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FEMT 101 DENDROLOGY Species’ Characteristics Lab.

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1 FEMT 101 DENDROLOGY Species’ Characteristics Lab

2 Aceraceae – Maple Family Acer ginnala – Amur maple (exotic) Size and Form – small shrubby tree, less than 5m tall Bud – opposite arrangement small with reddish-brown lateral buds, terminal bud blunt with lateral bud beside it Twig – stiff and shiny reddish- brown, with light coloured lenticels Leaf –simple, 8 -10cm long, narrowly triangular, distinct lobes (basal lobes), serrated, brilliant red fall colours Fruit – drooping clusters, paired samara (parallel wings) Site – possible landscape tree

3 Aceraceae – Maple Family Acer negundo – Manitoba maple (native) Size and Form – medium sized tree (up to 20m tall), 75cm diameter, 60 year lifespan Bud – opposite arrangement with blunt terminal bud, covered with fine hairs Twig – stout, thick and hairless, covered with a glaucous (white) bloom on older twigs Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, 3-9 leaflets Fruit –paired samara (45 degree angle), 30-50mm long Bark – furrowed, narrow ridges Site –lakeshores, riverbanks, flood plains

4 Aceraceae Acer saccharium – Silver Maple Size and Form – medium to large tree up to 35m tall, 100cm in diameter at 130 years old Bud – opposite arrangement, terminal bud 3-4mm long, blunt, twice as long as wide, shiny, reddish, smooth, usually 4 pairs of scales Twig – shiny red to grayish-brown, hairless, dwarf shoots will have clusters of flower buds, unpleasant odor when bruised Leaf –simple, 15-20cm long, 5-7 lobes that are widest above the base, coarse, sharp irregular teeth, central lobe is separated by deep narrow notches, upper surface is light green silvery white underside Fruit – paired samara, 40-70mm long, 90º angle between the wings Bark – smooth, gray when young, older trunk bark is dark reddish brown with long thin narrow flakes giving it a shaggy look Site – rich, moist lowlands bordering streams and lake shores

5 Betulaceae – Birch Family Alnus incana – Speckled alder (native) Size and Form – tall shrub, up to 8m tall Bud – alternate arrangement, stalked, blunt, reddish-brown, often 3 ranked Twig – lenticels, reddish-brown, moderately slender Leaf – elliptical, double- serrated, simple Fruit –pollen and seed catkins, mature cone-like catkin with very narrow winged nutlet Site – found along water ways

6 Betulaceae – Birch Family Alnus viridis – Green alder (native) Size and Form – large shrub (up to 3m tall), multi-stemmed Bud – alternate arrangement, un-stalked, sharp-pointed, brownish-red, 3 ranked Twig – lenticels, moderately slender Leaf – oval, double-serrated (fine teeth), simple Fruit – pollen and seed catkins, mature cone-like catkin with wide winged nutlet Site – dry with jack pine

7 Betulaceae – Birch Family Betula glandulosa – Bog birch (native) Size and Form – spreading shrub, up to 2m tall Bud – alternate arrangement, small and pointed Twig – resinous, tiny/fine hairs Leaf – simple, almost circular (1-2cm), thick and leathery, teeth per side Fruit – pollen and seed catkins (upright), mature cigar shaped catkin with small winged nutlet Site – forested bogs and wetlands

8 Betulaceae – Birch Family Betula papyrifera – White or Paper birch (native) Size and form – medium sized tree Bud – alternate arrangement, pointed, slender Twig – slender, somewhat sparsely resinous, greyish- brown (greenish), dwarf twigs Leaf – simple, triangle tip, ovate (egg-shaped), double-serrated, Fruit – pollen and seed catkins up to 5cm long, hang down, mature cigar shaped catkin with wings are wider than nutlet Site – forest edges, lakeshores

9 Betulaceae – Birch Family Betula pendula – Weeping birch (exotic) Size and Form – small tree (up to 15m tall), weeping fashion Bud – alternate arrangement, do not hug twig, blunt tip Twig – slender, flexible, no resin glands Leaf – simple, ovate, tapered tip, serrated Fruit – pollen and seed catkins (2-4cm long), mature catkin cigar shaped with wings wider than nutlet Bark – darkish white/grey Site – landscape tree

10 Betulaceae – Birch Family Corylus cornuta – Beaked hazelnut (native) Size and form – large shrub (up to 3m) Bud – alternate arrangement, darker than twig, rounded, pointed, heart-shaped, overlapping bud scales, edge of bud side has white hairs Twig – light brown, hairless Leaf – simple, elliptical, pointed tip, double-serrated Fruit – thin-shelled nut, enclosed in tubular husk covered with stiff prickly hairs, clusters of 2 or 3 Site – upland w/aspen, moist/well drained

11 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Lonicera dioica – Twining honeysuckle (native) Size and Form – semi-erect, vine- like shrub, climbs up to 5m in height Bud – opposite arrangement, straw colour, small and pointed, no true terminal bud Twig – twisting, woody vine, hollow stem, straw colour Leaf – simple, end leaves form a cup around stem, oblong, rounded on the end Fruit – small red berry, inedible (bitter), cluster of 7-8 berries in leaf cup Site – upland w/aspen, forest edges

12 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Sambucus pubens – Red elderberry (exotic) Size and Form – multi-stemmed shrub Bud – opposite arrangement, plump, reddish-purplish, pair of scales, typically no terminal bud Twig – orange pith, olive green, lenticels (yellow/brown), predominant leaf scars Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, 5-7 leaflets, tapered & pointed tip Fruit – large clusters of red berries, bright white flowers Site – moist

13 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Symphoricarpos occidentalis – Western Snowberry (native) Size and Form – short shrub, multi-branched, grows in large patches Bud – opposite arrangement, small Twig – thin, orangey-brown, orange pith, sometimes hollow Leaf – simple, small, paper thin, 2-4cm long, wavy margin (large), smooth margin (small) Fruit – greenish/white berries in dense clusters Bark – shredding Site – upland, open forest

14 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Viburnum edule – Lowbush cranberry (native) Size and Form – medium size shrub Bud – opposite arrangement, bright red, pointed, true terminal bud Twig – reddish-brown, slightly grooved Leaf – simple, 3-lobed, long petiole Fruit – red berries, clusters of 2- 5, drupe (flat stone ) Bark – thin bark, reddish-grey brown Site – open forest

15 Caprifoliaceae – Honeysuckle Family Viburnum trilobum – Highbush cranberry (native) Size and Form – upright shrub (up to 4m) Bud – opposite arrangement, reddish/orange, no terminal bud, 2 bud scales Twig – straw like, large white pith Leaf – simple, 3 long pointed lobes, smooth toothed margins Fruit – red to orange, forms on terminal end of branch, drupe (flat stone), functioning flowers are surrounded by sterile white flowers Bark – smooth grey bark Site – riparian areas

16 Cornaceae – Dogwood Family Cornus stolonifera – Red-osier dogwood (native) Size and Form – medium sized shrub, spreading shrub Bud – opposite arrangement, long/slender, pointed, 2 pairs of scales, laterals appressed Twig – reddish-purple, moderately slender, lenticels Leaf – simple, smooth margins, long petioles, tips curve off to one side Fruit – whitish berries, small stones, form in clusters Bark – reddish, greyish in older wood Site – under open canopy, moist woods

17 Cupressaceae – Cypress Family Juniperus communis – Low Juniper (native) Size and Form – evergreen, prostrate or spreading shrub up to 1m tall, trunkless Bud – Twig – Leaf – needle-like to narrowly lance-shaped, 5-12mm long, very prickly, whitish above, dark green below, in 3s Fruit – berry-like, 6-10mm in diameter, bluish with white-grey bloom, fleshy Bark – thin, reddish brown, shredding, scaly Site – dry open, gravelly ridges or outcrops

18 Cupressaceae – Cypress Juniperus sp – Juniper (exotic) Size and Form – evergreen shrub, various heightsl, upright or spreading Bud – bud-like immature cones at the tips of some branches, hidden buds Twig – many short side branches, rounded cross-section Leaf – evergreen, scale-like, overlapping, close to stem, greenish brown purple in colour Fruit – conelets, one or more seeds, dark blue powdery coating Site – dry site, shade intolerant

19 Cupressaceae – Cypress Family Thuja sp – Cedar species (ornamental) Size and Form – various heights, symmetrical in form, pyramid or globe shaped Bud – budlike immature cones at the end of some branches Twig – flexible, has a flat cross- section Leaf – evergreen scale-like overlapping, close to stem, lime green in colour Fruit – 10mm long, short flat seeds, leathery brown texture and colour Site – landscape uses, shade intolerant

20 Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family Elaeagnus angustifolia – Russian Olive (exotic) Size and Form – small tree, tolerant to salty and calcium soils Bud – alternate arrangement, small/ovid, same colour as branch (whitish/grey) Twig – weak/slender, often a thorn on older wood Leaf – simple,narrow and oblong, dull green on top, silver underneath (small greyish scales), 4-8cm long, stay on throughout winter Fruit – small olive like grey/silver, up to 2cm long, watermelon shaped seed, small yellow flowers Site – cities, parks, and landscape

21 Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family Elaeagnus commutata – Silverberry (native) Size and Form – upright shrub (up to 4m) Bud – alternate arrangement, light brown, terminal bud pointed Twig – greyish brown, covered with rusty chalk (velvety), may have thorns Leaf – simple, grey/silver, (longer than broad) Fruit – small yellow flowers, small olive like grey/silver, watermelon shaped seed Bark – scaly, silver in colour Site – alkaline soils, open sites

22 Elaeagnaceae – Oleaster Family Shepherdia canadensis – Buffaloberry (native) Size and Form – small shrub (up to 2m), spreading Bud – opposite arrangement, pronounce terminal bud (long and slender), cluster of round flower buds around most longitudinal buds, rusty colour Twig – grey (older), soft brown (new), velvety texture, orange pith Leaf – simple, small (up to 3cm), rusty on underside Fruit – bright red to yellow berries, juicy, soapy texture Bark – scaly, brownish Site – dry, upland w/jack pine, open woods and as far north as the arctic coast

23 Ericaceae – Heath Family Ledum groenlandicum – Labrador tea (native) Size and Form – low lying shrub, less than half meter tall Bud – definite terminal bud, no lateral buds Twig – densely orange coloured hair Leaf –simple, linear and revolute in shape, deep green above, rusty below with dense wooly hairs Fruit – flowers are in white clusters Site – moist woodlands, typically bogs

24 Ericaceae – Heath Family Vaccinium myrtilloides – Blueberry (native) Size and Form – small shrub less than half a meter tall, grows in dense colonies Bud – alternate arrangement, small, pointed, reddish-brown, terminal bud Twig – velvety hairs, slender, new growth, reddish Leaf – simple, thin and hairy, up to 4cm long, smooth margins Fruit – blueberry, pale blue bloom Site – dry upland

25 Fabaceae – Bean Family Caragana arborescens - Caragana (exotic, naturalized) Size and Form – small tree/shrub, live up to 80 yrs, 4- 5m tall Bud – alternate arrangement, large terminal bud, chaff like scales Twig – green/yellow, curved/windy Leaf – even-pinnately compound, no terminal leaflet, up to 12 leaflets, spine-like stipules Fruit – pod, burst when ripe, flowers are bright yellow (pea like) Site – shelterbelts, wind breaks

26 Fagaceae – Beech Family Quercus macrocarpa – Bur oak (native) Size and Form – small tree (up to 15m tall), 60cm diameter, straight stem, can live up to 200 years Bud – alternate arrangement, terminal bud wide and pointed, brown and hairy, terminal bud is surrounded by cluster of small buds Twig – stout, yellowish-brown, scaly, rigid edges Leaf –simple, lobes (soft and rounded), variable in shape, up to 30cm long, smooth on top, hairy underneath Fruit – acorn (sits in cup with fury collar around top) Bark – thick grey scales, rough looking bark Site – bottom lands, flood plain, drought tolerant

27 Oleaceae – Olive Family Fraxinus pennsylvanica – Green ash (native) Size and Form –up to 25m tall, fast growing, and single stem Bud – opposite arrangement, terminal bud is reddish/brown, somewhat hairy, first lateral buds close to terminal bud Twig – stout, greyish/brown and hairless Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, leaflets are very large and pointed, up to 20cm long, leaflet up to 15cm long Fruit – single samara, seed covers over ½ the wing, up to 3-6cm Bark –mature tree has narrow ridges (diamond shape) Site – river valleys, flood plains

28 Oleaceae – Olive Family Syringa sp – Lilac (exotic) Size and Form – clumpy shrub (up to 4m tall) Bud – opposite arrangement, large, typically no terminal bud, pair of buds on end (spade shaped) Twig – stout, green/yellow Leaf – simple, 5-12cm long, cordate (heart) shaped, smooth margin (entire) Fruit – flattened 2 seeded capsule, flowers are pink/yellow/white/purple (10mm long, cluster up to 20cm long) Site - shelterbelts

29 Pinaceae – Pine Family Abies balsamea – Balsam fir (native) Size and Form – 25 meters tall, 75cm in diameter, up to 150 years old Bud – 5mm long, resinous terminal of 3 clusters Twig – greyish green colour, lengthy hairs Leaf – needle-like, flat cross- section, 12-25mm long, shiny above, two rows of silvery stomata on the underside Fruit – erect cones are 5-10cm long, resinous, greenish brown to purple in colour, seeds, bracts and scales fall from the tree leaving the erect axil Bark – Smooth-raised resinous blisters Site – rich sites with spruce and aspen, found across boreal forest, shade tolerant climax species

30 Pinaceae – Pine Family Larix laricina – Tamarack larch (native) Size and Form – up to 25 meters tall, 40cm in diameter, 150 years old Bud – dark reddish to brown, tiny hairs on dwarfed shoots, smooth buds Twig – hairless, orange/brown to pink in colour Leaf – needle-like, flat on top, keel below, 2-5cm long, needles per dwarf shoot (peg) on the older growth, single on current wood, deciduous Fruit – 10-20mm long, egg shaped, dark red when new, leathery brown on older Bark – scaly reddish brown, purple inner bark Site – commonly found in bog areas

31 Pinaceae – Pine Family Larix sibirica – Siberian larch (exotic) Size and Form – up to 30 meters tall, conical top Bud – ovoid or round shaped buds, brown coloured, resinous Twig yellowish to light brown, hairy in the spring, smooth and shiny in the summer Leaf – needle-like has a keel on the bottom, green coloured top, stomata on the bottom, needles per dwarf shoot (peg) on older wood and single on current wood Fruit – cones are ovoid in shape, tapered towards the tip, 2.5-4cm long, short stalks, 2 seeds with each scale, has wavy margins Bark – scaly, grey to brown in colour Site – commonly found on shelterbelts

32 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea abies – Norway spruce (exotic) Size and Form – drooping secondary branches Buds – reddish to light orange/brown, blunt pointed, scales tight fitting Twig – creamy green to light orange/brown Leaf – needle-like, 12-24mm long, sharp pointed, dark green on all sides, directed towards the upper side Fruit – cones 10-18cm, pendulous Site – wide variety of sites

33 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea glauca – White spruce (native) Size and Form – 25 meters tall, 60cm in diameter, up to 200 years old Bud – 6mm long, blunt pointed, non- resinous, outer scales are shorter than the bud Twig – shiny, light greyish green in colour, hairless Leaf – needle-like, four sided leaf, cm long, pointed stiff, bluish green in colour, glaucous Fruit – cones are slender, cylindrical, 3- 6cm long, blunt tipped, stalk less, light brown scales, thin and flexible Bark – smooth, becomes scaly with age, salmon pink inner bark on mature trunks Site – the white spruce is shade tolerant and is found on well drained moist soils

34 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea mariana – Black spruce (native) Size and Form – 20 meters tall, 30cm diameter, up to 200 years old, has a distinct clubbed top where squirrels removed the cones Bud – conical, blunt tipped, 3-5mm long, hairy, has outer scales longer than the bud Twig – bark is orange-brown, soft brownish hairs Leaf – needles-like, blunt, 4 sided, white row of stomata Fruit –cone 1.5-3cm long, egg shaped, purplish and has tight fitting scales, semi-serotinous Bark – reddish to greyish brown, scaly, olive green inner bark on mature trunk Site – often on poorly drained, poor cold nutrient site

35 Pinaceae – Pine Family Picea pungens – Blue spruce (exotic) Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 90cm diameter, up to 600 years old Bud – rounded to blunt pointed, 10mm long, bud scales are papery Twig – stout, shiny, yellowish brown, hairless Leaf – needle like, 15-30mm long, stiff, sharp pointed, blue-green in colour, needles are curved Fruit – cones are 5-12cm long, flexible scales, loose fitting, light brown colour Bark – purplish grey to brown, flakey Site – drought tolerant exotic and ornamental

36 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus banksiana – Jack pine (native) Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 30cm diameter, 150 years old, crown is flat topped Bud – blunt pointed, less than 10mm, pale reddish brown, resinous Twig – slender, yellowish green on new growth Leaf – needle-like, fascicle of 2, 2-4cm long, straight or slightly curved, stiff, sharp-pointed, yellowish green, spread apart Fruit – cones are 3-7cm long, tan coloured, curved and pointed toward the branch ends, serotinous Bark – thin, reddish brown to grey, flakey Site – found on well drained sites

37 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus contorta – Lodgepole pine (native) Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 60cm diameter, up to 200 years old, short branches, narrow trunk and straight taper Bud – reddish brown, resinous, 15mm long, blunt pointed Twig – dark brown in the second season, orange and brown in the first season, has loose whorls Leaf – needle-like, 3-7cm long, fascicles of two, fine tooth margins, dark green to yellowish green, slightly twisted Fruit – cones, short cylindrical, 3-6cm, purple and brown stalks, points away from tip, cone scales have prickles Bark – thin fine scales, orange and brown, smooth trunk Site – native to Cypress Hills

38 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus resinosa – Red pine (exotic) Size and Form – 25 meters tall, 75cm diameter, up to 200 years old, flat top crown Bud – sharply pointed, large terminal bud, reddish brown resinous bud, loose hairy scales Twig – stout, orange to reddish brown Leaf – needle-like, fascicle’s of two, 10-16cm long, straight and brittle Fruit – cones are ovoid, 4-7cm long Bark – reddish pink, flat scaly plates Site – is shade intolerant

39 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus strobus – Eastern white pine (exotic) Size and Form – 30 meters tall, 100cm in diameter, up to 200 years old Bud – slender, up to 15mm long, sharply pointed, reddish brown terminal and sub-terminal buds Twig – green with hairs in the first season, orange brown bark in the following seasons Leaf – needle like, fascicles of five, 5-15cm long, flexible Fruit – cones, 8-20cm long, scales in rows of five Bark – thin smooth, grey to green in colour Site – variable

40 Pinaceae – Pine Family Pinus sylvestris – Scots pine (exotic and naturalized) Size and Form – 30 meters tall, varied trunk and branch sizes Bud – ovoid, sharply pointed, 6-12mm, non-resinous Twig – greenish brown, hairless Leaf – needle-like, fascicle’s of two, 4- 8cm long, sharply pointed, and finely toothed margins, bluish green Fruit – conical ovoid, 2.5-7cm long, clusters of 2 or 3 point back towards tree, woody scales with four sides and raised tips Bark – orange papery strips on the upper part of the tree, lower part of the tree is more greyish Site – shade intolerant and drought tolerant

41 Rosaceae – Rose Family Amelanchier alnifolia – Saskatoon (native) Size and Form – 4m tall, dense patches Bud – alternate arrangement, purple with white lines on edge of scales Twig – slender on new growth, red wine colour, turns grey when older Leaf –simple, 2-4cm long, smooth rounded base with serrated rounded apex, elliptic to obovate Fruit – berry, purple to nearly black, clusters Site – open, dry to moist areas

42 Rosaceae – Rose Family Crataegus sp – Hawthorn (native) Size and Form – small shrub up to 4m,low crown, flat top and rounded Bud – alternate arrangement, terminal bud is broad, shiny reddish/brown, cluster of 2-3 buds at each location, one for thorn, one for the leaf and one for the twig elongation Twig – sharp thorn (can be 3cm long), smooth, shiny, reddish in colour Leaf – simple, variable in shape, 2- 8cm long, serrated, wide as is long Fruit – pome (less than 1cm), reddish, fleshy Site – calcium rich soils, and abandoned farm yards

43 Rosaceae – Rose Family Malus sp – Apple (exotic) Size and Form – small sprawling crown tree Bud – alternate arrangement, white hairs, hug twig, larger terminal bud Twig – stout, hairy (fuzzy), dwarf twigs produce fruit Leaf – simple, ovate, round base, pointed tip Fruit – pome, white or red flowers, arranged in clusters on dwarf shoots Site – landscape uses

44 Rosaceae – Rose Family Potentilla fruticosa – Shrubby cinquefoil (native) Size and Form – spreading shrub, up to 1m tall, multiple branching Bud – alternate arrangement, covered with silky hairs Twig – silky hairs, scruffy Leaf –odd-pinnately compound, 3-5 leaflets, greyish/green Fruit – densely hairy achenes in clusters, flowers are buttercup-like Site – open to partly wooded areas, fairly widespread

45 Rosaceae – Rose Family Prunus pensylvanica – Pin cherry (native) Size and Form – small tree (up to 5m tall) Bud – alternate arrangement, small, rounded, diverging cluster of buds at the terminal Twig – slender, reddish/brown, has a waxy coating Leaf – simple, lance-like, long and pointed, tiny serrated teeth, up to 10cm long Fruit – bright red drupe, flowers are white in open clusters Site – found in small patches in forest openings

46 Rosaceae – Rose Family Prunus virginiana – Choke cherry (native) Size and Form – small tree (up to 6m tall) Bud – alternate arrangement, sharp pointed, two-tone brown Twig – slender to moderately stout, smooth, greyish/brown, waxy stem Leaf – simple, elliptical to obovate, up to 10cm long, fine sharp teeth Fruit – red to almost black drupe, up to 15mm across, flower clusters up to 15cm Site – dry wooded clearings

47 Rosaceae – Rose Family Rosa acicularis – Prickly rose (native) Size and Form – small bushy shrub (1.5m) Bud – alternate arrangement, small, red to purple in colour Twig – stout, covered in straight prickles Leaf – odd-pinnately compound, 3-9 leaflets, up to 3cm long, leaflets are sharp, double toothed with hair underneath (pubescent) Fruit – spherical to pear shape, berry or hip Site – open forest, clearings, and river banks

48 Rosaceae - Rose Family Rubus idaeus – Raspberry (native) Size and Form – erect shrub (up to 2m tall) Bud – alternate arrangement, small Twig – slender, soft prickle, reddish Leaf –odd-pinnately compound, 3-5 leaflets, sharp pointed, double serrated Fruit – aggregate fruit, red in colour, white flowers in singles or small clusters Site – open wooded areas, clear landings

49 Rosaceae – Rose family Sorbus sp – Mountain ash (exotic) Size and Form – small tree, lots of branches at base, rounded crown Bud – alternate arrangement, large and pointed terminal bud, lateral buds are smaller, white and hairy, purplish in colour Twig – stout, greyish (older), purple/red (younger) Leaf –odd-pinnately compound, leaflets (serrated), up to 20cm long Fruit – apple like, 6-12mm, orange/reddish, flower made up of small white petals (flat topped cluster) Bark – reddish (younger), smooth, light grey (older) Site – cool moist sites, also found in some drier sites

50 Salicaceae – Willow Family Populus balsamifera – Balsam poplar (native) Size and Form – deciduous tree (up to 20m tall), 50cm diameter, 70yr life span Bud – alternate arrangement, large and sticky, can be 25mm long, has terminal bud, yellow/green Twig – reddish/brown, grey on older wood, 5 sided pith Leaf – simple, long petiole, up to 10cm long, rounded/heart-shaped at base, sharp tip, finely toothed Fruit – catkins up to 10cm long, capsules, seeds with cottony hairs Bark – greenish/brown on young, older bark is greyish and deeply furrowed Site – moist sites, along streams and floodplains

51 Salicaceae – Willow family Populus X – Hybrid poplar (exotic) Size and Form – medium-large tree (up to 30m tall), 1m diameter, 50yr lifespan Bud – alternate arrangement, long pointed, yellow/brown/green, resinous and hairless Twig – 5 sided pith, yellow/brown Leaf –simple, triangular shaped, tapered tip, smooth round teeth (none at tip), shiny green above, pale green below Fruit – catkin, capsule, seeds with cottony hairs. Bark – yellowish/grey, smooth Site – moist rich sites, urban parks, is fast growing

52 Salicaceae – Willow Family Populus tremuloides – Trembling aspen (native) Size and Form – deciduous tree (up to 25m tall), 40cm diameter Bud – alternate arrangement, pointed, conical in shape, clasping the branch, tips curve inward, dark reddish/brown, shiny Twig – slender, shiny, dark green to brownish/grey, lenticels Leaf – simple, oval to circular, sharp pointed tip w/flat or square base, flat petiole Fruit –catkin, capsule, seed with cottony hairs Bark – smooth, waxy appearance, pale green/white when young, darker and lightly furrowed when older with white powder on the side most exposed to light Site – moist and well drained

53 Salicaceae – Willow family Salix sp – Willow (native) Size and Form – varied form, prostrate to upright shrubs Bud – alternate arrangement, single bud scale, pointed, pseudo- terminal, hugs the stem Twig – slender, tinted colours Leaf – simple, 2 to 10cm, at least three times longer than wide, tapered tip, finely to smooth teeth, short petiole, stipules Fruit – catkin, capsules Site – wide variety, needs sufficient moisture and nutrients

54 Saxifragaceae – Saxifrage Family Ribes sp – Currants/Gooseberry (native) Size and Form – erect to spreading shrub, ascending less than 1m Bud – alternate arrangement, small in size Twig - straw colour, slender, prickles with spines at nodes Leaf –simple, maple leaf like shape Fruit – dark purple to black berries, also may be red Site – stream banks and moist woods

55 Tiliaceae – Linden Family Tilia americana – Basswood (exotic) Size and Form – medium sized tree (up to 20m tall), 60cm diameter, up to 200yr lifespan Bud – alternate arrangement, rounded and plump, reddish/orange, 5-7mm long Twig – orange/brown, round Leaf – simple, heart-shaped, sharply toothed, thick, asymmetrical Fruit – nut like capsule, round, woody, brown tiny hairs, grow out of long bracts (5-8cm) Site – shade tolerant

56 Ulmaceae – Elm Family Ulmus americana – White elm (native) Size and Form – large tree (up to 35m tall), 175cm diameter, flat top, 200yr lifespan Bud – alternate arrangement, sharp- pointed, reddish/brown, flattened, terminal bud points to one side Twig – zig-zags, smooth, greyish /brown Leaf – simple, large, oval, small tip, asymmetrical, lots of sharp teeth, upper is dark green and rough, up to 15cm Fruit – flat samara, round and fuzzy with a notched tip Bark – ridges (intersecting), somewhat scaling Site – river valleys bottom, high moisture with good drainage

57 Ulmaceae – Elm Family Ulmus pumila – Siberian elm (exotic) Size and Form – medium sized tree, lots of branching, short lived (30yr) Bud – alternate arrangement, small, dark and round Twig – olive colour, slender Leaf – simple, narrow, asymmetrical, 2-7cm long, dark green, smooth Fruit – hairless, flat samara, has a closed notch Bark – rough and grey (older) Site – dry soils, farm belts and hedges

58 Images Used Brand, Mark. University of Connecticut. UConn Plant Database. (December 2005). Dunlop, Andrew. Trees of Ottawa (December 2005).http://ca.geocities.com/treesofottawa/ Herman, D.E. et al North Dakota Tree Handbook. USDA NRCD ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Admin., Bismarck, ND. (December 2005).http://plants.usda.gov Lakehead University. Educational Resources: The Virtual Forest (December 2005). Mohlenbrock, Robert Northeast Wetland Flora: Field Office Guide to Plant Species. Northeast National Technical Centre, Chester, PA. (December 2005). O’Brien, Joseph. USDA Forest Service. (January 2006).ttp://www.forestryimages.org/browse/catsubject.cfm?cat=52 Virginia Tech Forestry Department. Dendrology at Virginia Tech. (December 2005).


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