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Punctuations Week 11. Contents: Punctuations Describing graphs and tables Writing numbers.

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Presentation on theme: "Punctuations Week 11. Contents: Punctuations Describing graphs and tables Writing numbers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Punctuations Week 11

2 Contents: Punctuations Describing graphs and tables Writing numbers

3 Punctuation Periods. Periods Commas, Commas Colons : Colons Semicolons ; Semicolons Question marks ? Question marks Exclamation points ! Exclamation points Apostrophes ' Apostrophes Quotation marks " " Quotation marks Hyphens - Hyphens Dashes -- Dashes Parentheses ( ) Parentheses Brackets [ ] Brackets

4 Semicolon ( ; ) The semicolon is an important punctuation mark in English and has several uses; it is particularly common in formal and/or academic writing. There are several common ways of using the semicolon. 1. Use a semicolon to connect sentences that have closely related ideas. 2. Use a semicolon to connect items in lists if the items in the lists contain commas. 3. When sentences are connected by using conjunctive adverbs, the semicolon comes at the end of the first sentence.

5 1. Use a semicolon to connect sentences that have closely related ideas. Examples: He came; he saw; he conquered. She always does her best; that's one reason everyone admires her. Dave Johnson and his family recently visited a village near Chiangmai, Thailand; Dave's wife, May, comes from there. Almost everyone has heard of the Time Square of New York City; it's one of the most famous tourist attractions in the U.S.A. John and his wife are newlyweds; they got married only a few days ago.

6 Special notes 1. Periods could also be used for these sentences, but the semicolons emphasize how closely related the sentences are. (If periods are used, the sentences seem "choppy.") 2. Most authorities state that when a semicolon is used with parentheses (( )) or with quotation marks (" "), the semicolon should be outside the parentheses or quotation marks: Bill said, "I was born in a very small town"; he went on to say that it's a friendly place with a population of less than 1,000. Ms. Jones was probably referring to the state of Washington (which is in the north-western U.S.); a reference to Washington, D.C. doesn't seem very logical to me.

7 2. Use a semicolon to connect items in lists if the items in the lists contain commas. Examples: She's lived in San Antonio, Dallas and Irving, Texas; Palms, West Los Angeles, and Brentwood, California; Arch Cape and Portland, Oregon; and Phoenix, Arizona. We invited Bob's girlfriend, Annie; Judy, Ahmed, and Simon; Simon's cousins, Hugo and Peter; our next-door neighbor, Tina, and her husband; and three or four other people. For the class you'll need two diskettes, either formatted or unformatted; paper, both for the printer and for your class notes; and, of course, the textbook.

8 Special notes 1. Semicolons are very helpful, in sentences such as the ones above, in making the lists less confusing. Without the semicolons, the items in the list would be difficult to understand; using commas alone would not separate the items clearly: 2. Periods cannot be used instead of semicolons in sentences like those above. Example: We invited Bob's girlfriend, Annie, Judy, Ahmed, and Simon, Simon's cousins, Hugo and Peter, our next-door neighbor, Tina, and her husband, and three or four other people. (This sentence is confusing because the items in the list are not clearly separated.)

9 3. When sentences are connected by using conjunctive adverbs, the semicolon comes at the end of the first sentence. Conjunctive adverbs (sentence connectors) include connecting words such as however, therefore, besides, consequently, nevertheless, in addition, accordingly, and otherwise. Examples: Sandy might have been sick and unable to come to work; however, I suspect that she took the day off and went shopping. We're expected to do all the assigned work; in addition, we're required to read and report on three books that we can choose ourselves. The last three shipments were damaged when they were received; consequently, all new shipments will be inspected just before they leave the factory. Mike found the work very difficult and was often tempted to quit; nevertheless, he kept on trying and eventually did quite well on it.

10 Special notes Periods can be used with conjunctive adverbs instead of semicolons. She was extremely tired. However, she finished her assignment. She was extremely tired; however, she finished her assignment.

11 Commas (, ) Use commas to keep your writing clear. Omitted or incorrectly used, commas can cause confusion or even change meaning. Commas should be used with the following elements: 1. Introductory elements Introductory elements 2. Coordinating conjunctions joining independent clauses Coordinating conjunctions joining independent clauses 3. Elements in a series Elements in a series 4. Coordinate modifiers Coordinate modifiers 5. Nonrestrictive modifiers Nonrestrictive modifiers 6. Parenthetic elements Parenthetic elements 7. Elliptical constructions Elliptical constructions (

12 1. Introductory elements (1) Transitional Words and Phrases Place a comma after a transitional word or phrase that begins a sentence.transitional word or phrase Moreover, the opening of an export market would help expand the market for key escrow encryption. In addition, several companies and individuals have proposed commercial key escrow approaches. (2) Introductory Clauses Place a comma after an introductory dependent clause.dependent clause Although key escrow is voluntary, critics say that the introduction of clipper points national policy in a disturbing direction. Use commas to set off transitional words and phrases, introductory clauses, or introductory phrases to signal where the introductory element finishes and the main part starts.transitional words and phrasesintroductory clauses

13 (3) Introductory Prepositional or Verbal Phrases Normally, use a comma after an introductory prepositional or verbalprepositionalverbal phrase. However, you may omit the comma after a short introductory phrase if no ambiguity is possible. Examples: For the first time, researchers have used DNA analysis to identify the animal tissue in 4,000-year-old rock paintings. Despite the error the experiment was successful. Combining surface area with depth, we calculated the volume of the pond. (Do not place a comma after an introductory participial or gerund phrase if the phrase forms part of the subject or verb of the sentence.)participial Combining surface area with depth was our principal method for calculating the volume of the pond.

14 2. Coordinating Conjunctions Joining Independent Clauses Acceptable In almost all illicit markets, only the tip of the iceberg is visible, and there is no reason why the nuclear-materials black market should be an exception. Unacceptable In almost all illicit markets, only the tip of the iceberg is visible and there is no reason why the nuclear-materials black market should be an exception. Place a comma before a coordinating conjunction that joins two independent clauses. However, if the clauses are very short and closely related, you may omit the comma.

15 3. Elements in a series As a simple example of why, consider this 3-element grocery list written without the clarifying last comma: “milk, macaroni and cheese and crackers”. It's not clear whether that means { milk, macaroni and cheese, crackers } or { milk, macaroni, cheese and crackers }. Use a comma to separate items in a series. Although placing a final comma before the coordinating conjunction is often considered optional, omitting it can sometimes cause confusion.coordinating conjunction In a 3-or-more-element list, it's better to put comma between each of the items (including the last two), for clarity. Most scientific and technical writing routinely uses a final comma in a series to prevent possible ambiguities.

16 Other examples: His intellectual acuity, diverse interests, frail physique, and ethereal personality made Oppenheimer a man of legendary proportions. [In this sentence, omitting the final comma would not cause confusion. Still, it is good practice in scientific and technical writing to always include the final comma in a series.] Weak Contemporary physics is still exploring neutron stars, black holes and the penetration of electrons through potential barriers. [The omission of the final comma before and causes ambiguity: are black holes and the penetration of electrons through potential barriers specific topics connected to the general subject of neutron stars, or are they separate items?] Improved Contemporary physics is still exploring neutron stars, black holes, and the penetration of electrons through potential barriers.

17 4. Coordinate Modifiers Example: Ebola viruses are known as filose viruses for their long, filament like appearance under a microscope. [Long and filament like modify the appearance of the virus equally, so a comma is needed between them.] Use a comma between coordinate modifiers. Modifiers are coordinate if they modify the same word.Modifiers (You can test to see if the modifiers are coordinate by inserting and between them. If the description still makes sense, then the modifiers are coordinate.)

18 5. Nonrestrictive Modifiers Example: Infectious diseases, which antibiotics and vaccines once promised to banish from our shores, have returned with a vengeance. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive modifiers.nonrestrictive modifiers A nonrestrictive modifier is usually introduced by which and contains information that is not essential to establishing the meaning of what it modifies.

19 6. Parenthetic Elements Example: Oppenheimer became known, of course, for leading the physicists who built the atomic bomb at Los Alamos Laboratory. Use commas to set off parenthetic elements.

20 7. Elliptical Constructions Example: In the United States there are ninety-two scanners; in Europe, eighty-five; in all of Africa, six. [The commas indicate the omission of the words there are.] Use a comma to indicate the omission of a word or words readily understood from the context.

21 Specialized Uses of Commas (1) In numbers with five or more digits, Anglo-American usage dictates that there be commas before groups of three digits. Customers reported a total of 212,413 hardware malfunctions. (2) Use commas to separate adjacent numbers. In 1994, 212 cases had been diagnosed. (3) Use commas to separate items in an address. Einstein then moved to Princeton, New Jersey. The branch office address is 958 Ridge Road, Hayes, KS, which is in the northern part of the state. Portland, Oregon, is the site of the new factory.

22 (4) Use commas to set off the year in dates expressed in the month-day-year sequence. Greenberg began the project on July 2,1992. The first meeting will be held on Tuesday, May 5, at the high school. It rained on Monday, August 20, 1991, before the crop was harvested. (5) Omit commas when only the month and the year are stated. Greenberg began the project in July 1992. The tropical storms of July 1998 were very severe. (6) In dates written in the day-month-year sequence, the comma is omitted. Greenberg began the project on 2 July1992.

23 Colons (:) Use colons for the following purposes: 1. to introduce and emphasize lists, quotations and explanations and certain appositional elements.listsquotations explanations and certain appositional elements 2. to express ratios.ratios 3. to separate numbers signifying different nouns, such as in separating units of time or elements in a bibliographic citation.nounsunits of timeelements in a bibliographic citation 4. to separate titles from subtitles

24 1.To introduce and emphasize (1) To set off and emphasize lists Examples: Anyone communicating via computer needs a security system that ensures three essential requirements: confidentiality, authentication, and trust. The market for photovoltaic power systems includes the following items: intrusion alarms, flood monitors, calculators, and telephone call boxes. Or The market for photovoltaic power systems includes the following items: - intrusion alarms - flood monitors - calculators - telephone call boxes Begin each element of lists, series, or phrases with lowercase letters.

25 (2). To set off and emphasize quotations The contract reads: "DL-400 coaxial cable shall be used for all platform instrument installations at Site 5, unless a specific exception is justified in the approved work order." Kurt noted: "Even potatoes are probably much better guarded today than radioactive materials." Place colons outside quotation marks.quotation marks

26 (3). To set off and emphasize explanations and appositional elements In designing the tachometer, the team first posed a question: What operations are needed on the input signal in order to generate the desired output? This system currently operates in a strictly one-sided fashion: the machine makes sure the person who inserted the card is its legitimate owner by asking for a secret password, but the cardholder must blindly trust that the machine has not been tampered with. While thinking about this problem, we were reminded of an access-control system with similar demands that is used successfully worldwide on a daily basis: passports.

27 2. To express ratios The ratio of drag torque to bearing friction torque cannot exceed3:1. The anti-GAP 43, anti-MAP 2, and anti-synaptophysin antibodies were diluted1:1000, 1:300, and 1:100, respectively, in phosphate-buffered saline containing10% bovine serum albumin.

28 3. To separate units of time The main thruster engines ignited at 7:05 a.m. EDT. To separate elements in a citation (in certain documentation styles) E. F. Lyon, "Airport Surface Traffic Automation," Lincoln Laboratory Journal 4:151 (1991).

29 Dashes (-- ) Use dashes--sparingly--to indicate sudden shifts in thought and to set off or emphasize appositional or parenthetical elements or interjections.appositional In most cases, use commas or parentheses instead. In typewritten documents, use two hyphens (--) with nohyphens spaces between or around them to form a dash. Example: Although we have made these comments with specific reference to water--only because of our familiarity with water--all pure substances exhibit the same behavior.

30 Hyphens (- ) Use hyphens to link 1. certain prefixes, letters, and numbers with nounscertain prefixes, letters, and numbers with nouns 2. compound nounscompound nouns 3. compound modifierscompound modifiers 4. spelled-out numbersspelled-out numbers Also use hyphens for the following purposes: to clarify the meaning of certain words to divide words to express to or through between two letters or numbers to express to or through between two letters or numbers for specialized scientific notation Ex, com-pu-ter, light-year, hyper-tension Ex. pages 25-63, 1901-1911 Ex, carbon-14 (chemical elements)

31 1. To Link Certain Prefixes, Letters, and Numbers with Nouns Use hyphens to connect certain prefixes to nouns. all- ex- half- quasi- self- hex- However, scientific and technical writing styles omit the hyphen between most prefixes, especially prefixes that are not words themselves.

32 aero after ante anti astro auto bi bio chemo co counter de electro exo extra geo hemo hyper hypo in infra inter iso macro meta micro mid mini multi non over phto physio poly post pre pro pesudo re semi sub super supra trans un The following list of prefixes that normally are not followed by a hyphen:

33 2. To Link Compound Nouns Use a hyphen to link compound nouns, especially when the lack of a hyphen would change the meaning of the term. Examples: light-year light year [The first term is a unit of measurement, not of time; the second pair of words, on the other hand, may indicate a year that is not heavy.]

34 3. To Link Compound Modifiers Use a hyphen to connect compound modifiers to promote clarity and prevent ambiguity. Examples: laser-alignment process laser alignment the two-tube combiner or the two tube combiners wire-grid level adjustment wire grid-level adjustment heavy-water cavity [a cavity for heavy water] heavy water cavity [a water cavity that is heavy]

35 4. To Link Spelled-Out Numbers Use a hyphen to join spelled-out numbers from 21 through 99 and spelled-out fractions. Examples: twenty-one moving parts the thirty-third experiment four-fifth of the subjects

36 Basic sentence punctuation patterns

37 punctuation patterns: 1. IC, cc IC. 2. IC; IC. 3. IC; trans, IC. 4. DC, IC. 5. IC DC. IC = independent clause (S+V and can stand alone) DC = Dependent clause (is introduced by a signal word) Cc = coordinate conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet) Trans = transitional expression My boss warned me about being late, but he didn’t fire me. My boss warned me about being late; he didn’t fire me. My boss warned me about being late; however, he didn’t fire me. Although my boss warned me about being late, he didn’t fire me. My boss didn’t fire me although he warned me about being.

38 Describing Graphs and Tables A graph is a visual, concise means of presenting information; a table presents facts and figures in compact form.

39 There are three basic kinds of graphs : 1. a circle or pie graph 2. a bar graph 3. a line graph

40 Making Inferences from Graphs and Tables Following are some expressions we may use when making inferences: From the information given, I conclude that ~ infer that ~ assume that ~ From the information given, it can be decided that ~ concluded that ~ inferred that ~ assumed that ~ The information (in the text/ in Figure…) implies that ~ suggests that ~ hints that ~ Graphs and tables are visual representations which can give information both directly and indirectly.

41 Describing Graphs and Tables The information contained in a graph or a table can also be expressed in words. The following are some useful expressions describing graphs and tables: make up account for be responsible for contribute to constitute Example: According to Figure 1, food garbage makes up 17% of the total solid waste collected in the United States in 1975.

42 When comparison is involved, these expressions may be used: Example: There has been a steady decline in oil price. AdjectiveNoun slightrise slowincrease steeprise gradualdecrease steadydecline markedfall dramaticdrop sharpdrop suddendrop considerabledrop rapiddrop

43 Verbadverb riseslightly increaseslowly decreasegradually declinesteadily fallmarkedly dropdramatically dropconsiderably climbsteadily fluctuatedslightly Example: It can be seen from Figure 3 that the concentration of sulfur dioxide increases sharply from September and falls dramatically from December.


45 Useful language for interpreting graphs The graph illustrates / shows the rise in... The graph illustrates / shows that... It is estimated that... There was / has been a downward trend in customer numbers. The trend was flat. The present trend is maintained. Production started the year in a stable position, but then plunged / plummeted / slumped in the third quarter. It has now flattened out / leveled out.

46 Production showed a marginal rise in the first three quarters, but then suffered a sharp drop. Production has experienced a strong, steady growth over the whole year. Production grew rapidly in the first quarter, and reached a plateau of development ( 穩定水準 ). Since then it has remained more or less stable. Since then, it has quickly dropped. Production started climbing steadily / began to rise rapidly but leveled off / flattened off at a level of around. Sales rocketed. Prices are soaring / rocketing / skyrocketing. Customer numbers (have) soared. There was / has been a steep rise in customer numbers. Customer numbers hit / reached a peak. There was a peak in customer numbers. There was a slight dip in customer numbers. There was a steady fall / decline in customer numbers.

47 Production has fluctuated all year. Customer numbers rose. There was a gradual rise in customer numbers. There has been a slight increase in production over the year. Numbers fell steadily. Production has dropped slowly but steadily over the year. The number of customers fell dramatically. Production fell sharply / considerably in / over the last quarter, reaching a low of... Since then it has staged a partial recovery. There was a rapid / considerable / dramatic / sharp drop in production in the first two quarters. Customer numbers dipped / plunged. There were considerable / wild fluctuations in customer numbers.

48 Example 1 The graph shows Oil Production Capacity in millions of barrels per day for selected Gulf countries. There are several features in this graph. The most significant feature is that oil production will increase sharply in almost all the countries shown. Kuwait and Iraq are both expected to double their output between 1990 and 2010, with Kuwait's production rising from 1.8 million barrels per day (bpd) in 1990 to 3.8 in 2010. Iran will also increase its output by a slightly smaller amount. After remaining steady at 2.5 million bpd from 1990 to 2000, the UAE's output is expected to approach 4.0 million bpd in 2010. Only Qatar's production is predicted to fall, back to 0.8 million bpd after a slight rise in 2000. However, the greatest increase will be from Saudi Arabia. In 1990, its output capacity at 8.5 million bpd exceeded the combined production of Iran, Iraq and Kuwait. This lead is expected to continue with a 75% increase in production to 14.5 million bpd 2010. In summary, while most of the countries are expected to show increases, Saudi Arabia will maintain and strengthen its position as the major producer.

49 The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London underground station over the course of a day. The busiest time of the day is in the morning. There is a sharp increase between 06:00 and 08:00, with 400 people using the station at 8 o'clock. After this the numbers drop quickly to less than 200 at 10 o'clock. Between 11 am and 3 pm the number rises, with a plateau of just under 300 people using the station. In the afternoon, numbers decline, with less than 100 using the station at 4 pm. There is then a rapid rise to a peak of 380 at 6pm. After 7 pm, numbers fall significantly, with only a slight increase again at 8pm. Overall, the graph shows that the station is most crowded in the early morning and early evening periods. Example 2

50 Writing Numbers Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for other numbers. ( )

51 Words (less than “100”) six million dollars after thirty-one years eighty-three people over two pounds Figures (more than “100”) ( 100 以上的數目如能以兩個字來表示者例外 : two hundred ) only $31.50 6,381 bushels 4.78 liters after 126 days There are twenty-six students in my wife's third-grade class. Michael is over 183 centimeters tall.

52 some examples of specific situations. Days and Years December 12, 1965 or 12 December, 1965 A.D. 1066 in 1900 in 1971-72 or in 1971-1972 the eighties, the twentieth century the 1980's or the 1980s Time of Day 8:00 A.M. (or) a.m. (or) eight o'clock in the morning 4:30 P.M. (or) p.m. (or) half-past four in the afternoon The first election results are expected around 1 a.m.

53 Addresses 16 Tenth Street 350 West 114 Street Identification Numbers Room 8 Channel 18 Interstate 65

54 Page and Division of Books page 30 chapter 6 Decimals and Percentages a 2.7 average 13 1/4 percent.037 metric ton Large Round Numbers four billion dollars (or) $4 billion 16,500,000 (or) 16.5 million Tickets cost $35.50 apiece. The city spent $1.1 million for snow removal last year. (or $1,100,000.)

55 Notes on Usage Repeat numbers in legal or commercial writing. The bill will not exceed one hundred (100) dollars. Numbers in series and statistics should be consistent. two apples, six oranges, and three bananas NOT: two apples, 6 oranges, and 3 bananas 115 feet by 90 feet (or) 115' x 90' scores of 25-6 (or) scores of 25 to 6 The vote was 9 in favor and 5 opposed

56 Write out numbers beginning sentences. Six percent of the group failed. 6% of the group failed. Use a combination of figures and words for numbers when such a combination will keep your writing clear. The club celebrated the birthdays of 6 90-year-olds who were born in the city. (may cause the reader to read '690' as one number.) The club celebrated the birthdays of six 90-year-olds who were born in the city.

57 Web links (Technical writing) tm (English for Academic Purposes -Science) tm e-technical-paper.html (Writing a technical paper) e-technical-paper.html (tips for writing technical papers)

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