Presentation on theme: "Operating, Calibrating, and Maintaining Agricultural Planting Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Operating, Calibrating, and Maintaining Agricultural Planting Systems Lesson 3
2 Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed! CCSS.ELA Literacy.RST.9‐10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.CCSS.ELA Literacy.RST.9‐10.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.CCSS.ELA Literacy. RST.11‐12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.CCSS.ELA Literacy. RST.11‐12.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text
3 Bell Work / ObjectivesDescribe the operating principles of planting equipment.Identify the types of planting equipment.Identify the components of row-crop planting equipment.Identify the components of solid planting equipment.Explain the calibration of planting equipmentIdentify maintenance procedures for planting equipment.
4 Terms Broadcasting Checkrow planting Field calibration Germination Hill drop plantingPopulationRow-crop plantingSolid plantingStarter fertilizer
6 Interest ApproachShow students a kernel of corn, and a small, average, and large ear of corn.( or three kernel, or three different types of seed) Lead a discussion on where the kernel and the ears came from. Ask students what causes the different sizes of ears of corn and why is the size of an ear of corn important?
7 What are the operating principles of planting equipment? Objective #1What are the operating principles of planting equipment?
8 Basic Functions of the planter Open a furrow in the soilseed must be in contact with moist soil to germinategerminatechange from a dormant condition to one of activity & growthplaces each seed in equal depth regardless of soil conditionsfurrow opener accomplishes thisMeter the seed to the soilspecific seed rates are neededaccomplished by metering devices on the planter
9 Basic Functions of the planter Place seed in soilyields depends on moisture seed depth & spacingCovers the seedseed must have protection in order to surviveaccomplished by press wheels on planters and chains or drags on drillsFirm the seedbedprovides adequate seed to soil contactpress wheels and drag chains accomplish this
10 Row Crop planter is used for most types of seed except small grain and grasses.
11 What are the types of planting equipment? Objective #2What are the types of planting equipment?
12 Types of planting equipment Row crop plantingrequire precise row spacing and even spacing of plants within the rowplanted in rows far enough apart to permit operation of machinery such as cultivators and harvestersgenerally corn, soybeans, sorghum, vegetables & cottonGrain drills and air seedersused to sow crops such as alfalfa, oats, barley, and other small grains and soybeans
15 Some crops such as rice require specialized planters!
16 Types of planting equipment Broadcast seedersused to broadcast small grains, grasses & legumesbroadcastingseeds are scattered on a random, non-row basis on top of the seedbedSpecialized plantersdesigned for special planting operationsexamples include: potato planter, vegetable planter, and transplanters
18 Types of Row crop planters Drill planting methodseeds are dropped individually in the row at given distancesspacing depends on populationpopulationnumber of seeds or plants desired per acreHill drop plantingseeds are located in hills of 2 to 5 seeds per hillCheckrow planting3 to 5 seeds dropped in hills same distance in all directions
19 What are the components of row-crop planting equipment? Objective #3What are the components of row-crop planting equipment?
20 Frames used on planters Drawn or trailing planterhas its own wheels in contact with the soilunits are mounted on the main frameattached to tractor by a tongueraised and lowered by hydraulic cylindersIntegral planter frameattached by a 3 point hitch on tractorTool-bar planterhas its own frame and drivesattached to a tool bar either on tractor or implement
21 Planter drivesDeliver the correct spacing of seeds in the row at varying travel speeds under varying soil and topographical conditionsEither ground driven or hydraulic driven.
22 Ground driven drives Carrying-wheel drives Gauge-wheel drives used on most trailing type planterspower comes from transport wheels through a series of chains, sprockets, gears and shaftspopulations changed by changing sprocket sizesGauge-wheel drivesused on the tool bar planterspower comes from the transport wheels
23 Ground driven drives Press-wheel drives Power is transmitted through a drive chain and sprocket between the seed bin and packing wheel.Slippage is greater because press wheel running in loose soil and pressure on wheels might not be enough to prevent slippage.Plant populations changed by changing sprockets in the planter.A single planter is used for multiple crops by changing plates and sprockets.
24 Hydraulic drives Operated by tractor’s hydraulic system. Hydraulic motor mounted on planter drives metering system through chains & sprockets.Seeding population controlled using variable rate technology (VRT).Radar gun or Global Positioning System (GPS) used to automatically adjust population depending on ground speed.
25 Furrow openersMajor function is to open a well defined groove in the soil where the seed is placed at proper depth and in contact with soil
26 Furrow openers V-trench Disk openers Runner openers 2 sharply angled disks and close hugging gauge wheels are used to make a V-shaped trenchDisk openers2 sharply angled disks are used to make a V-shaped trenchRunner openersrunner opener widens from the front to rear which has formed a furrow
27 Furrow openers Combination runner and double disk openers advantages from both typesShovel openersused to prepare a seed slot in sticky soil conditions
28 Seed metering deviceFunction of seed metering device is to deliver seeds from the hopper to the seed placing mechanism at a selected rate
30 Seed plate metering system Has a seed plate with openings that rotates.Seed plate turns, seeds fall into openings.One kernel/seed at a time if proper size is selected.Spring loaded pawl keeps other seeds out.When plate passes over the discharge hole a knockout pawl ejects the seed.Seed plates have to be changed to match seed size.
32 Finger-pickup metering system Eliminates changing of plates.Fingers pickup individual kernels.Has 12 spring loaded fingers that open & close by a cam as they rotate.Fingers select one individual kernel/seed.Delivers it to the discharge tube.Goes to the seed placement mechanism.
33 Three types of air metering systems Pressurized metering drumPressurized metering diskVacuum metering disk
36 Pressurized metering drum Uses PTO or hydraulic motor fan to pressurize the seed hopper and drum.Drum has holes around its circumference for each row to be planted.Pressure inside drum is higher than outside.Seeds are held due to this pressure.Discharge manifold, a release wheel releases seed into seed delivery tubeAir pushes seed to row planting unit.
39 Vacuum System Seeds are held in openings by atmospheric air pressure. Seed cut off wiper removes excess seeds.Vacuum metering system use hydraulic powered pump to create consistent vacuum to each unit.
40 Volume Metered Systems Metered on basis of spacing, weight or volume per acrecommon typesfeed cuppicker wheeladjustable holeadjustable cutoff plate
41 Volume metering systems Feed cuphas scallops on inside feed cup, fed into from hopper, carried upward, discharged into seed tubesPicker wheelused on cottonAdjustable holeagitator moves seeds over hole to delivery tubeAdjustable cutoff plateseeds flow through a stationary cutoff plate onto a rotating dome type seed plate to the discharge tube
42 Seed Placement Mechanism Function is to accept seed from metering device, drop it into the seed tube, and deliver it to the furrow properly spaced
43 Seed Placement Mechanism Gravity dropsimplest and least expensivedisadvantage is not placing seed uniformly because planter is movingseed conveyor beltused with finger pickupseed is placed on a belt to be delivered to the soilseed placement is very accurate
44 Seed Placement Mechanism Rotary valveused with plate-type metering systemvalve holds seed until a lobe ejects the seedChain droppicks up seed at metering devices carries it to soil then ejected to soilAir seed dropuses air velocity to transport seed to soil
45 Seeds planted at proper depth Depth control devices requiredgauge wheels are found in different places of plantersbest place is beside furrow openers
47 Seed MonitorsFunction is to alert the operator of a planter malfunctions.Contains a photo-electric eye at seed tube that senses the seed as it falls.Sends information to the monitor.Monitor displays information to operator.
48 Other attachments Starter fertilizer fertilizer applied at planting timeFertilizers and pesticides can be applied through the planter either in dry, granular, or liquid.Tillage attachments can be added to reduce other passes over the field.
49 What are the components of solid planting equipment? Objective #4What are the components of solid planting equipment?
50 Solid planting devices row spacing is too close to permit cultivating between the rowsgrain drills, air seeders, broadcast seeders, airplanes, & helicopters
51 Types of drills Press-wheel drill Tiling drill End-wheel drill has wheels that support and drive drillPress-wheel drillhas press wheel gangs mounted at rear of drill that firms the soil, drives the metering system, and supports the drillTiling drillsame as end-wheel with a power driven cutter that prepares the seedbed
52 Calibrating the planter Proper field adjustment and operation of planting equipment can lead to better yieldsoperator’s manual is used as a guide for initial planter settingsField calibrationthe process of actually checking and making final adjustments to the planter
53 Calibrating the planter Fill seed hoppers 1/2 fulltie up covering wheelsmark row distance equal to 1/1000 acreplant measured distance at normal speedcount seeds in the rowmultiply number of seeds X 1000equals your population rate
54 Proper MaintenanceProper servicing can mean difference between profitable crop and high losses.Planters are precision instruments they require large amounts of care.
55 Servicing planter before season Clean planter thoroughly.Check for obstructions to keep the mechanisms operating properly.Inspect metering systems for worn or broken parts.Repair or replace any damaged parts.Check all bolts and hoses for tightness.
56 Servicing during season Store planter away from moisture when not in use.Use correct type of lubricant.Lubricate at appropriate times.Avoid getting dirt into bearings.Wipe of fittings before lubricating.
57 Review What are the operating principles of planting equipment? What are the types of planting equipment?What are the components of row-crop planting equipment?What are the components of solid planting equipment?What are the maintenance procedures for planting equipment?