Presentation on theme: "The Japanese occupation was a curse for Hong Kong Kelly Ng (24) History Project 2011-2012 Michelle Shum (27) Janice Wong (31) Cherie Yuen (36)"— Presentation transcript:
The Japanese occupation was a curse for Hong Kong Kelly Ng (24) History Project 2011-2012 Michelle Shum (27) Janice Wong (31) Cherie Yuen (36)
Introduction As a Hong Kong resident, we ought to understand the history of our city. Therefore, we did some research on Hong Kong under Japanese occupation to get into the past of our city.
Background of the Japan occupation of Hong Kong In the 1930s, Japanese‘s aggression had grown rapidly and Japan began to invade other countries. By invading the major cities of China, she was close to her success. To Japan, Hong Kong was an obstacle. It was an important port that sent the needed resources to the Chinese army during their war against Japan. Japan also feared that the British would turn it into a naval base in China, a move that would threaten its expansion in the region. Hong Kong, as one of the cities in China, could not avoid the Japanese assault on 8 December 1941. Finally defeated after all the attack, on 25 December 1941, Hong Kong surrendered. During the occupation, Hong Kong people’s lives were awfully miserable. They were tortured, executed, and raped. Though, after the atomic bombing of Japan, the great destruction drove Japan to surrender to the Allied Powers. The occupation period ended on 15 th August 1945 and had lasted for 3 years and 8 months. Thus the British control over Hong Kong was restored.
Development People’s livelihood – Starvation 1942 Due to inadequate food supply, the Japanese rationed necessities such as rice, oil, flour and salt. Each family Was given a rationing license. Each person could only buy 6.4 taels (240 g) of rice per day. ▲ Food rationing 1943 Cannibalism events were common( 人吃人事件 ). On the street, there were often skinny abandoned corpse. The thigh meat of the abandoned corpse was often cut. Besides, it had been widely rumored that some restaurants used human flesh to make bun. The thigh meat was cut from the corpse. ►
Development People’s livelihood - Population The Japanese enforced a repatriation policy throughout the period of occupation due to the scarcity of food and the possible counter-attack of the Allies. Thus, the unemployed were deported to the Mainland. The population of Hong Kong decreased sharply. Chinese people were forced to build new bridges and roads for the Japanese. Some were even sent to Japan or other regions to work as laborers. 1942 1944 Though the food rationing system of Japan was canceled in 1944, people still could not afford food prices due to the serious inflation. People’s livelihood – Starvation ▲ Population decrease due to repatriation
Development People’s livelihood - Sexual Offences About 10,000 girls and women were raped in the month following Japanese victory. The Japanese troops raped Chinese women through house searching. Japanese set up comfort stations in Lockhart Road, forcing women to provide sexual services. 1941 ▲ A film still for City of Life and Death
Development There were very few public hospitals during the Japanese occupation as many of them were forced to be converted to military hospitals. With the inadequate supply of resources, Tung Wah Hospital and Kwong Wah Hospital still offered limited social services to needy persons. In June 1943, the management of water, gas and electricity was transferred to private Japanese hands. Health and public hygiene Education The Japanese authorities tried to introduce Japanese traditions and customs to Hong Kong students through the Japanese lesson at school. The Japanese infused Japanese influence to Hong Kong through Japanization. Learning of the Japanese language was obligatory. 1942-1943 1942 Private Japanese language schools were established to promote oral Japanese. A hand-out of a Japanese language learning radio programme. ►
Development Military Notes To raise money for the war, the Japanese replaced Hong Kong Dollar with Japanese Military Yen. The exchange rate was fixed at 2 Hong Kong dollars to one military yen in January 1942. Military Notes commonly used at that time. ▼
Influence Social impact Due to the war-time destruction, exports from the mainland and Southeast Asia to Hong Kong were interrupted. Food price on the black market increased sharply. 80% of the residents did not have enough to eat. Hygiene was poor. Epidemics, such as cholera, were common.
Many schools were ruined and had no textbooks or furniture. Two-thirds of children were unable to go to school. Specialized schools were all suspended. The majority of primary and secondary schools were also devastated by the war, only a few lucky children could continue their academic. School children faced the problem of enslaving education. They were not only forced to accept the enemy's language but even to learn the Japanese history and culture. Influence Social impact - Education Reference: Enslaving Education- Japan hoped to instill the so-called "Sino-Japanese cooperation," "the Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere " awareness through education to achieve lasting peace and stability. In long run, they wished to train a group of "Pro-Japanese Chinese" to assist their occupation. The Japanese occupation was undoubtedly the Dark Age of Hong Kong's education. The main building of University of Hong Kong was destroyed. ►
Influence Social impact - The forced repatriation policy A number of Hong Kong people had lost their initial rights in Hong Kong. Since the British did not have strict immigration policies towards Hong Kong in the 1950s, people owning the Hong Kong permanent rights of abode could move to Britain. Also, people could get the permanent right of abode in Hong Kong once they were born here. As the British had tighten the immigration policies, these people lost the right to move to Britain. Under the repatriation policy, Hong Kong population dropped sharply from about 1.6 million to 0.6 million. Owing to the repatriation policy, children were forced to move to the mainland. Therefore, after the war, they couldn't be verified as Hong Kong residents due to various reasons, thus they were treated as mainlanders.
Influence The yen was re-valued at 4 Hong Kong dollars to a yen in July 1942, which meant local people could exchange fewer military notes than before. Prices of commodities for sale had to be marked in yen. Hyper-inflation then disrupted Hong Kong economy
Influence Japanese army denuded Hong Kong's forests abusively, even until now, there are places that can't recover well. For example: The top of Lion Mountain in Hong Kong does not have many trees. The butterflies in Butterfly Valley are extinct. Natural environment ▲ Forests in Hong Kong were destroyed.
Duty list Collection of information Kelly Ng (24), Michelle Shum(27), Janice Wong (31) Writing of text Kelly Ng (24), Michelle Shum(27) IT production Kelly Ng (24), Michelle Shum(27), Translation of information Janice Wong (31) Proof- reading Kelly Ng(24), Michelle Shum(27)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqsE_zT_Il0&feature=related You can also visit the following website to watch a video about Hong Kong under the Japanese occupation.