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Agricultural Economics

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Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Economics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Agricultural Economics
Lecture 3: Government Intervention in Agriculture Powerpoint tranparencies from Penson, et. al. 3rd. Ed.

2 Normal Rationale for Government Intervention
Support/protect an infant industry Curb market powers of imperfect competitors to promote social good Provide for food security Provide for consumer health and safety Provide for environmental quality

3 Seeds of Farm Income Problem
Inelastic demand for raw agricultural products Increasing productivity leads to commodity surpluses and low prices Low income elasticity mutes any help from a strong general economy Strong dollar weakens export demand for farm products High asset fixity and interest sensitivity

4 Let’s assume that the market equilibrium occurs at point E1, which corresponds to a price of P1 and a quantity of Q1.

5 Increasing supply causing
movement along demand curve from E1 to E2 will cause prices to fall more than the increase quantity, or %P > %Q. Stated another way, area 0P2E2Q2 is less than area 0P1E1Q1.

6 inelastic demand curve D1 and equilibrium price P1.
Let’s start with an inelastic demand curve D1 and equilibrium price P1. E1

7 Page 273 Movement along an inelastic demand curve translates into
a sharply lower price P3 at equilibrium E3. Page 273

8 Page 273 A more elastic demand curve means equilibrium
would occur at E2 rather than E3. This prevents a sharper drop in total farm revenue given by demand curve D1. Page 273

9 Forms of Government Intervention
Adjusting production to market demand Price and income support payments Foreign trade enhancements Crop insurance Subsidized credit Other forms

10 Consumer Issues Adequate and cheap food supply
Nutrition and health issues Food subsidy issues Rural community issues

11 Resource Issues Soil erosion and land use issues
Adequacy of water supply issues Hired farm labor issues Energy issues

12 International Issues Adequacy of world food supply

13 Note major differences between
low, middle and high income countries….

14 International Issues Adequacy of world food supply
Movement towards free trade

15 Price and Income Support A Historical perspective
Commodity acquisition-loan rate mechanism Set-aside mechanism Target price mechanism Commodities covered by government programs

16 The Loan Rate Approach to Supporting Farm Prices and Income

17 Market Level Effects of Loan Rates
Free market equilibrium occurs at point E. Let’s assume that PF is below a politically acceptable price, and that the price desired by policymakers is PG.

18 Market Level Effects of Loan Rates
The Commodity Credit Corporation of the USDA began in the Thirties to acquire excess supply at the desired price its through non- recourse loan provisions. The goal was to shift demand from D to D+CCCACQ, pulling up the price from PF to PG. Note that consumer demand actually fell from QF to QD.

19 Market Level Effects of Loan Rates
The CCC stored the surplus QD-QG in metal bins at great expense to taxpayers. This approach had the un- wanted effects of increasing supply from (QF to QG) in a sector already plagued by over production.

20 Market Level Effects of Loan Rates
Consumer surplus would decline from area to just area 6. Thus, they are economically worse-off as a result of this approach. Producer surplus would increase from area 1+2 to area , a gain of area

21 Firm Level Effects of Loan Rates
The individual firm under free market conditions will produce quantity qF if it expected the free market price PF, and earn profit equal to area 1.

22 Firm Level Effects of Loan Rates
The increase in CCC acquired stocks pulling the price up to PG will cause participating farmers to increase its production from quantity qF to qG, increasing its profits by area 2.

23 The Set-Aside Approach to Supporting Farm Prices and Income

24 Market Level Effects of Set-Aside Requirements
Free market equilibrium occurs at point E1. Let’s assume that PF is below a politically acceptable price, and that the price desired by policymakers again is PG.

25 Market Level Effects of Set-Aside Requirements
Shifting the market supply curve from SMKT to SMKT* through set-aside require- ments reduces production from QF to QG. The market equilibrium moves from E1 to E2.

26 Market Level Effects of Set-Aside Requirements
Consumer surplus would fall from area to just area 7. Thus, consumers are worse-off economically. Producer surplus would increase from area to area As long as area 6 is greater that area 2+3, producers are better-off.

27 Market Level Effects of Set-Aside Requirements
Importantly, the set-aside approach does not encourage production of quantity QS as the CCC loan rate approach did.

28 Firm Level Effects of Set-Aside Requirements
The individual producer under this approach would supply qG rather than qF or qS. Profit would increase over free market levels as long as area 4 was greater than area 2+3.

29 Deficiency Payment Mechanism
The deficiency payment was equal to qnantity QM multiplied by the difference between the announced target price and either the loan rate or market price (blue shaded area above), which ever was higher.

30 Deficiency Payment Mechanism
To receive this payment, the farmer had to participant in the Acreage Reduction Program (ARP) which implemented the set-aside requirements. The Findley amendment reduced this payment by 15%.

31 The Current Approach to Supporting Farm Prices and Income

32 Some Demand Side Options

33 Domestic Demand Expansion: Value Added Products
Let’s assume that the free market conditions result in a price of PF and quantity QF. Market equilibrium occurs at E1.

34 Domestic Demand Expansion: Value Added Products
Policies designed to promote research that would enhance value added demand for farm products would shift the demand curve out to the right. This would increase price to PG and quantity to QG.

35 Domestic Demand Expansion: Value Added Products
Consumer surplus in this market would go from area 2+5 to area If area 4 exceeds area 2, consumers are better-off. Producers would be better off by area 2+3 as we move from E1 to E2.

36 Export Demand Expansion: Enhancements
Let’s assume the original Demand curve is DD, giving us a market clearing price of PDD and corresponding quantity of QMM at market equilibrium E1.

37 Export Demand Expansion: Enhancements
Consumer surplus would be area 2+5 while producer surplus would be area 1.

38 Export Demand Expansion: Enhancements
By enhancing export demand through subsidies to client nations, the government can shift the demand curve out to TD beginning at E0. Domestic consumer surplus would decline by area 2 but producer surplus would increase by area 2+3. At equilibrium E2, foreign consumer surplus would be area 4.

39 Agricultural Support Policies in Turkey

40 Price Supports Commodity loans for wheat Commodity loans for tobacco
Commodity loans for sugar

41 Input Support Fertilizer Seed Feed Animail Pesticides
Irrigation and electricity Credit (TSK, TCZB)

42 Direct Income Payments
Price premium Meat, milk Direct payment Tea Quata in tobacco Hazelnut Deficiency payment Cotton Silk Olive oil Sunflower, soybean..


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