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Species’ Characteristics Lab

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1 Species’ Characteristics Lab
FEMT 101 DENDROLOGY Species’ Characteristics Lab

2 Aceraceae – Maple Family Acer ginnala – Amur maple (exotic)
Size and Form – small shrubby tree, less than 5m tall Bud – opposite arrangement small with reddish-brown lateral buds, terminal bud blunt with lateral bud beside it Twig – stiff and shiny reddish-brown, with light coloured lenticels Leaf –simple, 8 -10cm long, narrowly triangular, distinct lobes (basal lobes), serrated, brilliant red fall colours Fruit – drooping clusters, paired samara (parallel wings) Site – possible landscape tree

3 Aceraceae – Maple Family Acer negundo – Manitoba maple (native)
Size and Form – medium sized tree (up to 20m tall), 75cm diameter, 60 year lifespan Bud – opposite arrangement with blunt terminal bud, covered with fine hairs Twig – stout, thick and hairless, covered with a glaucous (white) bloom on older twigs Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, 3-9 leaflets Fruit –paired samara (45 degree angle), 30-50mm long Bark – furrowed, narrow ridges Site –lakeshores, riverbanks, flood plains

4 Aceraceae Acer saccharium – Silver Maple
Size and Form – medium to large tree up to 35m tall, 100cm in diameter at 130 years old Bud – opposite arrangement, terminal bud 3-4mm long, blunt, twice as long as wide, shiny, reddish, smooth, usually 4 pairs of scales Twig – shiny red to grayish-brown, hairless, dwarf shoots will have clusters of flower buds, unpleasant odor when bruised Leaf –simple, 15-20cm long, 5-7 lobes that are widest above the base, coarse, sharp irregular teeth, central lobe is separated by deep narrow notches, upper surface is light green silvery white underside Fruit – paired samara, 40-70mm long, 90º angle between the wings Bark – smooth, gray when young, older trunk bark is dark reddish brown with long thin narrow flakes giving it a shaggy look Site – rich, moist lowlands bordering streams and lake shores

5 Betulaceae – Birch Family Alnus incana – Speckled alder (native)
Size and Form – tall shrub, up to 8m tall Bud – alternate arrangement, stalked, blunt, reddish-brown, often 3 ranked Twig – lenticels, reddish-brown, moderately slender Leaf – elliptical, double-serrated, simple Fruit –pollen and seed catkins, mature cone-like catkin with very narrow winged nutlet Site – found along water ways

6 Betulaceae – Birch Family Alnus viridis – Green alder (native)
Size and Form – large shrub (up to 3m tall), multi-stemmed Bud – alternate arrangement, un-stalked, sharp-pointed, brownish-red, 3 ranked Twig – lenticels, moderately slender Leaf – oval, double-serrated (fine teeth), simple Fruit – pollen and seed catkins, mature cone-like catkin with wide winged nutlet Site – dry with jack pine

7 Betulaceae – Birch Family Betula glandulosa – Bog birch (native)
Size and Form – spreading shrub, up to 2m tall Bud – alternate arrangement, small and pointed Twig – resinous, tiny/fine hairs Leaf – simple, almost circular (1-2cm), thick and leathery, 6-10 teeth per side Fruit – pollen and seed catkins (upright), mature cigar shaped catkin with small winged nutlet Site – forested bogs and wetlands

8 Betulaceae – Birch Family Betula papyrifera – White or Paper birch (native)
Size and form – medium sized tree Bud – alternate arrangement, pointed, slender Twig – slender, somewhat sparsely resinous, greyish-brown (greenish), dwarf twigs Leaf – simple, triangle tip, ovate (egg-shaped), double-serrated, Fruit – pollen and seed catkins up to 5cm long, hang down, mature cigar shaped catkin with wings are wider than nutlet Site – forest edges, lakeshores

9 Betulaceae – Birch Family Betula pendula – Weeping birch (exotic)
Size and Form – small tree (up to 15m tall), weeping fashion Bud – alternate arrangement, do not hug twig, blunt tip Twig – slender, flexible, no resin glands Leaf – simple, ovate, tapered tip, serrated Fruit – pollen and seed catkins (2-4cm long), mature catkin cigar shaped with wings wider than nutlet Bark – darkish white/grey Site – landscape tree

10 Betulaceae – Birch Family Corylus cornuta – Beaked hazelnut (native)
Size and form – large shrub (up to 3m) Bud – alternate arrangement, darker than twig, rounded, pointed, heart-shaped, overlapping bud scales, edge of bud side has white hairs Twig – light brown, hairless Leaf – simple, elliptical, pointed tip, double-serrated Fruit – thin-shelled nut, enclosed in tubular husk covered with stiff prickly hairs, clusters of 2 or 3 Site – upland w/aspen, moist/well drained

11 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Lonicera dioica – Twining honeysuckle (native)
Size and Form – semi-erect, vine-like shrub, climbs up to 5m in height Bud – opposite arrangement, straw colour, small and pointed, no true terminal bud Twig – twisting, woody vine, hollow stem, straw colour Leaf – simple, end leaves form a cup around stem, oblong, rounded on the end Fruit – small red berry, inedible (bitter), cluster of 7-8 berries in leaf cup Site – upland w/aspen, forest edges

12 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Sambucus pubens – Red elderberry (exotic)
Size and Form – multi-stemmed shrub Bud – opposite arrangement, plump, reddish-purplish, pair of scales, typically no terminal bud Twig – orange pith, olive green, lenticels (yellow/brown), predominant leaf scars Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, 5-7 leaflets, tapered & pointed tip Fruit – large clusters of red berries, bright white flowers Site – moist

13 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Symphoricarpos occidentalis – Western Snowberry (native)
Size and Form – short shrub, multi-branched, grows in large patches Bud – opposite arrangement, small Twig – thin, orangey-brown, orange pith, sometimes hollow Leaf – simple, small, paper thin, 2-4cm long, wavy margin (large), smooth margin (small) Fruit – greenish/white berries in dense clusters Bark – shredding Site – upland, open forest

14 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Viburnum edule – Lowbush cranberry (native)
Size and Form – medium size shrub Bud – opposite arrangement, bright red, pointed, true terminal bud Twig – reddish-brown, slightly grooved Leaf – simple, 3-lobed, long petiole Fruit – red berries, clusters of 2-5, drupe (flat stone ) Bark – thin bark, reddish-grey brown Site – open forest

15 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Viburnum trilobum – Highbush cranberry (native)
Size and Form – upright shrub (up to 4m) Bud – opposite arrangement, reddish/orange, no terminal bud, 2 bud scales Twig – straw like, large white pith Leaf – simple, 3 long pointed lobes, smooth toothed margins Fruit – red to orange, forms on terminal end of branch, drupe (flat stone), functioning flowers are surrounded by sterile white flowers Bark – smooth grey bark Site – riparian areas

16 Cornaceae – Dogwood Family Cornus stolonifera – Red-osier dogwood (native)
Size and Form – medium sized shrub, spreading shrub Bud – opposite arrangement, long/slender, pointed, 2 pairs of scales, laterals appressed Twig – reddish-purple, moderately slender, lenticels Leaf – simple, smooth margins, long petioles, tips curve off to one side Fruit – whitish berries, small stones, form in clusters Bark – reddish, greyish in older wood Site – under open canopy, moist woods

17 Cupressaceae – Cypress Family Juniperus communis – Low Juniper (native)
Size and Form – evergreen, prostrate or spreading shrub up to 1m tall, trunkless Bud – Twig – Leaf – needle-like to narrowly lance-shaped, 5-12mm long, very prickly, whitish above, dark green below, in 3s Fruit – berry-like, 6-10mm in diameter, bluish with white-grey bloom, fleshy Bark – thin, reddish brown, shredding, scaly Site – dry open, gravelly ridges or outcrops

18 Cupressaceae – Cypress Juniperus sp – Juniper (exotic)
Size and Form – evergreen shrub, various heightsl, upright or spreading Bud – bud-like immature cones at the tips of some branches, hidden buds Twig – many short side branches, rounded cross-section Leaf – evergreen, scale-like, overlapping, close to stem, greenish brown purple in colour Fruit – conelets, one or more seeds, dark blue powdery coating Site – dry site, shade intolerant

19 Cupressaceae – Cypress Family Thuja sp – Cedar species (ornamental)
Size and Form – various heights, symmetrical in form, pyramid or globe shaped Bud – budlike immature cones at the end of some branches Twig – flexible, has a flat cross-section Leaf – evergreen scale-like overlapping, close to stem, lime green in colour Fruit – 10mm long, short flat seeds, leathery brown texture and colour Site – landscape uses, shade intolerant

20 Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family Elaeagnus angustifolia – Russian Olive (exotic)
Size and Form – small tree, tolerant to salty and calcium soils Bud – alternate arrangement, small/ovid, same colour as branch (whitish/grey) Twig – weak/slender, often a thorn on older wood Leaf – simple ,narrow and oblong, dull green on top, silver underneath (small greyish scales), 4-8cm long, stay on throughout winter Fruit – small olive like grey/silver, up to 2cm long, watermelon shaped seed, small yellow flowers Site – cities, parks, and landscape

21 Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family Elaeagnus commutata – Silverberry (native)
Size and Form – upright shrub (up to 4m) Bud – alternate arrangement, light brown, terminal bud pointed Twig – greyish brown, covered with rusty chalk (velvety), may have thorns Leaf – simple, grey/silver, (longer than broad) Fruit – small yellow flowers, small olive like grey/silver, watermelon shaped seed Bark – scaly, silver in colour Site – alkaline soils, open sites

22 Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family Shepherdia canadensis – Buffaloberry (native)
Size and Form – small shrub (up to 2m), spreading Bud – opposite arrangement, pronounce terminal bud (long and slender), cluster of round flower buds around most longitudinal buds, rusty colour Twig – grey (older), soft brown (new), velvety texture, orange pith Leaf – simple, small (up to 3cm), rusty on underside Fruit – bright red to yellow berries, juicy, soapy texture Bark – scaly, brownish Site – dry, upland w/jack pine, open woods and as far north as the arctic coast

23 Ericaceae – Heath Family Ledum groenlandicum – Labrador tea (native)
Size and Form – low lying shrub, less than half meter tall Bud – definite terminal bud, no lateral buds Twig – densely orange coloured hair Leaf –simple, linear and revolute in shape, deep green above, rusty below with dense wooly hairs Fruit – flowers are in white clusters Site – moist woodlands, typically bogs

24 Ericaceae – Heath Family Vaccinium myrtilloides – Blueberry (native)
Size and Form – small shrub less than half a meter tall, grows in dense colonies Bud – alternate arrangement, small, pointed, reddish-brown, terminal bud Twig – velvety hairs, slender, new growth, reddish Leaf – simple, thin and hairy, up to 4cm long, smooth margins Fruit – blueberry, pale blue bloom Site – dry upland

25 Fabaceae – Bean Family Caragana arborescens - Caragana (exotic, naturalized)
Size and Form – small tree/shrub, live up to 80 yrs, 4-5m tall Bud – alternate arrangement, large terminal bud, chaff like scales Twig – green/yellow, curved/windy Leaf – even-pinnately compound, no terminal leaflet, up to 12 leaflets, spine-like stipules Fruit – pod, burst when ripe, flowers are bright yellow (pea like) Site – shelterbelts, wind breaks

26 Fagaceae – Beech Family Quercus macrocarpa – Bur oak (native)
Size and Form – small tree (up to 15m tall), 60cm diameter, straight stem, can live up to 200 years Bud – alternate arrangement, terminal bud wide and pointed, brown and hairy, terminal bud is surrounded by cluster of small buds Twig – stout, yellowish-brown, scaly, rigid edges Leaf –simple, lobes (soft and rounded), variable in shape, up to 30cm long, smooth on top, hairy underneath Fruit – acorn (sits in cup with fury collar around top) Bark – thick grey scales, rough looking bark Site – bottom lands, flood plain, drought tolerant

27 Oleaceae – Olive Family Fraxinus pennsylvanica – Green ash (native)
Size and Form –up to 25m tall, fast growing, and single stem Bud – opposite arrangement, terminal bud is reddish/brown, somewhat hairy, first lateral buds close to terminal bud Twig – stout, greyish/brown and hairless Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, leaflets are very large and pointed, up to 20cm long, leaflet up to 15cm long Fruit – single samara, seed covers over ½ the wing, up to 3-6cm Bark –mature tree has narrow ridges (diamond shape) Site – river valleys, flood plains

28 Oleaceae – Olive Family Syringa sp – Lilac (exotic)
Size and Form – clumpy shrub (up to 4m tall) Bud – opposite arrangement, large, typically no terminal bud, pair of buds on end (spade shaped) Twig – stout, green/yellow Leaf – simple, 5-12cm long, cordate (heart) shaped, smooth margin (entire) Fruit – flattened 2 seeded capsule, flowers are pink/yellow/white/purple (10mm long, cluster up to 20cm long) Site - shelterbelts

29 Pinaceae – Pine Family Abies balsamea – Balsam fir (native)
Size and Form – 25 meters tall, 75cm in diameter, up to 150 years old Bud – 5mm long, resinous terminal of 3 clusters Twig – greyish green colour, lengthy hairs Leaf – needle-like, flat cross-section, 12-25mm long, shiny above, two rows of silvery stomata on the underside Fruit – erect cones are 5-10cm long, resinous, greenish brown to purple in colour, seeds, bracts and scales fall from the tree leaving the erect axil Bark – Smooth-raised resinous blisters Site – rich sites with spruce and aspen, found across boreal forest, shade tolerant climax species

30 Pinaceae – Pine Family Larix laricina – Tamarack larch (native)
Size and Form – up to 25 meters tall, 40cm in diameter, 150 years old Bud – dark reddish to brown, tiny hairs on dwarfed shoots, smooth buds Twig – hairless, orange/brown to pink in colour Leaf – needle-like, flat on top, keel below, 2-5cm long, needles per dwarf shoot (peg) on the older growth, single on current wood, deciduous Fruit – 10-20mm long, egg shaped, dark red when new, leathery brown on older Bark – scaly reddish brown, purple inner bark Site – commonly found in bog areas

31 Pinaceae – Pine Family Larix sibirica – Siberian larch (exotic)
Size and Form – up to 30 meters tall, conical top Bud – ovoid or round shaped buds, brown coloured, resinous Twig yellowish to light brown, hairy in the spring, smooth and shiny in the summer Leaf – needle-like has a keel on the bottom, green coloured top, stomata on the bottom, needles per dwarf shoot (peg) on older wood and single on current wood Fruit – cones are ovoid in shape, tapered towards the tip, 2.5-4cm long, short stalks, 2 seeds with each scale, has wavy margins Bark – scaly, grey to brown in colour Site – commonly found on shelterbelts

32 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea abies – Norway spruce (exotic)
Size and Form – drooping secondary branches Buds – reddish to light orange/brown, blunt pointed, scales tight fitting Twig – creamy green to light orange/brown Leaf – needle-like, 12-24mm long, sharp pointed, dark green on all sides, directed towards the upper side Fruit – cones 10-18cm, pendulous Site – wide variety of sites

33 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea glauca – White spruce (native)
Size and Form – 25 meters tall, 60cm in diameter, up to 200 years old Bud – 6mm long, blunt pointed, non-resinous, outer scales are shorter than the bud Twig – shiny, light greyish green in colour, hairless Leaf – needle-like, four sided leaf, 1-2.5cm long, pointed stiff, bluish green in colour, glaucous Fruit – cones are slender, cylindrical, 3-6cm long, blunt tipped, stalk less, light brown scales, thin and flexible Bark – smooth, becomes scaly with age, salmon pink inner bark on mature trunks Site – the white spruce is shade tolerant and is found on well drained moist soils

34 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea mariana – Black spruce (native)
Size and Form – 20 meters tall, 30cm diameter, up to 200 years old, has a distinct clubbed top where squirrels removed the cones Bud – conical, blunt tipped, 3-5mm long, hairy, has outer scales longer than the bud Twig – bark is orange-brown, soft brownish hairs Leaf – needles-like, blunt, 4 sided, white row of stomata Fruit –cone 1.5-3cm long, egg shaped, purplish and has tight fitting scales, semi-serotinous Bark – reddish to greyish brown, scaly, olive green inner bark on mature trunk Site – often on poorly drained, poor cold nutrient site

35 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea pungens – Blue spruce (exotic)
Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 90cm diameter, up to 600 years old Bud – rounded to blunt pointed, 10mm long, bud scales are papery Twig – stout, shiny, yellowish brown, hairless Leaf – needle like, 15-30mm long, stiff, sharp pointed, blue-green in colour, needles are curved Fruit – cones are 5-12cm long, flexible scales, loose fitting, light brown colour Bark – purplish grey to brown, flakey Site – drought tolerant exotic and ornamental

36 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus banksiana – Jack pine (native)
Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 30cm diameter, 150 years old, crown is flat topped Bud – blunt pointed, less than 10mm, pale reddish brown, resinous Twig – slender, yellowish green on new growth Leaf – needle-like, fascicle of 2, 2-4cm long, straight or slightly curved, stiff, sharp-pointed, yellowish green, spread apart Fruit – cones are 3-7cm long, tan coloured, curved and pointed toward the branch ends, serotinous Bark – thin, reddish brown to grey, flakey Site – found on well drained sites

37 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus contorta – Lodgepole pine (native)
Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 60cm diameter, up to 200 years old, short branches, narrow trunk and straight taper Bud – reddish brown, resinous, 15mm long, blunt pointed Twig – dark brown in the second season, orange and brown in the first season, has loose whorls Leaf – needle-like, 3-7cm long, fascicles of two, fine tooth margins, dark green to yellowish green, slightly twisted Fruit – cones, short cylindrical, 3-6cm, purple and brown stalks, points away from tip, cone scales have prickles Bark – thin fine scales, orange and brown, smooth trunk Site – native to Cypress Hills

38 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus resinosa – Red pine (exotic)
Size and Form – 25 meters tall, 75cm diameter, up to 200 years old, flat top crown Bud – sharply pointed, large terminal bud, reddish brown resinous bud, loose hairy scales Twig – stout, orange to reddish brown Leaf – needle-like, fascicle’s of two, 10-16cm long, straight and brittle Fruit – cones are ovoid, 4-7cm long Bark – reddish pink, flat scaly plates Site – is shade intolerant

39 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus strobus – Eastern white pine (exotic)
Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 100cm in diameter, up to 200 years old Bud – slender, up to 15mm long, sharply pointed, reddish brown terminal and sub-terminal buds Twig – green with hairs in the first season, orange brown bark in the following seasons Leaf – needle like, fascicles of five, 5-15cm long, flexible Fruit – cones, 8-20cm long, scales in rows of five Bark – thin smooth, grey to green in colour Site – variable

40 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus sylvestris – Scots pine (exotic and naturalized)
Size and Form – 30 meters tall, varied trunk and branch sizes Bud – ovoid, sharply pointed, 6-12mm, non-resinous Twig – greenish brown, hairless Leaf – needle-like, fascicle’s of two, 4-8cm long, sharply pointed, and finely toothed margins, bluish green Fruit – conical ovoid, 2.5-7cm long, clusters of 2 or 3 point back towards tree, woody scales with four sides and raised tips Bark – orange papery strips on the upper part of the tree, lower part of the tree is more greyish Site – shade intolerant and drought tolerant

41 Rosaceae – Rose Family Amelanchier alnifolia – Saskatoon (native)
Size and Form – 4m tall, dense patches Bud – alternate arrangement, purple with white lines on edge of scales Twig – slender on new growth, red wine colour, turns grey when older Leaf –simple, 2-4cm long, smooth rounded base with serrated rounded apex, elliptic to obovate Fruit – berry, purple to nearly black, clusters Site – open, dry to moist areas

42 Rosaceae – Rose Family Crataegus sp – Hawthorn (native)
Size and Form – small shrub up to 4m,low crown, flat top and rounded Bud – alternate arrangement, terminal bud is broad, shiny reddish/brown, cluster of 2-3 buds at each location, one for thorn, one for the leaf and one for the twig elongation Twig – sharp thorn (can be 3cm long), smooth, shiny, reddish in colour Leaf – simple, variable in shape, 2-8cm long, serrated, wide as is long Fruit – pome (less than 1cm), reddish, fleshy Site – calcium rich soils, and abandoned farm yards

43 Rosaceae – Rose Family Malus sp – Apple (exotic)
Size and Form – small sprawling crown tree Bud – alternate arrangement, white hairs, hug twig, larger terminal bud Twig – stout, hairy (fuzzy), dwarf twigs produce fruit Leaf – simple, ovate, round base, pointed tip Fruit – pome, white or red flowers, arranged in clusters on dwarf shoots Site – landscape uses

44 Rosaceae – Rose Family Potentilla fruticosa – Shrubby cinquefoil (native)
Size and Form – spreading shrub, up to 1m tall, multiple branching Bud – alternate arrangement, covered with silky hairs Twig – silky hairs, scruffy Leaf –odd-pinnately compound, 3-5 leaflets, greyish/green Fruit – densely hairy achenes in clusters, flowers are buttercup-like Site – open to partly wooded areas, fairly widespread

45 Rosaceae – Rose Family Prunus pensylvanica – Pin cherry (native)
Size and Form – small tree (up to 5m tall) Bud – alternate arrangement, small, rounded, diverging cluster of buds at the terminal Twig – slender, reddish/brown, has a waxy coating Leaf – simple, lance-like, long and pointed, tiny serrated teeth, up to 10cm long Fruit – bright red drupe, flowers are white in open clusters Site – found in small patches in forest openings

46 Rosaceae – Rose Family Prunus virginiana – Choke cherry (native)
Size and Form – small tree (up to 6m tall) Bud – alternate arrangement, sharp pointed, two-tone brown Twig – slender to moderately stout, smooth, greyish/brown, waxy stem Leaf – simple, elliptical to obovate, up to 10cm long, fine sharp teeth Fruit – red to almost black drupe, up to 15mm across, flower clusters up to 15cm Site – dry wooded clearings

47 Rosaceae – Rose Family Rosa acicularis – Prickly rose (native)
Size and Form – small bushy shrub (1.5m) Bud – alternate arrangement, small, red to purple in colour Twig – stout, covered in straight prickles Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, 3-9 leaflets, up to 3cm long, leaflets are sharp, double toothed with hair underneath (pubescent) Fruit – spherical to pear shape, berry or hip Site – open forest, clearings, and river banks

48 Rosaceae - Rose Family Rubus idaeus – Raspberry (native)
Size and Form – erect shrub (up to 2m tall) Bud – alternate arrangement, small Twig – slender, soft prickle, reddish Leaf –odd-pinnately compound, 3-5 leaflets, sharp pointed, double serrated Fruit – aggregate fruit, red in colour, white flowers in singles or small clusters Site – open wooded areas, clear landings

49 Rosaceae – Rose family Sorbus sp – Mountain ash (exotic)
Size and Form – small tree, lots of branches at base, rounded crown Bud – alternate arrangement, large and pointed terminal bud, lateral buds are smaller, white and hairy, purplish in colour Twig – stout, greyish (older), purple/red (younger) Leaf –odd-pinnately compound, 7-19 leaflets (serrated), up to 20cm long Fruit – apple like, 6-12mm, orange/reddish, flower made up of small white petals (flat topped cluster) Bark – reddish (younger), smooth, light grey (older) Site – cool moist sites, also found in some drier sites

50 Salicaceae – Willow Family Populus balsamifera – Balsam poplar (native)
Size and Form – deciduous tree (up to 20m tall), 50cm diameter, 70yr life span Bud – alternate arrangement, large and sticky, can be 25mm long, has terminal bud, yellow/green Twig – reddish/brown, grey on older wood, 5 sided pith Leaf – simple, long petiole, up to 10cm long, rounded/heart-shaped at base, sharp tip, finely toothed Fruit – catkins up to 10cm long, capsules, seeds with cottony hairs Bark – greenish/brown on young, older bark is greyish and deeply furrowed Site – moist sites, along streams and floodplains

51 Salicaceae – Willow family Populus X – Hybrid poplar (exotic)
Size and Form – medium-large tree (up to 30m tall), 1m diameter, 50yr lifespan Bud – alternate arrangement, long pointed, yellow/brown/green, resinous and hairless Twig – 5 sided pith, yellow/brown Leaf –simple, triangular shaped, tapered tip, smooth round teeth (none at tip), shiny green above, pale green below Fruit – catkin, capsule, seeds with cottony hairs. Bark – yellowish/grey, smooth Site – moist rich sites, urban parks, is fast growing

52 Salicaceae – Willow Family Populus tremuloides – Trembling aspen (native)
Size and Form – deciduous tree (up to 25m tall), 40cm diameter Bud – alternate arrangement, pointed, conical in shape, clasping the branch, tips curve inward, dark reddish/brown, shiny Twig – slender, shiny, dark green to brownish/grey, lenticels Leaf – simple, oval to circular, sharp pointed tip w/flat or square base, flat petiole Fruit –catkin, capsule, seed with cottony hairs Bark – smooth, waxy appearance, pale green/white when young, darker and lightly furrowed when older with white powder on the side most exposed to light Site – moist and well drained

53 Salicaceae – Willow family Salix sp – Willow (native)
Size and Form – varied form, prostrate to upright shrubs Bud – alternate arrangement, single bud scale, pointed, pseudo-terminal, hugs the stem Twig – slender, tinted colours Leaf – simple, 2 to 10cm, at least three times longer than wide, tapered tip, finely to smooth teeth, short petiole, stipules Fruit – catkin, capsules Site – wide variety, needs sufficient moisture and nutrients

54 Saxifragaceae – Saxifrage Family Ribes sp – Currants/Gooseberry (native)
Size and Form – erect to spreading shrub, ascending less than 1m Bud – alternate arrangement, small in size Twig - straw colour, slender, prickles with spines at nodes Leaf –simple, maple leaf like shape Fruit – dark purple to black berries, also may be red Site – stream banks and moist woods

55 Tiliaceae – Linden Family Tilia americana – Basswood (exotic)
Size and Form – medium sized tree (up to 20m tall), 60cm diameter, up to 200yr lifespan Bud – alternate arrangement, rounded and plump, reddish/orange, 5-7mm long Twig – orange/brown, round Leaf – simple, heart-shaped, sharply toothed, thick, asymmetrical Fruit – nut like capsule, round, woody, brown tiny hairs, grow out of long bracts (5-8cm) Site – shade tolerant

56 Ulmaceae – Elm Family Ulmus americana – White elm (native)
Size and Form – large tree (up to 35m tall), 175cm diameter, flat top, 200yr lifespan Bud – alternate arrangement, sharp-pointed, reddish/brown, flattened, terminal bud points to one side Twig – zig-zags, smooth, greyish /brown Leaf – simple, large, oval, small tip, asymmetrical, lots of sharp teeth, upper is dark green and rough, up to 15cm Fruit – flat samara, round and fuzzy with a notched tip Bark – ridges (intersecting), somewhat scaling Site – river valleys bottom, high moisture with good drainage

57 Ulmaceae – Elm Family Ulmus pumila – Siberian elm (exotic)
Size and Form – medium sized tree, lots of branching, short lived (30yr) Bud – alternate arrangement, small, dark and round Twig – olive colour, slender Leaf – simple, narrow, asymmetrical, 2-7cm long, dark green, smooth Fruit – hairless, flat samara, has a closed notch Bark – rough and grey (older) Site – dry soils, farm belts and hedges

58 Images Used Brand, Mark. University of Connecticut. UConn Plant Database. (December 2005). Dunlop, Andrew. Trees of Ottawa (December 2005). Herman, D.E. et al North Dakota Tree Handbook. USDA NRCD ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Admin., Bismarck, ND. (December 2005). Lakehead University. Educational Resources: The Virtual Forest (December 2005). Mohlenbrock, Robert Northeast Wetland Flora: Field Office Guide to Plant Species. Northeast National Technical Centre, Chester, PA. (December 2005). O’Brien, Joseph. USDA Forest Service. (January 2006). Virginia Tech Forestry Department. Dendrology at Virginia Tech. (December 2005).

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