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1 Andrea Kellenberger University POLITEHNICA Timisoara Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Andrea Kellenberger University POLITEHNICA Timisoara Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering GENERAL CHEMISTRY."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Andrea Kellenberger University POLITEHNICA Timisoara Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering GENERAL CHEMISTRY

2 2 Lecture: 2h / week Laboratory: 2h / week Evaluation form: Examination Nr. of credits: 5

3 3 INTRODUCTION Chemistry is the science of substances. Chemistry studies the structure, properties and transformation of substances. Substances are charaterized by 2 essential properties: homogeneity and constant composition.

4 4 INTRODUCTION Homogeneity = is the property of substances to show same characteristics in all the volume. Constant composition = in any given portion of a substance there are the same particles which interact in the same way. Substances can not be separated into other substances by physical methods.

5 5 Exemple of substances: water, sugar, oxygen, hydrogen, sodium chloride, copper, hydrochloric acid, sodiu hydroxide. INTRODUCTION Air = substance? Air is not a substance. By distillation of liquefied air one obtains O 2, N 2 and other gases.

6 6 INTRODUCTION Gasoline = substance? Gasoline is not a substance, because by distillation it can be separated into the component hydrocarbons. NaCl solution = substance? Sodium chloride solution is not a substance, because by boiling the water is removed and the NaCl crystals remains.

7 7 INTRODUCTION In nature, substances are found only rarely in pure form. Materials are made ​​ of substances or mixtures of substances. Materials can be homogeneous sau heterogeneous. Heterogeneous materials are composed of so-called "phases" which are homogeneous portions separated from other phases by areas where the properties vary sharply.

8 8 INTRODUCTION Exemple of materials: metals and alloys. Metals are homogeneous materials containing a single metallic element. Alloys are homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures of two or more metals. Alloys: Brass = copper and zinc alloy Bronze = copper-tin alloy

9 9 INTRODUCTION Exemple of materials: Wood = homogeneous material, composed of cellulose, lignin, resins and other substances. Glass = usually a homogeneous amorphous material (component particles are not included in a crystal lattice) Granite = homogeneous material composed of three different minerals: quartz, feldspar and mica.

10 10 Solutions = homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. Solutions are obtained by dissolving a substance called solute into another substance called solvent. Exemples liquid solutions solid solutions gaseous solutions INTRODUCTION Pictures/Transition-Metal-Solutions.htm

11 11 INTRODUCTION Liquid solutions: gas dissolved in liquid (CO 2 in water) liquid dissolved in liquid (ethanol in water) solid dissolved in liquid (copper sulfate in water, naphtalene in benzene) Solid solutions = homogeneous alloys Gaseous solutions = homogeneous mixtures of gases, i.e. air. Bare de aur de Petr Kratochvil

12 12 INTRODUCTION Each substance is distinguished from the other substances by its properties. A substance is characterized by its physical properties that can be expressed by numerical values. For pure substances these properties are called physical constants. melting point, boiling point density refractive index dielectric constant

13 13 INTRODUCTION International System of Units (S.I.). S.I. has 7 fundamental units QuantityUnitSymbol Lengthmeterm Masskilogramkg Timeseconds Thermodynamic temperature KelvinK Electric currentAmpereA Luminous intensitycandelacd Amount of substancemolemol

14 14 Derived units QuantityEquationName of the unitSymbol Area S = l 2 l – length square meter m2m2 Volume V = l 3 cubic meter m3m3 Speed v = l / t t – time meter per second m s -1 Aceleration a = v / tmeter per second squared m s -2 Molar concentration c M = n / V n- amount of substance V-volume mole per cubic meter mol m -3 Force F = m·a m – mass a – acceleration kilogram· meter per second squared (Newton) kg· m s -2 ( N ) Pressure P = F / S S – area kilogram· meter per square second per square meter kg· m s -2 · m -2 N· m -2 = Pa Density ρ = m / Vkilogram per cubic meter kg· m -3

15 15 I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES Since antiquity there is the idea that things in nature are composed of very small particles, indivisible, called atoms (atom, gr. = indivisible). Atomic conception was resumed by J. Dalton in 1805, who showed on the basis of experimental observations accumulated until then that matter is made ​​ of atoms. Avogadro's research related to gaseous state, led to the discovery of molecules, where the atoms are bound together in different ratios.

16 16 I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES Atom = basic unit of matter, indestructible by ordinary chemical methods. Molecule = the smallest particle of a substance that can exist in the free state and manifests the properties of the substance.

17 17 I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES At the end of the 19th century, the English physicist J. J. Thomson showed that the atoms of any element emit tiny negative particles. He called the particles "corpuscles", but later scientists preferred the name electron. Although atoms contain negative particles, the whole atom is not charged. So, Thomson concluded that atoms must also contain positive particles to balance the negative charge of the electrons. He imagined the “plum pudding model” of the atom, in which electrons are scattered like plums into the uniform “soup” or “cloud” of positive charges.

18 18 Plum pudding model electrons cloud of positive charge I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES In this model, the atom is composed of electrons surrounded by a “soup” of positive charge to balance the electrons' negative charges.

19 19 The “plum pudding” model was disapproved by RUTHERFORD’s experience. Rutherford measured the deviation of alpha particles (helium ions with a positive charge) directed normally onto a sheet of very thin gold foil. Since the mass of the electrons is very small, and the α particles are heavy, considering the plum pudding model, the alpha particles should pass through the foil without significant deviation. The results of the experiment were very different from what Rutherford anticipated. Most of the α particles passed straight through the foil, but some of them were deflected at large angles and some were even reflected backward. I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES

20 20 Rutherford’s experiment Expected results for the “plum pudding model” Observed results “It was quite the most incredible event that has ever happened to me in my life. It was almost as incredible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you. … I realized that this scattering backward must be the result of a single collision, and when I made calculations I saw that it was impossible to get anything of that order of magnitude unless you took a system in which the greater part of the mass of the atom was concentrated in a minute nucleus. It was then that I had the idea of an atom with a minute massive center, carrying a charge” — Ernest Rutherford

21 21 I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES Conclusions: the plum pudding model for the atom could not be correct; the atom must contain a very small (compared with the size of the atom) positive charge which causes the large deflections of the α particles; the atom is mostly empty space because most of the α particles passed directly through the foil.

22 22 I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES Based on these results, Rutherford proposed the planetary model of the atom. According to this model the atom is composed of 2 parts: a small, compact center of positive charge called nucleus surrounded by a cloud of tiny negative particles called electrons, moving around the nucleus.

23 23 I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES Planetary model of the atom

24 24 The planetary model of the atom is not perfect, because it can not explain why electrons are not colliding with the nucleus. It is known that an accelerating electric charge emits electromagnetic waves, so electrons will continuously lose energy, they will spiral towards the nucleus and finally they will collide with the nucleus. To explain why this did not occur, Niels Bohr (1913) postulated: I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES

25 25  Electrons can move around the nucleus only on certain orbits, called allowed orbits.  Electrons can gain or lose energy only by jumping from one allowed orbit to another. When an electron moves towards the nucleus energy is radiated and if it moves away from the nucleus energy is absorbed.  For an electron to remain in its orbit the electrostatic attraction force between the electron and the nucleus must equal to the centrifugal force which tends to throw the electron out of its orbit. I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES

26 26 Bohr’s model of the atom Niels Bohr admitted that the orbits of the electrons are circular. I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES

27 27 A. Sommerfeld (1916), based on the atomic spectra of hydrogen, suggested that the permissive orbits of the electrons may be elliptic. Bohr – Sommerfeld model of the atom I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES

28 28 In 1919 Rutherford discovered that the nucleus contains positive particles named protons. In 1932 James Chadwick discovered that nucleus contains also neutral particles – neutrons. Protons and neutrons are known as nucleons. I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES + + + + ++ + + + + Nucleus Proton Neutron Nucleons

29 29 I. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTANCES Electric chargeMassSymbol [C]Relative charge kgamu Proton+1.602·10 -19 +11.67262·10 -27 1.0073p; p + Neutron001.67493·10 -27 1.0087n; n o Electron-1.602·10 -19 9.10939·10 -31 0.0005486e; e - Properties of the main subatomic particles Proton = a nucleon with positive charge (+1) Neutron = a nucleon with zero charge (0) Protons and neutrons have close weights, and electrons are much lighter.

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