr rr IR24 xa5 Rr rr rr Rr RR rr rr RR trình chọn tạo giống. Figure 6: Hình ảnh lây nhiễm nhân tạo chủng 4 trên gen Xa21 Figure 5: : PCR products of gene Xa21 from parental lines, F1, F2 of IR24 x IRBB21 Figure 7: Hình ảnh lây nhiễm nhân tạo chủng 4 trên gen xa5

36 Figure 8: Using molecular marker RM6997 to select lines containing resistant gene. Lane 1: line SL10, lane 2: line RS, lanes 3-8: line E1, E3, E5, E6, E7, E8 Figure 9: Investigate resistant level in fields. Green area was E-3 and E-8 line. Brow area was control line which was infected by BPH

37 Table 10 : The hybrids resistance to BPH have been developed No. Hybrids Hybridsscore Resistant level 1 HYT102-(CNSX Thử) 3MR 2 HYT108(CNSX Thử) 5LS 3 LHD6(CNSX Thử) 3MR 4827S/RTC3MR 5827S/R5443MR 625S-51/GR103MR 725S-49/BB4-Q994MR 8 HYT106(KNQG 3 vụ triển vọng) 6S 9 D52S/RV114 (KN) 3MR 10827S/WC17(KN)2HR /(BL14/R242)3MR 12Kim77S/BB603MR 13D52S/R163MR 14 TN1 (S) 9HS 15 SWanata (R ) 2HR

38 Year Temporary releasedPermanent released Domestic hybrids Introduce d hybrids Total N0. 3-line hybrids Ratio of 3-line hybrids (%) Domestic hybrids Introduce d hybrids Total N0. 3-line hybrids Ratio of 3- line hybrids (%) Total N (Source: Agricultural Department,MARD) Table 11: Number of rice hybrid were released for commercial production during

39 Table 12: Marjor released rice hybrids for commercial rice production in Vietnam Name of HybridsSeasonSourceYield (tons/ha)Year released Boyou903 (3 line)SummerChina Boyou253 (3 line)SummerChina Shanyou63 (3 line)SpringChina Er you 838 (3 line) Spring China Er you 63 (3 line) Spring China Sin 6 (3 line) Spring &summer China D you 527 (3line) Spring China VL20 (2 line) HC1 (2 line) Spring&S ummer Vietnam

40 Table 12 (continue) TH3-3 (2 line) TH3-4 (2 line) Spring& Summer Vietnam HYT102 (2 line) Spring& Summer Vietnam HYT103 (2 line) Spring& Summer Vietnam VL24 (2 line)SummerVietnam TH5-1 (2 line)SpringVietnam HYT 83 (3 line) Spring& Summer Vietnam HYT92 (3 line) Spring& Summer Vietnam HYT100 (3 line) Spring & summer Vietnam LHD 6(2 line) Spring &summer Vietnam HYT108 (2 line)SummerVietnam

41 Table 13: Results of cooperating hybrid rice breeding with the seed production Hybrids Type of hybrid Level of release Org. conducting F1 seed production Org. conducting F1 seed production VL20TH3-3TH3-4 HYT line hybrid 3 line hybrid, qulity RegistrationRegistrationRegistrationRegistrstion Hai Phong seed company Cuong Tan seed company National Seed Companyy. Hai Phong sees company HYT line hybrid Registrstion Hai Dương seed company HYT103 2 line hybrid Registrstion Dai Dương seed com pany SL 8H 3 line hybrid, qulity Registrstion Dai Thanh seed company HYT1`08 2linehybrid, high yield Registration Thai Binh seed Co., National Seed Companyy. Eakkar seed center Eakkar seed center CT16TH3-5TH7-2 3 line hybrid 2 line hybrid RegisstrationRegistrationRegistration Cuong Tan seed company HAUHAU LHD 6 2 line hybrid Registration Hanam seed company

42 Table 14: Quality analysis of hybrid rice combinations in 2006 (Plant phisiology and biochemistri agro product quality departement –FCRI) No.Hybrid Unpo lished rice (%) Hus ked rice (%) Whole grain (%) Grain Length (mm) Size class Ifica tion Length /wide Type of grain White of Endo derm poit Pro tein Amy loza Poit of alkali destroy T 0 of star ched 1HYT L2.95MD L 2HYT L3.20L L 3HYT L3.13L MD 4HYT L2.87MD H 5HYT L2.87MD MD 6HYT MD2.41MD MD 7HYT L3.05L H 8HYT L3.01L H 9TH L3.39L L 10 Eryou838 (check) MD2.43MD MD

43 2.2.2 Status of hybrid rice seed production

44 Hybrid rice seed production in Vietnam Local extension deparment Hybrid Rice Research and Developing Center Supporting training from ADB/IRRI project Add Your Title spreading F1 seed production technology to farmer

45 Strengthen government commitment, policy and final support to promote hybris rice research and development  The government and Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development have provided resources to support the following research and development activities.  Formulating the hybrid rice program for submission to the government for approval that will create a base for investment and development.  Establish the Hybrid Rice Research Center for assuming research, leading and coordinating hybrid rice research in Vietnam  Forming hybrid rice development project from and  Carry out the production hybrid rice seeds on large scale in a network of 4 focal point provinces.

46  Subsidize policy for hybrid rice seed production.  The production of hybrid rice seeds in Vietnam is implemented through three steps: + First step: Mainly to import seed and domestically producing seed is supplementary. + Second step: Domestic seed production would be gradually promoted to balance with the imported seeds. + Third step: Mainly to produce domestically and importing is supplementary. > for F 1 hybrid rice producing:  Training farmers in F 1 seed production during last 10 years ( ).  In early phase, the Government through provincial extension system provide price subsidize policy for farmers in purchasing commercial seeds (30-50% value of the seeds).

47 Area of F1 seed production decreased: Subsidized fund from government declined to 250 USD/ha and cost of fertilizers increased. Crops damaged due to changing climate. The cooperatives involved in F1 seed production lead to difficulties to distribute F1 seeds. Lack of good cooperation between research and seed production companies.

48 Month TGMS multiplication in the Northen provinces and the Taynguyen provinces. Seed production for two line hybrid in the south - F1 seed production in the Northern provinces TGMS multiplication at moutainous area (Sapa, tam dao, son la) DIAGRAM: Crop seasons and locations are determined for seed production of two line hybrid rice in Vietnam

49 Year Area (ha) Yield (ton/ha) Production (ton) Imported F1 seed Ratio of F1 seed producted in country , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,2 Table 15: Area of hybrid rice seed yield and F1 seeds produced in Vietnam during 2001 – 2013 (source MARD, 2014)

50 HYBRID RICE SEED IMPORTATION Source of F1 seedVolume (Kg)% % % Importation14,983, ,002, ,994, From China12,554, ,757, ,645, From other countries2,429, ,245, ,349, Domestic production5,940, ,972, ,830, Total20,923, ,974, ,824, Every year, Vietnam imported 13,000 to 15,000 tons of hybrid rice seeds. The total volume of imported seeds is decreasing, in which seeds imported from China decreased gradually, but from other countries increased, especially for tropical rice hybrids.

51 Table16: Area, yield of hybrid rice during )

52 III. Contraints and gaps in Hybrid rice research and develpment Technology constraints: Technology constraints: *Lack of hybrid rice combination with good grain quality, tolerant to pest and diseases, short duration (105 – 110 days) that meet requirements of the various agro- ecological zones of the country.Yield of F1 seed production is still low *Limited genetic materials needed to developed hybrid rice suited to south Vietnam and with resistance to pests and diseases during the summer crop in the North. Hybrid rice are good resistant to Blast but they showed more susceptible to Brown Plant Hopper and Bacterial Leaf Blight *Limited genetic materials needed to developed hybrid rice suited to south Vietnam and with resistance to pests and diseases during the summer crop in the North. Hybrid rice are good resistant to Blast but they showed more susceptible to Brown Plant Hopper and Bacterial Leaf Blight *Quality of first generation rice hybrids are poor to medium quality. In general, broken grains of hybrid rice is higher than in inbred rice

53 Social and economic constraints - When food security of the country have been controlled Vietnam exported 7-8 million tons of milled rice to the World market with low price lead to lower benefit of the rice growers as well as lower demand for hybrid rice cultivation of rice growers. The living standard of Vietnamese of people sharply increased since last 20 years lead to high demand for higher quality rice in domestic market. Therefore large area of hybrid rice cultivation at the Red River Delta turned back to be planted by quality rice. -

54 Lack of strong local seed production system involving private sectors Lack of strong local seed production system involving private sectors Lack of good cooperation between Hybrid rice Breeders and seed companies Lack of good cooperation between Hybrid rice Breeders and seed companies Lack of building optimum locations for investing in F1 seed production Lack of building optimum locations for investing in F1 seed production Reluctance of small farmers to locally produce hybrid rice seeds due to greater risk, very high financial requirement, lack of proper warehouse, space and cold storage for unsold seeds and farmer preference for imported seeds. Reluctance of small farmers to locally produce hybrid rice seeds due to greater risk, very high financial requirement, lack of proper warehouse, space and cold storage for unsold seeds and farmer preference for imported seeds.

55 Capability constraints -The human resources required for hybrid rice research is higher in term of quantity as well as quality than inbred rice research. However, very few rice scientist have been trained and worked full time for hybrid rice breeding and hybrid rice seed production -The exploitation of biotechnology for hybrid rice research is still less and cooperation between hybrid rice breeder with biotechnologist, entomologist, pathologist are not good for hybrid rice breeding -Facility for hybrid rice research in the Public sector and infrastructure for hybrid rice seed production of the companies involved with F1 seed production in Vietnam are poorly established

56 Policy constraints -Lack of insurance for F1 seed production while F1 seed production faces high risk due to climatic changes in recent years -Policy of Vietnam Government give free for importing F1 seed from outside do not promote in country F1 seed production. Most of small seed companies was preferred to involving in distribution F1 seed imported from outside -Subsidized fund from government declined to 250 USD/ha for only demonstration fields and cost of fertilizers increased lead to F1 seed production area decreased --Subsidized fund only for new hybrids lead to more hybrids in commercial production,The growers faced problems in production -The cooperatives involved in F1 seed production lead to difficulties to distribute F1 seeds

57 Environment Constraints None suitable condition for hybrid rice seed production in the North where hybrid rice is mostly cultivated to date, due to erratic climate and late harvesting time. Hence the need to develop alternative seed production site in the Central and Cuu long River Delta provinces (Quang nam, Daklak, Long an, Hau giang ect..)

58 IV. Lesson learnt For achievement of hybrid rice development need -Policy support : Top leadership of the country have to confirm to invest in hybrid rice research and development of hybrid rice and have to develop strategy of the country for research and development of hybrid rice for his country -The country have to invest in Hybrid rice research involving rice breeder, entomologist, pathologist biotechnologist, agronomist soil science scientists to cooperate in research for development of hybrid rice or applying hybrid rice technology. -It is required scientists to be full-time imployment,working long term in hybrid rice research and development of hybrid rice. The scientists should be trained in hybrid rice technology, the required equipment for research should be provided - It is required to have tightly cooperation between hybrid rice research institutions with hybrid rice seed companies for exploitation of new hybrid rice combination in to commercial rice production

59 IV. Lesson learnt (cont.) -It is needed to have partnership between public and private sectors for hybrid rice development. The development of technology, new hybrid should be done be public sector, the seed production and seed distribution should be done by private sector -It is required to develop suitable package of management for different type of hybrids to exploit full yield potential of hybrid rice -Hybrid rice is top required for the country to keep food security and intensively invest in rice production -For success of hybrid rice development, the support from FAO, IRRI for funding and International technology consultant keep very important role

60 V. Opportunity for hybrid rice development -High quality hybrid rice have been developed and exploiting in large scale in different countries viz. HYT100 of Vietnam, SL 8H of Agritech-Philippine, Syn6 from China etc. Their yields reached 8-10 tons/ha and their quality are similar to quality inbred rice -Successful development of supper high yielding hybrid rice in China in commercial exploitation (12-14 tons/ha) In Vietnam, yield of super high yielding hybrids developed in the country gave tons/ha in demonstration plots -It is expecting that Supper high yielding hybrid rice will play crucial role to ensure food security for rice growing nations in Asia in future as well as high quantity of rice can be used for feeding livestock. - High development of biotechnology tool in recent years can be exploited for hybrid rice development to develop rice hybrid with high yield, good quality, resistance to diseases and insects and good tolerance to high stress conditions created by climate changes - Rapidly development of private sector in hybrid rice seed production and partnership between –public and private sectors is believed to be main factor for sustainable of hybrid rice development in Asia

61 VI. Key strategies and policy options to promote hybrid rice development in Viet nam to 2020 and Exploiting advantage of agriculture research system by cooperating hybrid rice breeders with biotechnologists, entomologists, pathologists, agronomists ect. to develop hybrid rice having high yield, good quality, resistance to major diseases and insects and/ or tolerance to stress conditions ( drought. Saline, submergence, ect.) created by climate changes. -Strengthening research and development of supper high yielding hybrid rice should be focused not only for keeping food security but also for providing the materials for processing livestock feed products to reduce the products imported from outside -Supporting cooperating between public and private sector to establish seed production bases at optimum locations in the North, Central and the south provinces of Vietnam, government should supporting to develop irrigation system, required machines ect. For F1 seed production

62 VI. Key strategies and policy options to promote hybrid rice development in Viet nam to 2020 and Supporting training for seed growers as well as hybrid rice growers about advanced hybrid rice technologies, strengthening extension system to transfer hybrid rice technology -Setting up new seed policy to give importing hybrid rice seed of new combination only for two years after that the F1 seed have to be produced in country (Vietnam). It is required from all seed companies involved in domestic F1 seed production - It is required to Vietnam government to creating new policy to support the seed companies to accumulating the land at optimum locations by hearing 50 years similating to industry land for F1 seed production - Applying insurance practices for F1 seed production in rice for seed growers

63 DOMESTIC F1 HYBRID RICE SEED PRODUCTION -Up to date, Vietnam has released about 80 Chinese rice hybrids, 10 hybrids of other countries and 30 hybrids bred by Vietnam itself. - Volume of domestic F1 hybrid rice seed production is increasing. - Some foreign companies (Bayer, SL-Agritech, Mahyco…) have also just started F1 hybrid seed production in Vietnam. -In 2014, the F1 seed production area is ​​ 2,420 Ha, the estimated production is 6,200 tons, to meet 40% of hybrid rice seed demand. -In 2016, the ​​ F1 seed production area is expected to increase up to 4,000 ha, the production is estimated at to tons, to be able to meet % of hybrid rice seed demand. VI. Key strategies

64 Grain of HYT100 & HYT 83


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