Presentation on theme: "Slide No. 1 INTRODUCTION NOTES: This area will always be reserved to display notes and text referring to the slide above, or previous, or next, as marked."— Presentation transcript:
2Slide No. 1INTRODUCTIONNOTES: This area will always be reserved to display notes and text referring to the slide above, or previous, or next, as marked.To PRINT the notes: Go to VIEW on the tool bar at the top of the web page; click on NOTES PAGE to display the proper page; click on PRINT.ADVANCE SLIDES: click on slide No. at left; otherwise when in SLIDE SHOW, simply left click on the slide on the CRT or right click to display a menu of choices.SLIDE SHOW: Go to VIEW click on SHOW.End of NotesAUXILIARY OPERATIONAL SPECIALTY COURSE SEAMANSHIP ( AUXSEA) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY DIRAUX ANNEX WEST 7TH USCG DISTRICT MIAMI, FLORIDA
3SLIDE NO 2**NO NOTES**CREDIT FOR GRAPHICSOur sincere thanks to the following federal agencies for the use of their PUBLIC DOMAIN graphics:DOC.NOAA, NWSDOT, FAA, USCG, USCG AUX..
4CREDITS, CONT’DIn addition, we would like to thank those Auxiliarists who generously contributed their time, expertise, talents and equipment to provide this course with valuable graphic works included herein.Linda Vetter, SO-OP D1 11-N
5SLIDE NO. 3NO NOTESPRODUCTION CREDITSThis Distance Learning Course was produced by William N. Seiler, Asst. Supervisor, Computer Support Group, Training Presentations; Ed Rhea, Asst. to the Supervisor. and Jim Carol, Computer Support Group Staff; Douglas Simpson, Supervisor, Computer Support Group, DIRAUX WEST, Venice, Fl. and under the direction of Kevin Crawley, CDR, USCG, DIRAUX, USCG 7th District, Miami, Fl. and is for GENERAL INSTRUCTIONAL PURPPOSES ONLY.
6INTRODUCTION SEAMANSHIP Welcome to the Auxiliary Operational Specialty course SEAMANSHIP or AUXSEA.The term SEAMANSHIP literally encompasses the entire subject of boating.This is one of seven (7) courses leading to the coveted AUXOP rating and award of the badge.
7TEXTS – STUDY GUIDES-REFERENCES SEAMANSHIPTEXTS – STUDY GUIDES-REFERENCESREFERENCE TEXT: ANY VERSION OF “CHAPMAN’S SEAMANSHIP”.STUDY THE SAME TOPIC IN THE STUDY GUIDE ANDIN CHAPMAN’S.TEXT: P APR 1992 WITH PROPER CHANGES.FINAL EXAMINATION BASED ON STUDY QUESTIONS AT END OF EACH CHAPTER IN STUDY GUIDE.SEE INSTRUCTOR AND MENTOR FOR FURTHER GUIDANCE.
8TERMINOLOGY AROUND A BOAT BOW: The most foward portion of the main hull (the “pointy end”).FOWARD: Towards (in the direction of) the Bow.AHEAD: Hull motion relative to the bow.STERN: Aftermost portion of the main hull; the back end of the vessel (the BLUNT end),
9TERMINOLOGY AROUND A BOAT AFT: In the direction of the stern; towards the back end of the boat.ASTERN: Direction of hull motion relative to the stern; backing motion relative to the bow.SIDES: Looking towards the bow, from the stern (on either side of the keel):Side to your right is STARBOARD.Side to your left is PORT.
10TERMINOLOGY AROUND A BOAT PLEASE NOTE: There are NO “right” or left” sides on the water. There are only PORTs and STARBOARDs”.d. BEAM: The widest point of the hull, gunwale to gunwale.e. ATHWARTSHIP: Any measurement made from one side of the hull to the other at 90 degrees to the keel.
11TERMS DENOTING HULL SHAPE TERMINOLOGYTERMS DENOTING HULL SHAPESHEER: The curve or sweep of the deck, from bow to stern, of a vessel when viewed from the sideFLARE: The outward curvature of the sides of the boat near the bow (looking head-on), which helps to keep the vessel’s decks drier.
12TERMINOLOGY HULL’S BOTTOM FLAT: Little or NO lateral curvature when viewed from either the bow or the stern.ROUND: When viewed from the bow or the stern, the sides show a definite “roundness” or curving down and inward from the deck towards the keel.
13TERMINOLOGY HULL’S BOTTOM TYPE VEE: When viewed from the bow, the sides slope sharply towards the keel but have a tendency to flare out shortly after the bow and may continue do so up to the mid-point of the hull.DEEP “V”: Carries the sharp “V” style much farther aft.SHALLOW or SEMI-”V”: . “V” shallows out very rapidly aft of the bow.NOTE: The deeper the “V” the softer the ride and the greater the directional control especially at LOW speeds.
14TWO BASIC HULL TYPES DISPLACEMENT: When loaded, sets low in the water. Flotation depends on the amount of water displaced by hull. Water displaced >/= weight of the vessel. Usually slower vessel.PLANING: Sets on top of the water. Fast moving. Flotation does not depend as much on amount of water displaced by the hull. Load capabilities from dynamic actions with the hull’s bottom and the water surface.
17TWO BASIC CABIN STYLESTRUNK : Does not extend fully from gunwale to gunwale; has walking space on both sides.RAISED DECK: Does extend all the way, from gunwale to gunwale; NO walking space on either side.
18OTHER BOATING TERMSKEELSON: A timber ( can also be of metal) fastened along the top of the keel, inside of the hull.LIMBER HOLES: Passages cut into the area next to the keel to allow water to properly flow to it’s lowest point, to be pumped out.KING POST: The spoke of a steering wheel that is vertical when the rudder is exactly centered along the keel.THWART: A transverse seat generally in a rowing craft.
19OTHER BOATING TERMSBOOTOP: The general area of the exterior hull at the waterline.THWART STANCHION: A vertical support (stanchion) for a transverse seat (thwart).
20OTHER BOATING TERMS BOAT MOTIONS PITCH: The “UP” and “DOWN” vertical motion of the bow as the boat rotates around it’s lateral axis.ROLL: The gunwale–to - gunwale motion of the hull as it rotates around it’s longitudinal axis.YAW: The swinging motion of the bow from side to side, as the hull rotates around it’s vertical axis.
21DANGEROUS BOATING MOTIONS BROACH: Downhill; fairly high speed. Bow sharply digs under the surface. Floods or significantly washes main decks.CAPSIZING: Vessel rolls over bottom up; difficult or impossible recovery.PITCHPOLING: Commonly following a BROACH and loss of directional control. Bow plunges deep; turns sharply to one side; vessel rolls and capsizes. Violent potentially lethal maneuver.
22SAILBOAT CONFIGURATION IDENTIFICATION DEPENDS UPON THE NUMBER OF MASTS AND SAILS AND WHERE PLACED.The graphics which follow are highly simplified examples.
23CATBOAT CONFIGURATION MainsailCATBOAT:Single mast; One mainsail Marconi or Gaff
24SLOOP: Single mast; mainsail and jib. SLOOP CONFIGURATIONMainsailJibSLOOP: Single mast; mainsail and jib.
25Two masts; smaller aft; after mast ahead of steering station KETCH CONFIGURATIONSTEERING STATIONTwo masts; smaller aft; after mast ahead of steering station
26Two masts; smaller BEHIND the steering station YAWL CONFIGURATIONSTEERING STATIONTwo masts; smaller BEHIND the steering station
27SCHOONER CONFIGURATION MAINForemastSCHOONER: At least two masts; Main is aft and taller. Foremast is foward. May carry many sails.
28SEAMANSHIP BOAT BUILDING MATERIALS SLIDE NO. 24SEAMANSHIP BOAT BUILDING MATERIALSFive (5) materials consideredFIBERGLASSWOODSTEELALUMINUMFABRIC
29FIBERGLASSDEFINITION:STRANDS OF GLASS, SATURATED WITH RESIN and allowed TO PROPERLY DRY AND CURE
31FIBERGLASS MOST POPULAR building material REASON FOR PRIMARY CHOICE: EASE OF MAINTENANCE
32TERMINOLOGYA fiberglass hull is composed of matting, roving, cloth and strands of fiberglass saturated with plastic resin(s); very similar to steel-reinforced concrete.
33ADVANTAGES OF FIBERGLASS IMPERVIOUS TO MARINE ANIMALS, WORMS / BORERS (NOT GROWTH.)NO DRY ROTFEW OR NO SEAMS / JOINTSNO LEAKS FROM SEAMS / JOINTSCOLOR MOLDED INSTRONGMOLD INTO ALMOST ANY SHAPELOW MAINTENANCE
34DISADVANTAGES OF FIBERGLASS HEAVIER THAN WATER: READILY SINKSEASIER TO COVER UP SHODDY WORKMANSHIP
35TWO KINDS OF RESINS POLYESTER: VERSATILE 2. EPOXIES: STRONGER EASY TO WORK WITH/ HANDLEINEXPENSIVE2. EPOXIES:STRONGERMORE EXPENSIVEMORE DIFFICULT TO WORK WITH.
36RESIN ADDITIVES Hardeners: HARDEN THE RESIN Driers: CONTROL THE CURING TIMEFire Suppressants: MAKE THE RESIN FIRE RETARDANTALL RESINS: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE
37MOLDS MALE MOLD: PLUG: Exact size, shape of object to mold SLIDE NO. 32MOLDSMALE MOLD: PLUG: Exact size, shape of object to moldFEMALE MOLD: CAVITY MOLDUSED FOR HAND-LAYUPCHOPPED STRANDNOTE: Gel Coat applied first, to the inside of the female mold.BLOWGUN PROCESS: Fastest, smoothest results
38MOLDS MATCHED DIE: MALE / FEMALE MOLDS CLAMPED TOGETHER SLIDE NO. 33MOLDSMATCHED DIE: MALE / FEMALE MOLDS CLAMPED TOGETHERLAMINATE USED BETWEEN (SANDWICHED)BALSA WOODFOAMED PLASTICSPLYWOOD
39WOOD CONSIDERATION FOR USE 1. STRENGTH 2. AVAILABILITY 3. WORKABILITY 4. WATER ABSORPTION5. LEAST NOISY
40WOOD CONSTRUCTION MORE DECAY RESISTANT: HARD WOODS: ASH, MAHOGANY, TEAK, OAKLESS DECAY RESISTANT:SOFTER WOODS:CEDAR, FIR, PINE
41WOOD DISADVANTAGES NUMBER ONE: DRY ROT HIGHLY SUCEPTIBLE TO: WORMS, BORERSABSORBS WATEREASILY DAMAGED
42STEEL CONSTRUCTION DISADVANTAGES 1. QUICK DETERIORATION 2. CONSIDERABLE CONTINUOUS MAINTENANCE
43STEEL CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES STRONGEST STRENGTH – TO – WEIGHT RATIO 2. STIFF \ RESISTANT TO:IMPACT – FATIGUE - ABRASION3. LESS NOISY THAN ALL BUT WOOD
44ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES1. LIGHT WEIGHT2. IMPERVIOUS TO MARINE ANIMALS( NOT GROWTH )3. FAIRLY EASY TO FORM
45ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION DISADVANTAGESSUSCEPTIBLE TO ELECTROLYSISHEAT CONDUCTOR3. NOISY4. EASY TO DAMAGE
46STEERING SYSTEMS TILLER A SIMPLE RUDDER POST WITH A HANDLE ON TOP OF IT, BY WHICH TO STEER.The most simple of all steering systems
48STEERING SYSTEMS DRUM & CABLE A DRUM IS ATTACHED TO A STEERING WHEEL. A CABLE IS WOUND AROUND THE DRUM; FED THROUGH A SERIES OF PULLEYS FOR SUSPENSION, THEN TO EACH SIDE OF A YOKE ATTACHED TO A RUDDER POST. TURNING THE STEERING WHEEL ACUTATES THE STEERING.
50STEERING SYSTEMS SPROCKET & CHAIN IF YOU REPLACE THE DRUM IN THE DRUM & CABLE WITH A SPROCKET, THE TWO SYSTEMS WORK ALMOST IDENTICALLY.THE SPROCKET AND CHAIN IS BUILT FOR HEAVIER BOATS AND GREATER WORKLOADS.
52RACK & PINIONTHE STEERING CABLE IS ENCLOSED IN A CONDUIT . A PINION GEAR IS ATTACHED TO THE END OF THE STEERING SHAFT AND TO ONE END OF A RACK WHICH ATTACHES TO THE OTHER END OF THE CABLE.THE CABLE ALSO ATTACHES TO THE RUDDER POST OR THE OUTBOARD ENGINE.TURNING THE WHEEL TRANSLATES INTO TURNING THE RUDDER OR THE OUTBOARD ENGINE.
53STEERING SYSTEMS GEAR & SHAFT NORMALLY NOT FOUND ON SMALL BOATS:A series of worm and bevel gears are attached to a steering shaft which again, like the RACK & PINION , translates the directional forces into steerage. This system is for strong, powerful, heavy applied loads such as those on large ocean going vessels.
55HYDRAULIC SYSTEMSSIMILAR TO THOSE FOUND ON AUTOMOBILES. HYDRAULIC FLUID, UNDER PRESSURE, ACTUATES STEERING CABLE CHANGES WHICH ARE TRANSLATED INTO TURNING MOTIONS OF THE RUDDER OR OUTBOARD.
56REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 1 A sloop is a sailboat with _______ ` a. a single mast, with a mainsail and a jibb. two masts, the aftermast being shorterthan the foreword mast.c. a single mast rigged to hoist only one sail.d. two or more masts; the aftermast taller thanthe foreword mast.
571. A sloop is a sailboat with________ REVIEW QUESTIONS1. A sloop is a sailboat with________a. a single mast with a mainsail and jib
58REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 2A fiberglass hull is constructed of strands and layers of fiberglass ______________a. bonded with hydraulic cement.b. saturated with latex cement.c. saturated with resin.d. reinforced with steel mesh.
59REVIEW QUESTIONS2. A fiberglass hull is constructed of strands and layers of fiberglass ________________c. saturated with resin
603. On a strength-to-weight ratio, sheet steel is_________________ REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 33. On a strength-to-weight ratio, sheet steel is_________________a. stronger than fiberglassb. equal to woodc. weaker than aluminumd. equal to fiberglass
613. On a strength-to-weight ratio, sheet steel REVIEW QUESTIONS3. On a strength-to-weight ratio, sheet steelis ____________________a. stronger than fiberglass
62REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 4 4. Steel boat hulls___________________ a. require considerable maintenanceb. require no protective painting for growthsc. have a higher strength-to-weight ratio thanwood and aluminum but not fiberglass.d. are less noisy than all other boat buildingmaterials.
64REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 55. The simplest type of steering mechanism for a boat is the____________________a. rack and pinionb. drum and cablec. sprocket and chaind. tiller
65REVIEW QUESTIONS5. The simplest type of steering mechanism for a boat is the ________________________d. tiller
666. Limber holes____________________ REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 66. Limber holes____________________a. permit water to pass through a boat’sframe.b. provide finger holds for liftingfloor boards.c. provide ventilation in holds.d. are used to inspect the bilges.
67REVIEW QUESTIONS 6. Limber Holes ________________ a. permit water to pass through a boat’s frame
68REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 77. The curve or sweep of a vessel, as viewed from the side is called the ______a. freeboardb boot topc. sheerd. tumble home
69REVIEW QUESTIONS7. The curve or sweep of a vessel, as viewed from the side, is called the ____c. sheer
70REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 8 a. sheer 8. The outward curvature of the sides of the hull, near the bow, that is used to keep the deck drier, is called the_________________a. sheerb. freeboardc. trunkd. flare
71REVIEW QUESTIONS8. The outward curvature of the sides of the hull near the bow, that is used to keep the deck drier, is called the________________d. flair
72REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 99. The use of two or more different materials, when constructing the hull, is called_____construction.a. layeredb. multiplec. composited. feathered
73REVIEW QUESTIONS9. The use of two or more different materials, when constructing the hull, is called _____construction.c. composite
74REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 1010. The top advantage of a steel hull is_______a. it’s weightb. it is quieterc. it is easier to maintaind. it is fire proof
75REVIEW QUESTIONS 10. The top advantage of a steel hull is____ b. it is quieter