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Environmental Quiz Most recent update July 1, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Quiz Most recent update July 1, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Quiz Most recent update July 1, 2014

2 The population of the world in 1950 was 2.6 billion. The world population is currently about: 3.4 billion 7.2 billion 9.3 billion 11.5 billion

3 The population of the world in 1950 was 2.6 billion. The world population is currently about: 3.4 billion 7.2 billion 9.3 billion 11.5 billion

4 World Population Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, Projection

5 The population of the world is currently increasing at a rate of about 8,900 people per: month week day hour

6 The population of the world is currently increasing at a rate of about 8,900 people per: month week day hour

7 Rate of Population Increase Time UnitPopulation Increase Year 77,570,553 Month 6,464,213 Week 1,491,741 Day 212,522 Hour 8,855 Minute 148 Second 2.5 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2014.

8 The estimated world population in the year 2050 is about: 3.4 billion 6.8 billion 9.4 billion 11.5 billion

9 The estimated world population in the year 2050 is about: 3.4 billion 6.8 billion 9.4 billion 11.5 billion

10 World Population (Medium Projection of Growth Assumed After 2000) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, Billions

11 The population of the United States in 1960 was 181 million. The U.S. population is currently about: 220 million 319 million 420 million 511 million

12 The population of the United States in 1960 was 181 million. The U.S. population is currently about: 220 million 319 million 420 million 511 million

13 The medium (most likely) estimate of the U.S. population in the year 2060 is: a. 220 million b. 319 million c. 420 million d. 511 million

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15 Growth of U.S. Population, History Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division (2013 ) Projection

16 China’s current population (mid-year 2014) is 1.36 billion. Assuming a continuation of the current U.S. population growth rate of 0.72% annually, how many years would it take for the U.S. population to become equal to the current population of China? a. 50 b. 100 c. 200 d. 400 e.1,000

17 China’s current population (mid-year 2014) is 1.36 billion. Assuming a continuation of the current U.S. population growth rate of 0.72% annually, how many years would it take for the U.S. population to become equal to the current population of China? a. 50 b. 100 c. 200 d. 400 e.1,000

18 If the U.S. population were to continue its current rate of growth (0.72% annually) for the next 400 years, the population would increase to over 5.1 billion. (The current world population is 7.2 billion).

19 If the current rate of growth were to continue for the next 1,000 years, this seemingly negligible growth rate would result in a U.S. population of over 326 billion (45x the current world population).

20 True (T) or False (F): Consumption of mineral resources globally has increased sharply over the past 30 years.

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22 True (T) or False (F): The world’s most economically developed countries consume a far larger share of the world’s industrial raw materials than their collective share of world population.

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24 Percent of Global Consumption of Selected Materials by Developed Nations* * Developed nations included in consumption statistics are the United States, Canada, EU-15 nations, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and S. Korea. Percent of world population, 2010 (10.7%) Note that the portion of critical materials consumed by developed nations is decreasing as developing nations make economic gains.

25 True (T) or False (F): The United States is a net exporter of most raw materials used by industry today.

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27 Due in part to domestic environmental concerns, the U.S. is a net importer of most categories of raw materials used to support our economy and lifestyle.  Most metals  Portland and masonry cement  Petroleum (the basis for plastics)  Wood and wood products

28 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption , and by Major Foreign Sources a/ b/ c/ d/ Material% ImportedPrincipal Foreign Sources ( ) Niobium 100 Brazil, Canada Manganese 100S. Africa, Gabon, Australia, Georgia Graphite 100China, Mexico, Canada, Brazil Strontium 100Mexico, Germany, China Arsenic (trioxide) 100Morocco, China, Belgium Bauxite/Alumina 100Jamaica, Brazil, Guinea, Australia Fluorspar 100Mexico, China, S. Africa, Mongolia Yttrium 100China, Japan, Austria, France Indium 100China, Canada, Belgium, Japan Thallium 100Germany, Russia Thorium 100India, France Asbestos 100Canada, Brazil Quartz (crystal) 100China, Japan, Russia

29 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption , and by Major Foreign Sources a/ b/ c/ d/ Material% ImportedPrincipal Foreign Sources ( ) Rare earth metals 100China, France, Estonia, Japan Rubidium 100Canada Cesium 100Canada Tantalum 100Mexico, Germany, China Mica (natural) 100China, Brazil, Belgium, India Scandium 100China Vanadium 100Canada, Czech Rep., S. Korea, Austria Gallium 99Germany, UK, China, Canada Gemstones 99Israel, India, Belgium, S. Africa Bismuth 91China, Belgium, UK Iodine 91Chile, Japan Diamond (dust, grit) 88 China, Ireland, S. Korea, Romania Antimony 85China, Mexico, Belgium, Bolivia

30 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption , and by Major Foreign Sources a/ b/ c/ d/ Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources ( ) Germanium85 China, Belgium, Russia, Germany Potash 82 Canada, Russia, Israel, Chile Lithium80+ Argentina, Chile, China Rhenium 80 Chile, Poland, Germany Stone (dimension)80 Brazil, China, Italy, Turkey Platinum Group 79 Germany, S. Africa, UK, Canada Titanium concentrates 79 S. Africa, Australia, Canada, Mozambique Cobalt 76 China, Norway, Russia, Finland Garnet (industrial)76 Australia, India, China Barium (Barite) 75 China, India, Morocco Zinc 74 Canada, Mexico, Peru Tin 73 Peru, Bolivia, Indonesia, Malaysia Silicon carbide72 China, S. Africa, Netherlands, Romania

31 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption , and by Major Foreign Sources a/ b/ c/ d/ Material% ImportedPrincipal Foreign Sources ( ) Peat 66Canada Palladium 60 Russia, S. Africa, UK, Norway Silver 58 Mexico, Canada, Poland, Peru Chromium 50 S. Africa, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mexico Nickel 48Canada, Russia, Australia, Norway Magnesium Cpds 47China, Brazil, Canada, Australia Titanium (sponge) 45Kazakhstan, Japan, China, Russia Tungsten 41 China, Bolivia, Germany, Portugal Silicon 42Russia, Brazil, Canada, S. Africa Copper 36Chile, Canada, Peru, Mexico Mica (scrap/flake) 36Canada, China, India, Finland Nitrogen (fixed) 36 Trinidad/Tobago, Russia, Canada, Ukraine Petroleum 35 Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela, Russia, Colombia, Iraq, Kuwait

32 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption , and by Major Foreign Sources a/ b/ c/ d/ Material % ImportedPrincipal Foreign Sources ( ) Vermiculite 30S. Africa, China, Brazil Aluminum 28Canada, Russia, China, Mexico Lead25Canada, Mexico Magnesium Metal 25Israel, Canada, China Lumber (softwood) 24Canada, EU, Chile, New Zealand Salt 22Canada, Chile, Mexico, The Bahamas Perlite 20Greece Sulfur 18Canada, Mexico, Venezuela Iron and steel 13Canada, Mexico, S. Korea, Brazil Talc12China, Canada, Pakistan, Japan Beryllium11Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Japan Gypsum 9Canada, Mexico, Spain Iron and steel slag 8Canada, Japan, Italy, S. Africa

33 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption , and by Major Foreign Sources a/ b/ c/ d/ Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources ( ) Cement (Portland/masonry) 7 Canada, S. Korea, China, Mexico Pumice 5 Greece, Iceland, Mexico, Montserrat Phosphate rock 3 Morocco, Peru Diamond (industrial) 3 Botswana, S. Africa, India, Nambia Lime 1 Canada, Mexico Stone (crushed) 1 Canada, Mexico, The Bahamas a/ U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries b/ Principal foreign sources arranged by most important supplier to the left, next most important to the right of that, and so on. c/ Petroleum data from U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration 2014 (July). d/ Data for construction lumber from RISI, Random Lengths, 2013, 2014.

34 True (T) or False (F): The raw material that is used in the greatest quantity in the U.S. today, and which accounts for almost one-third (by weight) of the total raw materials used annually is steel.

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36 Annual U.S. Consumption of Various Raw Materials, 2011 Million Metric tons Million m 3 Roundwood* Forest products (wood only) Cement Steel Plastics Aluminum Source: Data for wood from UNECE (2013); for cement, steel, and aluminum from the U.S. Geological Survey (2013); and for plastics from the American Plastics Council (2012). * Roundwood is the volume of all wood harvested. More wood is consumed every year in the United States than all metals and all plastics combined.

37 True (T) or False (F): Energy consumption per capita (per person) in the United States is twice that of the European Union.

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39 Per Capita Energy Consumption in the U.S. and the E.U. Countries, 2008 Energy Consumption (kilograms of oil equivalent per person) United States Finland (EU highest) France Germany UK E.U. Average3773.4

40 China’s emissions of carbon dioxide in 2012 were greater than those of any other nation, and 90% greater than those of the United States. In that same year China’s per capita emissions of carbon dioxide were: a. 35% greater than the U.S. b. 15% greater than the U.S. c. About the same as in the U.S. d. Less than one-half those of the U.S. e. Less than one-third those of the U.S.

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42 True (T) or False (F): Globally, the area of forests is declining, mostly due to human activity.

43 Conversion of forest to non-forest uses totals about 13 million acres annually, primarily in the tropical regions.

44 The number one cause of tropical deforestation worldwide is: commercial logging. wildfire. clearing of lands for agricultural use. gathering of firewood. building of roads and cities.

45 The number one cause of tropical deforestation worldwide is: commercial logging. wildfire. clearing of lands for agricultural use. gathering of firewood. building of roads and cities. Various estimates indicate that 60 to 85% of tropical deforestation today is due to permanent and shifting agriculture.

46 The area covered by forests in the U.S. today is approximately ____ of the forested area that existed in percent 50 percent 33 percent 17 percent

47 The area covered by forests in the U.S. today is approximately ____ of the forested area that existed in percent 50 percent 33 percent 17 percent

48 Forests now cover 73% of the land area in the U.S. that they did at the time of European settlement Forest - 1,100 million acres Forest million acres Source: USDA - Forest Service

49 True (T) or False (F). The geographic area that encompasses the United States today has about the same forest coverage as the same geographic area did in 1907.

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51 Forest Area in the United States Thousand Acres Source: USDA-Forest Service, RPA Update. (2013).

52 Which of the following statements most accurately describes U.S. forests: Forest harvest exceeds growth by 20 percent. Forest harvest exceeds growth by 5 percent. Forest harvest roughly equals growth. Forest growth exceeds harvest by 29 percent. Forest growth exceeds harvest by more than 100 percent.

53 Which of the following statements most accurately describes U.S. forests: Forest harvest exceeds growth by 20 percent. Forest harvest exceeds growth by 5 percent. Forest harvest roughly equals growth. Forest growth exceeds harvest by 29 percent. Forest growth exceeds harvest by more than 100 percent.

54 Net Growth/Removals Ratios – U.S., Source: Smith, et al., 2004; USDA-Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-78. (2009); Forest Resources of the United States, 2012 (USDA-Forest Service (2013). When net forest growth divided by removals = 1.0, timber inventories are neither expanding or declining.

55 True (T) or False (F). Growing trees capture carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen.

56 CO 2 O2 Carbon

57 True (T) or False (F): As originally established, it was never intended that the National Forests of the U.S. would be periodically harvested to obtain timber that would be used in meeting the nation’s need for wood.

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59 True (T) or False (F). At current rates of deforestation, forty (40) percent of current forests in the U.S. will be lost by the middle of this century.

60 In fact, the area covered by forests in the U.S. is increasing.

61 True (T) or False (F): In the U.S. more species of plants and animals have been driven to extinction by logging activity than any other activity of mankind.

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63 There is no evidence that even one plant or animal species has been driven to extinction as a result of logging activity in the United States.

64 True (T) or False (F). Under current United States law, forest harvesting is allowed in federally designated wilderness areas.

65 No harvesting is allowed in wilderness areas

66 True (T) or False (F): Considering the total annual harvest of forests in the United States and the total consumption of wood and fiber products within our country, the U.S. is a net importer of wood and wood products.

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68 The United States is a Net Importer of Wood and Wood Products Net U.S. imports of wood and wood products amounted to 9 percent of total wood consumption and 24 percent of construction lumber consumed in 2013.

69 As a percentage of all the paper used in the United States in 2013 _____ was recovered for reuse. 15 percent 38 percent 63 percent 81 percent

70 As a percentage of all the paper used in the United States in 2013 _____ was recovered for reuse. 15 percent 38 percent 63 percent 81 percent

71 Recovered paper provided _____ of the fiber used in manufacturing paper in the United States in percent 38 percent 63 percent 81 percent

72 Recovered paper provided _____ of the fiber used in manufacturing paper in the United States in percent 38 percent 63 percent 81 percent

73 True (T) or False (F). Reduced paper consumption is likely to result in a greater extent of forest cover in the United States.

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75 The vast majority of wood used for papermaking in the U.S. comes from privately-owned forest land. Should consumption of paper (and pulpwood) decline markedly, many owners are likely to convert their forested land to agriculture or some other non-forest use that will provide income.

76 True (T) or False (F). The manufacture of wood construction materials generally results in far lower environmental impacts than when similar construction materials are manufactured from steel, aluminum, plastic, or concrete.

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78 At a time when Society is seeking to more effectively harness solar energy, it turns out that one of our major raw materials – wood – is totally produced using solar energy.

79 And, very little additional energy is required to convert wood into useful products.

80 The manufacture and use of all construction materials results in environmental impacts. The impacts, however, differ considerably.

81 If, for example, an interior wall of a house is constructed using steel rather than wood studs, the result is a large increase in energy consumption and emissions to air and water.

82 Interior Non-Load Bearing Wall, Wood vs. Steel Comparative Energy Use (GJ) Wood Steel* Difference X * 30% recycled content, the average recycled content for steel studs. Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute.

83 Comparative Emissions in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall Emission/Effluent Wood WallSteel Wall Difference CO 2 (kg), X CO (g) 2,450 11, X SO X (g) 400 3, X NO X (g) 1,150 1, X Particulates (g) X VOCs (g) 390 1, X Methane (g), 4, X Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute.

84 Comparative Effluents in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall Emission/Effluent Wood Wall Steel Wall Difference Suspended solids (g)12, ,640 41X Non-ferrous metals (mg) 62 2,532 41X Cyanide (mg) 99 4,051 41X Phenols (mg) 17, ,994 41X Ammonia (mg) 1,310 53,665 41X Halogenated organics (mg) ,758 41X Oil and grease (mg) 1,421 58,222 41X Sulphides (mg) X Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute.

85 Question for Thought: When someone says “In the United States, we have less than 4% of our original forests left,” what are they really saying?


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