Presentation on theme: "1. 2 AUXILIARY OPERATIONAL SPECIALTY COURSE SEAMANSHIP ( AUXSEA) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY DIRAUX ANNEX WEST."— Presentation transcript:
2 AUXILIARY OPERATIONAL SPECIALTY COURSE SEAMANSHIP ( AUXSEA) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY DIRAUX ANNEX WEST 7 TH USCG DISTRICT MIAMI, FLORIDA
3 CREDIT FOR GRAPHICS Our sincere thanks to the following federal agencies for the use of their PUBLIC DOMAIN graphics: DOC.NOAA, NWS DOT, FAA, USCG, USCG AUX..
4 CREDITS, CONT’D In addition, we would like to thank those Auxiliarists who generously contributed their time, expertise, talents and equipment to provide this course with valuable graphic works included herein. Linda Vetter, SO-OP D1 11-N
5 PRODUCTION CREDITS This Distance Learning Course was produced by William N. Seiler, Asst. Supervisor, Computer Support Group, Training Presentations; Ed Rhea, Asst. to the Supervisor. and Jim Carol, Computer Support Group Staff; Douglas Simpson, Supervisor, Computer Support Group, DIRAUX WEST, Venice, Fl. and under the direction of Kevin Crawley, CDR, USCG, DIRAUX, USCG 7 th District, Miami, Fl. and is for GENERAL INSTRUCTIONAL PURPPOSES ONLY.
6 INTRODUCTION SEAMANSHIP 1.Welcome to the Auxiliary Operational Specialty course SEAMANSHIP or AUXSEA. 2.The term SEAMANSHIP literally encompasses the entire subject of boating. 3.This is one of seven (7) courses leading to the coveted AUXOP rating and award of the badge.
7 SEAMANSHIP TEXTS – STUDY GUIDES-REFERENCES 1.REFERENCE TEXT: ANY VERSION OF “CHAPMAN’S SEAMANSHIP”. 2.STUDY THE SAME TOPIC IN THE STUDY GUIDE AND IN CHAPMAN’S. 1.TEXT: P APR 1992 WITH PROPER CHANGES. 2.FINAL EXAMINATION BASED ON STUDY QUESTIONS AT END OF EACH CHAPTER IN STUDY GUIDE. 3.SEE INSTRUCTOR AND MENTOR FOR FURTHER GUIDANCE.
8 TERMINOLOGY AROUND A BOAT 1.BOW: The most foward portion of the main hull (the “pointy end”). 2.FOWARD: Towards (in the direction of) the Bow. 3.AHEAD: Hull motion relative to the bow. 4.STERN: Aftermost portion of the main hull; the back end of the vessel (the BLUNT end),
9 TERMINOLOGY AROUND A BOAT a.AFT: In the direction of the stern; towards the back end of the boat. b.ASTERN: Direction of hull motion relative to the stern; backing motion relative to the bow. c.SIDES: Looking towards the bow, from the stern (on either side of the keel): Side to your right is STARBOARD. Side to your left is PORT.
10 TERMINOLOGY AROUND A BOAT PLEASE NOTE: There are NO “right” or left” sides on the water. There are only PORTs and STARBOARDs”. d. BEAM: The widest point of the hull, gunwale to gunwale. e. ATHWARTSHIP: Any measurement made from one side of the hull to the other at 90 degrees to the keel.
11 TERMINOLOGY TERMS DENOTING HULL SHAPE 1.SHEER: The curve or sweep of the deck, from bow to stern, of a vessel when viewed from the side 2.FLARE: The outward curvature of the sides of the boat near the bow (looking head-on), which helps to keep the vessel’s decks drier.
12 TERMINOLOGY HULL’S BOTTOM 1.FLAT: Little or NO lateral curvature when viewed from either the bow or the stern. 2.ROUND: When viewed from the bow or the stern, the sides show a definite “roundness” or curving down and inward from the deck towards the keel.
13 TERMINOLOGY HULL’S BOTTOM TYPE VEE: When viewed from the bow, the sides slope sharply towards the keel but have a tendency to flare out shortly after the bow and may continue do so up to the mid-point of the hull. DEEP “V”: Carries the sharp “V” style much farther aft. SHALLOW or SEMI-”V”:. “V” shallows out very rapidly aft of the bow. NOTE: The deeper the “V” the softer the ride and the greater the directional control especially at LOW speeds.
14 TWO BASIC HULL TYPES 1.DISPLACEMENT: 2.When loaded, sets low in the water. Flotation depends on the amount of water displaced by hull. Water displaced >/= weight of the vessel. Usually slower vessel. 3.PLANING: Sets on top of the water. Fast moving. Flotation does not depend as much on amount of water displaced by the hull. Load capabilities from dynamic actions with the hull’s bottom and the water surface.
15 DISPLACEMENT HULLS
16 PLANING HULL
17 TWO BASIC CABIN STYLES 1.TRUNK : Does not extend fully from gunwale to gunwale; has walking space on both sides. 2.RAISED DECK: Does extend all the way, from gunwale to gunwale; NO walking space on either side.
18 OTHER BOATING TERMS 1.KEELSON: A timber ( can also be of metal) fastened along the top of the keel, inside of the hull. 2.LIMBER HOLES: Passages cut into the area next to the keel to allow water to properly flow to it’s lowest point, to be pumped out. 3.KING POST: The spoke of a steering wheel that is vertical when the rudder is exactly centered along the keel. 4.THWART: A transverse seat generally in a rowing craft.
19 OTHER BOATING TERMS BOOTOP: The general area of the exterior hull at the waterline. THWART STANCHION: A vertical support (stanchion) for a transverse seat (thwart).
20 OTHER BOATING TERMS BOAT MOTIONS PITCH: The “UP” and “DOWN” vertical motion of the bow as the boat rotates around it’s lateral axis. ROLL: The gunwale–to - gunwale motion of the hull as it rotates around it’s longitudinal axis. YAW: The swinging motion of the bow from side to side, as the hull rotates around it’s vertical axis.
21 DANGEROUS BOATING MOTIONS BROACH: Downhill; fairly high speed. Bow sharply digs under the surface. Floods or significantly washes main decks. CAPSIZING: Vessel rolls over bottom up; difficult or impossible recovery. PITCHPOLING: Commonly following a BROACH and loss of directional control. Bow plunges deep; turns sharply to one side; vessel rolls and capsizes. Violent potentially lethal maneuver.
22 SAILBOAT CONFIGURATION IDENTIFICATION DEPENDS UPON THE NUMBER OF MASTS AND SAILS AND WHERE PLACED. 1.The graphics which follow are highly simplified examples.
23 CATBOAT CONFIGURATION CATBOAT: Single mast; One mainsail Marconi or Gaff Mainsail
24 SLOOP CONFIGURATION SLOOP: Single mast; mainsail and jib. MainsailJib
25 KETCH CONFIGURATION Two masts; smaller aft; after mast ahead of steering station STEERING STATION
26 YAWL CONFIGURATION Two masts; smaller BEHIND the steering station STEERING STATION
27 SCHOONER CONFIGURATION SCHOONER: At least two masts; Main is aft and taller. Foremast is foward. May carry many sails. Foremast MAIN
28 SEAMANSHIP BOAT BUILDING MATERIALS Five (5) materials considered 1.FIBERGLASS 2.WOOD 3.STEEL 4.ALUMINUM 5.FABRIC
29 FIBERGLASS DEFINITION: STRANDS OF GLASS, SATURATED WITH RESIN and allowed TO PROPERLY DRY AND CURE
30 TYPES OF FIBERGLAS CHOPPED STRANDS
31 FIBERGLASS 1.MOST POPULAR building material 2.REASON FOR PRIMARY CHOICE: EASE OF MAINTENANCE
32 TERMINOLOGY A fiberglass hull is composed of matting, roving, cloth and strands of fiberglass saturated with plastic resin(s); very similar to steel-reinforced concrete.
33 ADVANTAGES OF FIBERGLASS IMPERVIOUS TO MARINE ANIMALS, WORMS / BORERS (NOT GROWTH.) 1.NO DRY ROT 2.FEW OR NO SEAMS / JOINTS 3.NO LEAKS FROM SEAMS / JOINTS 4.COLOR MOLDED IN 5.STRONG 6.MOLD INTO ALMOST ANY SHAPE 7.LOW MAINTENANCE
34 DISADVANTAGES OF FIBERGLASS 1.HEAVIER THAN WATER: READILY SINKS 2.EASIER TO COVER UP SHODDY WORKMANSHIP
35 TWO KINDS OF RESINS 1.POLYESTER: VERSATILE EASY TO WORK WITH/ HANDLE INEXPENSIVE 2. EPOXIES: STRONGER MORE EXPENSIVE MORE DIFFICULT TO WORK WITH.
36 RESIN ADDITIVES 1.Hardeners: HARDEN THE RESIN 2.Driers: CONTROL THE CURING TIME 3.Fire Suppressants: MAKE THE RESIN FIRE RETARDANT 4.ALL RESINS: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE
37 MOLDS MALE MOLD: PLUG: Exact size, shape of object to mold FEMALE MOLD: CAVITY MOLD USED FOR HAND-LAYUP CHOPPED STRAND NOTE: Gel Coat applied first, to the inside of the female mold. BLOWGUN PROCESS: Fastest, smoothest results
38 MOLDS MATCHED DIE: MALE / FEMALE MOLDS CLAMPED TOGETHER LAMINATE USED BETWEEN (SANDWICHED) BALSA WOOD FOAMED PLASTICS PLYWOOD
39 WOOD CONSIDERATION FOR USE 1. STRENGTH 2. AVAILABILITY 3. WORKABILITY 4. WATER ABSORPTION 5. LEAST NOISY
40 WOOD CONSTRUCTION MORE DECAY RESISTANT: HARD WOODS: ASH, MAHOGANY, TEAK, OAK LESS DECAY RESISTANT: SOFTER WOODS: CEDAR, FIR, PINE
41 WOOD DISADVANTAGES 1.NUMBER ONE: DRY ROT 2.HIGHLY SUCEPTIBLE TO: WORMS, BORERS 3. ABSORBS WATER 4.EASILY DAMAGED
43 STEEL CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES 1.STRONGEST STRENGTH – TO – WEIGHT RATIO 2. STIFF \ RESISTANT TO: IMPACT – FATIGUE - ABRASION 3. LESS NOISY THAN ALL BUT WOOD
44 ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES 1. LIGHT WEIGHT 2. IMPERVIOUS TO MARINE ANIMALS ( NOT GROWTH ) 3. FAIRLY EASY TO FORM
45 ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION DISADVANTAGES 1.SUSCEPTIBLE TO ELECTROLYSIS 2.HEAT CONDUCTOR 3. NOISY 4. EASY TO DAMAGE
46 STEERING SYSTEMS TILLER A SIMPLE RUDDER POST WITH A HANDLE ON TOP OF IT, BY WHICH TO STEER. The most simple of all steering systems
47 THE SIMPLE TILLER
48 STEERING SYSTEMS DRUM & CABLE A DRUM IS ATTACHED TO A STEERING WHEEL. A CABLE IS WOUND AROUND THE DRUM; FED THROUGH A SERIES OF PULLEYS FOR SUSPENSION, THEN TO EACH SIDE OF A YOKE ATTACHED TO A RUDDER POST. TURNING THE STEERING WHEEL ACUTATES THE STEERING.
49 DRUM & CABLE SYSTEM
50 STEERING SYSTEMS SPROCKET & CHAIN IF YOU REPLACE THE DRUM IN THE DRUM & CABLE WITH A SPROCKET, THE TWO SYSTEMS WORK ALMOST IDENTICALLY. THE SPROCKET AND CHAIN IS BUILT FOR HEAVIER BOATS AND GREATER WORKLOADS.
51 RACK & PINION
52 RACK & PINION THE STEERING CABLE IS ENCLOSED IN A CONDUIT. A PINION GEAR IS ATTACHED TO THE END OF THE STEERING SHAFT AND TO ONE END OF A RACK WHICH ATTACHES TO THE OTHER END OF THE CABLE. THE CABLE ALSO ATTACHES TO THE RUDDER POST OR THE OUTBOARD ENGINE. TURNING THE WHEEL TRANSLATES INTO TURNING THE RUDDER OR THE OUTBOARD ENGINE.
53 STEERING SYSTEMS GEAR & SHAFT NORMALLY NOT FOUND ON SMALL BOATS: A series of worm and bevel gears are attached to a steering shaft which again, like the RACK & PINION, translates the directional forces into steerage. This system is for strong, powerful, heavy applied loads such as those on large ocean going vessels.
54 GEAR & SHAFT LARGER VESSELS
55 HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SIMILAR TO THOSE FOUND ON AUTOMOBILES. HYDRAULIC FLUID, UNDER PRESSURE, ACTUATES STEERING CABLE CHANGES WHICH ARE TRANSLATED INTO TURNING MOTIONS OF THE RUDDER OR OUTBOARD.
56 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 1 1.A sloop is a sailboat with _______ ` a. a single mast, with a mainsail and a jib b. two masts, the aftermast being shorter than the foreword mast. c. a single mast rigged to hoist only one sail. d. two or more masts; the aftermast taller than the foreword mast.
57 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. A sloop is a sailboat with________ a. a single mast with a mainsail and jib
58 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 2 2.A fiberglass hull is constructed of strands and layers of fiberglass ______________ a. bonded with hydraulic cement. b. saturated with latex cement. c. saturated with resin. d. reinforced with steel mesh.
59 REVIEW QUESTIONS 2. A fiberglass hull is constructed of strands and layers of fiberglass ________________ c. saturated with resin
60 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO On a strength-to-weight ratio, sheet steel is_________________ a. stronger than fiberglass b. equal to wood c. weaker than aluminum d. equal to fiberglass
61 REVIEW QUESTIONS 3. On a strength-to-weight ratio, sheet steel is ____________________ a. stronger than fiberglass
62 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO Steel boat hulls ___________________ a. require considerable maintenance b. require no protective painting for growths c. have a higher strength-to-weight ratio than wood and aluminum but not fiberglass. d. are less noisy than all other boat building materials.
64 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO The simplest type of steering mechanism for a boat is the____________________ a. rack and pinion b. drum and cable c. sprocket and chain d. tiller
65 REVIEW QUESTIONS 5. The simplest type of steering mechanism for a boat is the ________________________ d. tiller
66 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO Limber holes____________________ a. permit water to pass through a boat’s frame. b. provide finger holds for lifting floor boards. c. provide ventilation in holds. d. are used to inspect the bilges.
67 REVIEW QUESTIONS 6. Limber Holes ________________ a. permit water to pass through a boat’s frame
68 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO The curve or sweep of a vessel, as viewed from the side is called the ______ a. freeboard b boot top c. sheer d. tumble home
69 REVIEW QUESTIONS 7. The curve or sweep of a vessel, as viewed from the side, is called the ____ c. sheer
70 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO The outward curvature of the sides of the hull, near the bow, that is used to keep the deck drier, is called the_________________ a. sheer b. freeboard c. trunk d. flare
71 REVIEW QUESTIONS 8. The outward curvature of the sides of the hull near the bow, that is used to keep the deck drier, is called the________________ d. flair
72 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO The use of two or more different materials, when constructing the hull, is called_____construction. a. layered b. multiple c. composite d. feathered
73 REVIEW QUESTIONS 9. The use of two or more different materials, when constructing the hull, is called _____ construction. c. composite
74 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO The top advantage of a steel hull is_______ a. it’s weight b. it is quieter c. it is easier to maintain d. it is fire proof
75 REVIEW QUESTIONS 10. The top advantage of a steel hull is____ b. it is quieter