Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the refraction varies in the different meridian. Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the refraction varies in the different meridian. Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the refraction varies in the different meridian. Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the refraction varies in the different meridian. Astigmatism is a defect in which light Astigmatism is a defect in which light entering the eye is unable to be brought to a single focus on retina resulting in blurred vision at all distances.

3 It simply means that there is a variation It simply means that there is a variation and disturbance in the shape of the cornea or lens. It is usually due to an – *Irregularly shaped cornea * Scarring of the cornea * Scarring of the cornea *Abnormities in the crystalline lens *Abnormities in the crystalline lens

4 **Some eyes conditions are seen along with astigmatism as Nystagmus Nystagmus Cataract Cataract Ptosis Ptosis Retinitis pigmentosa Retinitis pigmentosa Albinism Albinism Inflammation Inflammation degeneration degeneration

5 Symptoms:- Eye strain Eye strain discomfort discomfort headache headache dry eye dry eye sensitivity to light sensitivity to light Blurred vision Blurred vision

6

7 Classification of astigmatism PhysiologyPathological regular mixed With the rule Against the rule compound myopic With the rule Against the rule hypermetropic With the rule Against the rule simple Hypermetropic With the rule Against the rule myopic With the rule Against the rule Irregular

8 Type of astigmatism :- Type of astigmatism :- there are two type of astigmatism:- there are two type of astigmatism:- 1. Regular astigmatism 2. Irregular astigmatism

9 Regular astigmatism The astigmatism is regular when the refractive power changes uniformly from one meridian to another The astigmatism is regular when the refractive power changes uniformly from one meridian to another

10 A etiology :- A etiology :- 1. Corneal astigmatism 2. Lenticular astigmatism 3. Retinal astigmatism

11 corneal astigmatism corneal astigmatism it is the result of abnormality of curvature of cornea it is the result of abnormality of curvature of cornea It is usually congenital It is usually congenital acquired corneal astigmatism is often irregular acquired corneal astigmatism is often irregular

12 Causes Congenital curvature astigmatism Congenital curvature astigmatism Keratoconous Keratoconous Trauma to the cornea or lens Trauma to the cornea or lens After cataract operation After cataract operation

13 Lenticular astigmatism Mainly due to Mainly due to *congenital abnormality of lens *refractive index of lens *congenital or traumatic subluxation of the lens

14 Retinal astigmatism *Due to oblique placement of macula * It can be corrected by visual aid

15 type of regular astigmatism type of regular astigmatism It is subdivided into four type ; – It is subdivided into four type ; – With-the-rule astigmatism With-the-rule astigmatism Against-the-rule astigmatism Against-the-rule astigmatism Oblique astigmatism Oblique astigmatism bi-oblique astigmatism bi-oblique astigmatism

16 With-the-rule astigmatism: Refractive power of the vertical meridian is greatest Refractive power of the vertical meridian is greatest.The vertical meridian is steepest than horizontal meridian..The vertical meridian is steepest than horizontal meridian. Eyes see vertical lines more sharply than horizontal lines. Eyes see vertical lines more sharply than horizontal lines. Requires concave cylinders at 180+ /-20 Requires concave cylinders at 180+ /-20 Or convex cylinders at 90+/-20 degrees Or convex cylinders at 90+/-20 degrees

17 Against-the-rule astigmatism: the refractive power of horizontal meridian is greatest than vertical meridian. the refractive power of horizontal meridian is greatest than vertical meridian. Horizontal meridian is steepest than vertical meridian. Horizontal meridian is steepest than vertical meridian. Eyes see horizontal lines more sharply than vertical lines. Eyes see horizontal lines more sharply than vertical lines. Requires concave cylinders at 90 +/-20degrees Requires concave cylinders at 90 +/-20degrees Or convex cylinders at 180+/-20 degrees. Or convex cylinders at 180+/-20 degrees.

18 Oblique astigmatism: In which the two principle meridians lies somewhere between the axis defining either with-the-rule or against-the-rule astigmatism. In which the two principle meridians lies somewhere between the axis defining either with-the-rule or against-the-rule astigmatism. Complementary (45 in one meridian,135 in other meridian) Complementary (45 in one meridian,135 in other meridian)

19 Bi – oblique astigmatism Principle meridian are not at right angle Principle meridian are not at right angle One at 30, other at 100 One at 30, other at 100

20 optics of regular astigmatism optics of regular astigmatism

21 Light entering the eye cannot converge to a point focus but form focal lines Light entering the eye cannot converge to a point focus but form focal lines Configuration of rays refracted from the astigmatic surface – ( sturms conoid). Configuration of rays refracted from the astigmatic surface – ( sturms conoid). Lens with cylinder produces an astigmatic focus.this astigmatic focus contains vertical line,corresponding to the focus of the horizontal principal meridian.and horizontal focal line corresponding to the focus of the vertical principal meridian. Lens with cylinder produces an astigmatic focus.this astigmatic focus contains vertical line,corresponding to the focus of the horizontal principal meridian.and horizontal focal line corresponding to the focus of the vertical principal meridian.

22 The region between these two lines is known as the conoid of sturm. The region between these two lines is known as the conoid of sturm. At the dioptric mid – point between these two focal line, the astigmatic focus forms a circular patch known as circle of least confusion At the dioptric mid – point between these two focal line, the astigmatic focus forms a circular patch known as circle of least confusion

23

24 a. Simple hypermetropia astigmatism When refracted rays from one meridian takes focus on the retina and refracted rays from other meridian takes focus behind the retina.

25 b)Simple myopic astigmatism When refracted rays from one meridian takes focus on the retina and refracted rays from other meridian takes focus in front of retina.

26 c) Compound hypermetropic astigmatism: In this condition of astigmatism refracted rays from both meridians take focus behind the retina.

27 d) Compound myopic astigmatism: In this condition of astigmatism refracted rays from both meridians take focus in front of retina. e) Mixed astigmatism:When refracted rays from one meridian take focus in front of retina and refracted rays from other meridian take focus behind the retina.

28 b) Irregular astigmatism: b) Irregular astigmatism: Irregular differences in curvature or refractive index of the optic components or misalignment of any optical component may lead to irregularity. Irregular differences in curvature or refractive index of the optic components or misalignment of any optical component may lead to irregularity. It is often the result of trauma, It is often the result of trauma, pterygium, pterygium, corneal scars, corneal scars, and complication of refractive surgery. and complication of refractive surgery. Another not uncommon condition is conical cornea (keratoconous) Another not uncommon condition is conical cornea (keratoconous)

29 Diagnostic Objectively: With the help of retinoscopy With the help of retinoscopy Autorefractometer Autorefractometer Keratometer Keratometer Corneal topography Corneal topography Subjectively: By Jackson ’ s cross cylinder By Jackson ’ s cross cylinder By astigmatic fan By astigmatic fan By stenopaeic slit By stenopaeic slit

30 management CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT: CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT: Prescription eye wear Prescription eye wear Spherical soft contact lenses Spherical soft contact lenses Spherical RGP contact lenses Spherical RGP contact lenses Toric soft contact lenses Toric soft contact lenses

31 SURGICAL MANAGEMENT 1. Conventional LASIK 2. Astigmatic Keratotomy 3. Photorefractive Keratectomy 4. PAI LASIK 5. LASEK 6. Orthokeratology 7. Phakic Intraocular Lens(PIOL)

32 Physiological astigmatism Almost all have minor degree of astigmatism {physiological } Almost all have minor degree of astigmatism {physiological } Diameter of cornea in vertical axis is 11.5mm and in horizontal meridian is 12mm. Diameter of cornea in vertical axis is 11.5mm and in horizontal meridian is 12mm. This means horizontal meridian is flatter than vertical. This means horizontal meridian is flatter than vertical. Because diameter is inversely proportional to curvature. Because diameter is inversely proportional to curvature.

33 Occur as lid press on anterior corneal surface. Occur as lid press on anterior corneal surface. Make vertical meridian steeper Make vertical meridian steeper Only small astigmatic error Only small astigmatic error Usually 0.12D Usually 0.12D NO TREATMENT REQUIRED, NO TREATMENT REQUIRED,

34 life is an echo,all comes back,the good,the bad, the false and the true, life is an echo,all comes back,the good,the bad, the false and the true, so give the world the best u have and the best will come back to u. so give the world the best u have and the best will come back to u.

35 For Further Queries Contact : Ms. Priyanka Singh Head – Optometry Service –


Download ppt "Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the refraction varies in the different meridian. Astigmatism is a type of refractive error wherein the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google