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1 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin,

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Presentation on theme: "1 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e.

2 2 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e.

3 3 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. Unemployment and Inflation F ERNANDO Q UIJANO, Y VONN Q UIJANO, AND X IAO X UAN X U P R E P A R E D B Y In early June 2008, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) announced that the unemployment rate for May 2008 was 5.5 percent. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e.

4 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 4 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. ● labor force The total number of workers, both the employed and the unemployed. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 How Is Unemployment Defined and Measured? ● unemployment rate The percentage of the labor force that is unemployed.

5 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 5 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. ● labor force participation rate The percentage of the population over 16 years of age that is in the labor force. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 How Is Unemployment Defined and Measured?

6 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 6 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 How Is Unemployment Defined and Measured?  FIGURE 6.1 Unemployment Data, May 2008 Approximately 66 percent of the civilian population is in the labor force. The unemployment rate in May 2008 was 5.5 percent.

7 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 7 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. In 1948, the labor force participation rate for women 20 years and older was 32 percent. By 1970, it had grown to 43 percent, and by 1997 it had reached 60 percent. Since 1997, the figure has remained virtually constant at 60 percent. Explanations: Women may simply have run out of available time. Even with new technology, housework and childcare do take time. Conclusion: Because women provide more household services than men, it is understandable why their labor force participation may have reached a peak. AFTER GROWING SHARPLY, WOMEN’S LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION HAS LEVELED OFF APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #1: What do the recent data show about trends in the percentage of women who are working? A P P L I C A T I O N 1

8 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 8 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 How Is Unemployment Defined and Measured?  FIGURE 6.2 Unemployment Rates in Developed Countries Among the developed countries, unemployment rates vary substantially.

9 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 9 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 Alternative Measures of Unemployment and Why They Are Important ● discouraged workers Workers who left the labor force because they could not find jobs.  FIGURE 6.3 Alternative Measures of Unemployment, May 2008 Including discouraged workers, marginally attached workers, and individuals working part time for economic reasons substantially increases measured unemployment in 2008 from 8.49 million to 15.14 million.

10 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 10 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. The federal Disability Insurance program provides income to nonelderly workers who are deemed unable to engage in substantial employment. Economists David Autor and Mark Duggan studied the impact of this program on labor force participation. They found that the changes in the rules administering the program, the increased generosity of the benefits of the program for low-skilled workers, and the increase in the value of health care services all contributed to an increase in participation in this program. Since these workers, a portion of whom would have been unemployed, were no longer in the labor force, the economists estimated that the effect of the Disability Insurance program was to lower the measured unemployment rate by 0.5 percent, a very large effect. MORE DISABILITY, LESS UNEMPLOYMENT? APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #2: Does more liberal disability insurance decrease measured unemployment? A P P L I C A T I O N 2

11 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 11 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 Who Are the Unemployed?  FIGURE 6.4 Selected U.S. Unemployment Statistics, Unemployment Rates for May 2008 The incidence of unemployment differs sharply among demographic groups.

12 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 12 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. EXAMINING UNEMPLOYMENT 6.1 Who Are the Unemployed? ● seasonal unemployment The component of unemployment attributed to seasonal factors.

13 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 13 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. CATEGORIES OF UNEMPLOYMENT 6.2 Types of Unemployment: Cyclical, Frictional, and Structural ● cyclical unemployment Unemployment that occurs during fluctuations in real GDP. ● frictional unemployment Unemployment that occurs with the normal workings of the economy, such as workers taking time to search for suitable jobs and firms taking time to search for qualified employees. ● structural unemployment Unemployment that occurs when there is a mismatch of skills and jobs.

14 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 14 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. CATEGORIES OF UNEMPLOYMENT 6.2 The Natural Rate of Unemployment ● natural rate of unemployment The level of unemployment at which there is no cyclical unemployment. It consists of only frictional and structural unemployment. ● full employment The level of unemployment that occurs when the unemployment rate is at the natural rate.

15 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 15 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. THE COSTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT 6.3 ● unemployment insurance Payments unemployed people receive from the government.

16 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 16 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. How do we balance the benefits and costs of unemployment insurance? Suppose the government provided all unemployed workers a payment equal to their previous salary as long as they remained unemployed: This would prevent unemployed workers from suffering any financial hardship. Very few workers would return to work if the government were paying them their full salaries. Result: excessive unemployment. States recognize this and replace only a fraction of a worker’s prior salary—typically about 40 percent. Economist Jonathan Gruber of MIT attempted to calculate the optimal amount of unemployment insurance. Result: Looking at both the costs and the benefits of unemployment insurance, Gruber found that the optimal level of insurance was probably somewhat lower (closer to 30 percent) than the current 40 percent provided by the states. FINDING THE OPTIMAL LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #3: What are the costs of either too high or too low levels of unemployment insurance? A P P L I C A T I O N 3

17 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 17 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX AND THE COST OF LIVING 6.4 ● Consumer Price Index A price index that measures the cost of a fixed basket of goods chosen to represent the consumption pattern of a typical consumer. The CPI index for a given year, say year K, is defined as

18 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 18 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX AND THE COST OF LIVING 6.4  FIGURE 6.5 Components of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Rent and food and beverages make up 44 percent of the CPI basket. The remainder consists of other goods and services. The CPI versus the Chain Index for GDP

19 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 19 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX AND THE COST OF LIVING 6.4 Problems in Measuring Changes in Prices ● cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) Automatic increases in wages or other payments that are tied to the CPI.

20 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 20 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. Each year, the federal government increases Social Security payments to the elderly by the same rate as the increase in prices measured by the Consumer Price Index. Reason for this adjustment: to make sure the elderly, whose other income tends to be fixed, do not suffer from cost-of-living increases. Problem: we actually overcompensate the elderly for price changes and thus increase their benefits in real terms. Economists believe the CPI overstates actual price increases by between 0.5 and 1.5 percent a year. If we reduced this adjustment for Social Security by 1 percent, it would save $42 billion over a five-year period! Proponents for the elderly claim this is a misleading argument. Why? USING THE CPI TO ADJUST SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #4: Are Social Security payments properly adjusted for changes in the cost of living? A P P L I C A T I O N 4

21 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 21 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. INFLATION 6.5 ● inflation rate The percentage rate of change in the price level. inflation rate = percentage rate of change of a price index

22 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 22 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. INFLATION 6.5 Historical U.S. Inflation Rates  FIGURE 6.6 Price Index for U.S. GDP, 1875–2007 After remaining relatively flat for 60 years, the price level began to steadily increase after World War II. The price of a postage stamp in 1940 and 2007 illustrates the change in the overall price level that occurred.

23 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 23 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. INFLATION 6.5 Historical U.S. Inflation Rates

24 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 24 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. INFLATION 6.5 Historical U.S. Inflation Rates  FIGURE 6.7 U.S. Inflation Rate, 1950–2007, Based on Chain-Weighted Price Index Inflation reached its highest peaks in the postwar era during the decade of the 1970s when the economy was hit with several increases in oil prices. In recent years, the inflation rate has been relatively low.

25 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 25 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. INFLATION 6.5 The Perils of Deflation ● deflation Negative inflation or falling prices of goods and services.

26 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 26 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. THE COSTS OF INFLATION 6.6 ● anticipated inflation Inflation that is expected. ● unanticipated inflation Inflation that is not expected.

27 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 27 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. THE COSTS OF INFLATION 6.6 ● menu costs The costs associated with changing prices and printing new price lists when there is inflation. ● shoe-leather costs Costs of inflation that arise from trying to reduce holdings of cash. Anticipated Inflation ● hyperinflation An inflation rate exceeding 50 percent per month. Unanticipated Inflation

28 C H A P T E R 6 Unemployment and Inflation 28 of 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. anticipated inflation Consumer Price Index (CPI) cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) cyclical unemployment deflation discouraged workers frictional unemployment full employment hyperinflation inflation rate labor force labor force participation rate menu costs natural rate of unemployment seasonal unemployment shoe-leather costs structural unemployment unanticipated inflation unemployment insurance unemployment rate K E Y T E R M S


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