Presentation on theme: "Observations of an Eruptive Flux Rope, CME Formation, and Associated Blast Wave V.Grechnev 1, A.Uralov 1, I.Kuzmenko 2, A.Kochanov 1, V.Fainshtein 1, Ya.Egorov."— Presentation transcript:
Observations of an Eruptive Flux Rope, CME Formation, and Associated Blast Wave V.Grechnev 1, A.Uralov 1, I.Kuzmenko 2, A.Kochanov 1, V.Fainshtein 1, Ya.Egorov 1, D.Prosovetsky 1 1 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Irkutsk, Russia) 2 Ussuriysk Astrophysical Observatory (Ussuriysk, Russia) 2010-06-13 SDO/AIA 193 Å From Gopalswamy et al.: 2012, ApJ 744, 72
2010 June 13 Event A number of aspects were previously addressed by: 1.Patsourakos, Vourlidas, Stenborg: 2010, ApJL 724, L188 2.Kozarev et al.: 2011, ApJL 733, L25 3.Ma et al.: 2011, ApJ 738, 160 4.Gopalswamy et al.: 2012, ApJ 744, 72 5.Downs et al.: 2012, ApJ 750, 134 6.Eselevich & Eselevich: 2012, ApJ 761, 68 7.Vasanth et al.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289, 251 8.Kouloumvakos et al.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289, 2123, etc… Genesis of the flux rope and its properties How was the CME formed? Where and how was the wave excited? Major unanswered questions - Common issues for many similar events
CME Lift-off in 171 Å. Outer boundary green a) Usual representation: fixed field of view b) Resizing images to compensate for expansion What drove the CME? Looks mainly similar in 171, 193, 211, and 304 Å
SDO/AIA 131 Å images 1.Initial dark prominence 2.Prominence activates and brightens up heating up to ~10 MK 3.Transforms into bundles of loops, which erupt 4.Rope expands, turns aside by 20 , and rotates Visible only –in 131 Å (10 MK) faint –in 94 Å (6.3 MK) still poorer 1 2 3 4
Flux rope in resized movie Top: SDO/AIA 131 Å Bottom: acceleration Initial dark prominence 1.Brightens heats 2.Transforms into bundles of loops, i.e., flux rope 3.Rope sharply erupts, 3 km/s 2 4.Rope turns aside by 20 , rotates, and decelerates, -1 km/s 2 Red arc outlines the top
Kinematics of the Flux Rope Hot ~10 MK flux rope developed from structures initially associated with compact prominence Flux rope appeared as a bundle of intertwisted loops It sharply erupted with an acceleration up to 3 km/s 2 1 min before HXR burst and earlier than any other structures, –reached a speed of 450 km/s –then decelerated to 70 km/s Flare onset
CME development CME was driven by flux rope expanding inside it. Arcade loops above the rope a)were sequentially involved into expansion from below upwards, b)approached each other, and c)apparently merged, constituting the visible rim Flux rope rotated inside the rim, which has become an outer boundary of the cavity –Different event led Cheng et al. (2011, ApJL 732, L25) to similar conclusions 193 Å
CME formation. Development of Rim rimImages are resized to keep rim fixed 131 Å 171 Å
The rim: red Below rim (304 & 171 Å): blue Above rim (211 Å): green different orientations: rim was associated with a separatrix surface –Not permeable, like a membrane Expanding separatrix surface –swept up structures & plasmas ahead –left rarefied volume behind dimming Formation of rim: due to successive compression of structures above active region into CME’s frontal structure When the rim was formed completely, it looked like a piston What was the Rim? 40 LPS 304 Å 171 Å 211 Å
193 Å arc sec ‘elastic collision’ Distance–Time History Disturbance responsible for consecutive CME formation episodes –was excited by flux rope inside the rim –propagated outward Structures at different heights accelerated, when their trajectories were crossed by trajectory of this disturbance Flux rope transmitted part of its energy to structures above it -36 193 Å Wave
Kinematics of Rope, Loops and Wave Wave with v 0 1000 km/s was excited by a subsonic piston, v P = 240 km/s v 0 1000 km/s is usual Alfvén speed above an active region Acceleration of the piston was 3 km/s 2 at that time Impulsively excited wave decelerated like a blast wave
Type II burst Wave signatures were leading portion of the EUV wave and type II radio burst Also wave traces: onset of dm bursts recorded at fixed frequencies (white) Outline: power-law density model and fit Shock: see cited papers and talk by Fainshtein & Egorov Method: Grechnev et al. (2011, Sol. Phys., 273, 433 & 461)
Eruption and Wave AIA 211 Å base diff.AIA 171 Å no subtraction
Plots of CME & Wave and LASCO data Symbols: measurements from CME catalog Lines: analytic fit Main part of EUV transient became CME’s frontal structure (FS) –consisted of 1.8 MK coronal loops on top of the expanding rim Wave strongly dampened and decayed into weak disturbance, being not driven by trailing piston, which slowed down
Conclusion… Hot flux rope developed from structures associated with a compact prominence. It sharply erupted earlier than any other structures and strongly accelerated. Then it decelerated, having transmitted a part of its energy to the CME structures above it. The relaxed flux rope became the CME core. CME development was driven from inside by the expanding flux rope. Arcade loops above it were sequentially involved into expansion being compressed from below. They apparently approached each other, constituting the visible rim. The rim was separated from the active flux rope by a cavity. The rim was not pronounced in the white-light CME. Contd…
…Conclusion The rim was associated with an expanding separatrix surface. It swept up magnetoplasmas ahead, forming the main part of EUV transient (future CME frontal structure) and left rarefied volume behind, producing dimming. The impulsively erupting flux rope produced inside the forming CME a disturbance, which propagated outward like a blast wave. Being not driven by the decelerating piston, it dampened and decayed into weak disturbance. A number of events demonstrates a similar history of a wave. If a CME is fast, then such a blast-like wave should transform into bow shock afterwards. Scenario of Hirayama (1974, Sol. Phys. 34, 323) appears to match the event.
Thanks For your attentionFor your attention To organizers of this meeting for the opportunity to attend it and supportTo organizers of this meeting for the opportunity to attend it and support To the instrumental teams of SDO/AIA, SOHO (ESA & NASA), USAF RSTN, NICT (Japan), STEREOTo the instrumental teams of SDO/AIA, SOHO (ESA & NASA), USAF RSTN, NICT (Japan), STEREO To the team maintaining the SOHO/LASCO CME CatalogTo the team maintaining the SOHO/LASCO CME Catalog To L. Kashapova and S. Anfinogentov for their assistance in data handlingTo L. Kashapova and S. Anfinogentov for their assistance in data handling To A. Kouloumvakos & co-authors for useful discussionTo A. Kouloumvakos & co-authors for useful discussion
Impulsive Acceleration Stage One of possible scenarios: Reconnection between filament threads and in envelope arcade increases poloidal flux and plasma pressure Propelling toroidal force develops Filament transforms into “mainspring” Torus instability, possible kink-like instability: mainspring straightens Synchronously with HXR burst Sheared field of initial filaments Reconnection twist increases flux rope completely forms Field lines tend to straighten N S Toroidal force develops van Ballegooijen & Martens 1989, ApJ 343, 971; Inhester, Birn, Hesse 1992, Sol. Phys. 138, 257; Qiu et al. 2007, ApJ 659, 758; etc. Zhang et al. (2001, ApJ 559, 452), Temmer et al. (2008, ApJ 673, L95; 2010, ApJ 712, L1410); etc.
Development of shock waves Waves are excited by sharply erupting filaments as impulsive pistons at ~50 Mm during rise of HXR/microwave bursts, but not by flares Waves rapidly steepen into shocks in region of steep falloff of V fast in AR Waves are transmitted by arcades, enveloping filaments, as monopole acoustic antennas Then waves propagate like decelerating blast waves (cf. Parker 1961; Pomoell et al. 2008) Pre-eruptive filaments Arcade Not easy to recognize expanding arcade and appearing wave Arcade Eruptive filaments High V fast domain Low V fast environment
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