Presentation on theme: "List of performers: Shabanov AJ, Ph.D., associate professor-in charge of the study Zaitsev AB, Ph.D., associate professor Content of work Pag. The purpose."— Presentation transcript:
List of performers: Shabanov AJ, Ph.D., associate professor-in charge of the study Zaitsev AB, Ph.D., associate professor Content of work Pag. The purpose of the work 4 Test 4 Test results11 The findings of the work 28 Annex 3 1. The purpose of the work The purpose of this work was to study the effectiveness and characteristics of the product «BPI» with gasoline and diesel fuel in relation vpryskovomu gasoline engine. The information obtained can be used to optimize the technology of the preparation, correction of their compositions, as well as promotional and illustrative purposes in the preparation of publications of various kinds. 2. Test Test Based on the methodology for certification testing of drugs autochemistry developed jointly by the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University and the ELN «The Center of certification of energy resources». The procedure tests each of the products includes the following steps: - Installation of the engine on the stand, short-term running; - Basic pollution works through a specified time on the standard fuel contaminants at a fixed mode of operation; - Dismantling the cylinder head, re-weighting of spark plugs, intake and exhaust valves, determine the mass of deposited sediment; - Removal of the basic characteristics of the engine after the contamination; - Enter a drug in a given amount of fuel; - Deliver fuel from the fuel preparation biocatalysts «BPI» fixed mode, with periodic monitoring of parameters for assessing the dynamics of the drug; - Removal of the final performance engine; - Dismantling the cylinder head, weight of candles, inlet and exhaust valves, determine the mass of sediment after the treatment; - Partial dismantling the engine, photographing parts after cleaning.
Before the first test after standard contamination produced Initial partial disassembly of the engine for photographing the contaminated surfaces of pistons and cylinder heads for subsequent comparison with the state of these surfaces after cleaning. Tests were conducted on the engine stand with the engine VAZ-2111 (vpryskovy). The engines were installed on the stands of the type of brake «MS-VSETIN», equipped with measuring equipment to monitor the basic parameters of the engine. The test procedure petrol engine was carried out in accordance with the requirements of GOST 14846-81 «Automobile Engines. Methods of test bench ». In the tests measured the following quantities: Parametererror Rotation speed crank, rpm - 10,0 Torque, Nm- 0,5 Fuel consumption, kg / h- 0,01 Air consumption, kg / h- 1% Content CO- 3% Content СН- 5% Content NO,СO2- 5% Tests were conducted on petrol AI-92 «Slavneft» Production YarNPZ not containing detergent additives. Preparation «BPI» in consultation with the customer was introduced in the following concentrations: - Two pills in 60 liters of fuel - two refueling; - One tablet in 60 liters of fuel - one filling. After the tests were carried out physical-chemical analysis of samples of gasoline with the contents of a single and a double concentration of the drug. To do this, images were prepared with the introduction of a precise fuel quantities of powder «BPI», otmerennogo on the analytical balance at a rate of 4 g and 8 g of powder to 60 liters of gasoline. Measurement research octane number (GOST 8226) and the motor method (GOST 511), fractional composition (GOST 2177), the density of fuel (GOST 51069).
Fig. 2. VAZ-2111 motor, montado sobre soporte Fig. 3. Dashboard stand. Caudalímetro de combustible y el gas.
Fig. 4. Dashboard stand. La consola de control y sistema de diagnóstico
3. Test results 3.1 Comparison of baseline and outcome characteristics of the engine at various stages of testing Measurements of basic, intermediate and final characteristics of the engine were made on two high-speed loading and external characteristics. Test results are summarized in Table 1-3. The tables use the following designations: n -speed crank the engine; Me -Less efficient torque; Ne -effective power; Gr -hour fuel consumption; ge -SFC; e -the effective efficiency; i -efficiency indicator; The coefficient of excess air; CO -carbon monoxide content in exhaust gases from the engine of CO2 -the carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from the engine; NOx -nitrogen oxide content in exhaust gases from the engine; CH -the content of residual hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases from the engine.
External speed engine BA3-2111 Baseline characteristics N, rpm Me, Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 2000101,9421,356,440,3010,2710,3151,2811151941 2500104,9127,468,310,3030,2700,3142,3911162012 3000105,9033,279,980,3000,2730,3192,5091211724 Detail 3500108,8739,9011,900,2980,2740,3221,9551122118 Detail 4000107,8845,1913,160,2910,2810,3382,130832276 Detail Characteristics of gasoline from BPI after the 3 liters of fuel N, rpm Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 2000105,8222,166,580,2970,2760,3191,194892060 2500111,8129,278,270,2830,2890,3331,733872022 3000111,8135,1310,100,2870,2850,3301,972872036 Detail 3500113,8141,7111,980,2870,2850,3321,654822284 Detail 4000110,6246,8413,260,2830,2890,3461,452772401 Detail Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the first gas (60 l + 2 tablets of preparation) N, rpm Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 2000106,1422,236,660,2990,2730,3161,273832173 2500109,1528,578,270,2900,2830,3271,941542128 3000113,1535,5510,280,2890,2830,3282,186692034Detail 3500113,1541,4712,130,2920,2800,3271,844742345Detail 4000110,1246,1413,360,2900,2830,3391,751712710Detail
External speed engine BA3-2111 (table continued) Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the second filling (60 l + 2 tablets of preparation, the general formulation - 120 liter) N, rpm Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 2000106,5022,316,510,2920,2800,3240,962892140 2500109,0028,548,230,2890,2840,3281,998572085 3000113,0035,509,980,2810,2910,3372,615642004Detail 3500114,0041,7812,190,2920,2800,3271,996792412Detail 4000111,0046,5013,140,2830,2890,3471,842752755Detail Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the third fuel (60 liter + 1 tablet product, the general formulation - 180 liter) N, rpm Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 2000108,0022,626,480,2870,2850,3291,471852212 2500111,0029,068,190,2820,2900,3351,806592068 3000116,0036,449,930,2730,3000,3472,246672066Detail 3500115,0042,1512,060,286 0,3331,874812356Detail 4000113,0047,3313,100,2770,2960,3531,777782789Detail
Table 1. External high-speed engine BA3-2111 while working on gasoline with different content of additives «BPI» Load characteristic of the engine BA3-2111, n = 2000 rpm Baseline characteristics N regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/кВт ч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 119,734,132,270,5490,1490,2950,6441171716 239,478,273,170,3830,2140,3140,6471342090 359,2012,404,070,3280,2500,3240,6611382285 478,9416,535,000,3020,2710,3290,5391272334 5101,6321,296,310,2960,2760,3191,2811151941
Characteristics of gasoline from BPI after the 3 liters of fuel N regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/кВт ч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 119,964,182,120,5070,1610,3180,535951487 239,928,363,100,3710,2210,3230,653861697 359,8812,544,030,3210,2550,3310,591922252 479,8516,724,940,2950,2770,3360,550932410 5105,7922,166,450,2910,2810,3231,194892060 Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the first gas (60 l + 2 tablets of preparation) N regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 120,024,192,150,5130,1590,3140,690751825 241,048,603,130,3640,2250,3260,624992573 360,0712,584,000,3180,2570,3340,602932770 480,0916,774,890,2920,2800,3400,564912621 5106,1222,226,530,2940,2790,3211,273832173 Load characteristic of the engine BA3-2111, n = 2000 rpm (Table continued) Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the second filling (60 l + 2 tablets of preparation, the general formulation - 120 liter) N regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge, кг/кВт ч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 120,004,192,140,5120,1600,3150,650801955 239,998,383,060,3650,2240,3280,651902675 359,9912,564,010,3190,2560,3330,580862810 479,9816,754,880,2910,2810,3410,545852730 5106,4822,306,380,286 0,3290,962892140 Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the third fuel (60 liter + 1 tablet product, the general formulation - 180 liter) N regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ч ge,кг/ кВтч еiСО,%CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 119,924,172,040,4900,1670,3300,711721805 239,838,342,970,3560,2300,3370,714952652 359,7512,513,850,3080,2660,3450,623862800 479,6616,684,740,2840,2880,3490,577862751 5107,5522,526,360,2820,2900,3331,471852212 Tab. 2. Características de la carga del motor VAZ-2111 mientras trabajaba en la gasolina con un contenido diferente de los aditivos «BPI», n = 2000 rpm.
Load characteristic of the engine BA3-2111, n = 3000 rpm Baseline characteristics N Regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ ч ge, кг/кВтч еiСО, % CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 119,796,223,280,5280,1550,3070,663872538 239,5812,434,540,3650,2240,3290,641882736 359,3718,655,810,3120,2620,3410,681902764 479,1624,877,070,2840,2880,3500,662782571 5105,8833,269,780,2940,2780,3202,5091211724Дет Characteristics of gasoline from BPI after the 3 liters of fuel N Regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ ч ge, кг/кВтч еiСО, % CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 119,906,253,230,5170,1580,3130,572882551 239,8012,504,440,3550,2310,3390,655792650 359,7118,765,810,3100,2640,3430,548752890 480,6025,327,040,2780,2940,3570,755812741 5111,4535,019,900,2830,2890,3311,972872036Дет Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the first gas (60 l + 2 tablets of preparation) N Regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ ч ge, кг/кВтч еiСО, % CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 120,026,293,250,5170,1580,3121,077841948 241,0412,894,490,3490,2350,3420,816802779 360,0718,875,800,3070,2660,3460,626733040 480,0925,167,100,2820,2900,3520,615462964 5113,1235,5410,0 8 0,2840,2890,3292,186692034Дет Load characteristic of the engine BA3-2111, n = 3000 rpm ( Table continued) Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the second filling (60 l + 2 tablets of preparation, the general formulation - 120 liter) N Regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ ч ge, кг/кВтч еiСО, % CH, ppm NO, ppm Notes 120,006,283,170,5050,1620,3201,519952000 239,9912,564,400,3500,2340,3430,697902810 359,9918,855,510,2930,2800,3630,700923130 479,8825,137,010,2790,2930,3560,802502920 5112,9735,499,780,2760,2970,3392,615642004Дет
Characteristics of gasoline BPI after the third fuel (60 liter + 1 tablet product, the general formulation - 180 liter) N Regime Me, нм Nе, кВт Gт, кг/ ч ge, кг/кВтч еiСО, % CH, ppm NO, ppm Note 121,006,603,180,4830,1700,3271,6291051924 240,9912,884,460,3460,2360,3440,8801022691 359,9918,855,550,2940,2780,3610,885842997 479,9825,136,920,2760,2970,3610,485452957 5115,9736,439,740,2670,3060,3482,246672066Дет Tab. 3. Load characteristics of the engine VAZ-2111 while working on gasoline with different content of additives «BPI», n = 3000 rpm. Fig.6. Change engine torque BA3-2111 in various stages of drug testing at work on BPI load curve. Some results are illustrated in the graphs presented in Fig. 6... 17.
Fig.7. Changes in specific fuel consumption, engine BA3-2111 in various stages of BPI drug tests at work on the external speed. Fig.8. Changes of carbon monoxide CO in the exhaust gases from the engine VAZ-2111 for various stages of drug testing at work on BPI load curve.
Fig.9. Cambia el contenido residual de hidrocarburos en los gases de escape del motor de CH BA3-2111 en varias etapas de análisis de drogas en el trabajo en la Oficina de Información Pública la curva de carga. внешней скоростной характеристике. Fig.10. Changes in specific fuel consumption, engine BA3-2111 in various stages of BPI drug tests at work on load characteristics, n = 2000 rpm.
Fig.11. Changes in specific fuel consumption, engine BA3-2111 in various stages of BPI drug tests at work on load characteristics, n = 3000 rpm. Fig.12. Changes of carbon monoxide CO in the exhaust gases
Fig.13. Changes of carbon monoxide CO in the exhaust gases Fig. 14. Changing the content of residual hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases of CH engine BA3-2111 in various stages of drug testing at work on BPI load characteristics, n = 2000
Figure.15.Izmenenie CH content of residual hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases of engine BA3-2111 in various stages of drug testing at work on BPI load characteristics, n = 3000 rpm.
3.2 Comparación de los resultados de las velas de peso para determinar el cambio de masa escala Como un elemento de control de peso en las pruebas utilizadas bujías, tomas de aire y la válvula de escape. La masa de los depósitos en ellas se determinó mediante el pesaje de las escalas de análisis con una precisión de 0,0001 g. Detalles ponderado de referencia después de la contaminación y la realización de las pruebas. Estos valores fueron métrica para cada uno un peso promedio de cada una de ellas de las cuatro partes.
Candle 1 Candel 2Candel 3Candel 4 Average Снижение массы отложений на свечах за цикл 14/3513/2811/2411/2612,25/ 28,25 Reducing the mass of sediment in the candlelight for a cycle tests, mg /% by deposition stage, a master of pollution Table 4. The results of weight analysis of spark plugs for testing drug BPI. Valve 1 Valve 2Valve 3Valve 4 Average Reducing the mass of sediment on the inlet valves of the test cycle, mg / /% of the deposition stage, a master of pollution 141/46260/62135/42254/55197,50/ 51,25 Table 5. The results of weight analysis of inlet valves for testing the drug BPI. Valve 1Valve 2Valve 3Valve 4Average Reducing the mass of sediment on the exhaust valves for a series of tests, mg /% of the deposition stage, a master of pollution 8/195/1516/3411/2210,00/ 22,5 Tabl.6. The results of weight analysis of exhaust valves for testing the drug BPI. Los resultados se resumen en el cuadro de peso. 4-6
The results of this study confirms the presence of a fragment of detergent effect of the drug «BPI». This maximum efficiency is manifested in the removal of sediment from inlet valves injector engine. Obviously, this is due to the fact that the inner surface of the valve, in contrast to other parts, washed by the spray of fuel supplied under considerable pressure. In addition, it is obvious positive effect of additives on sazhestye deposits in the combustion chamber and exhaust valves. 3.3 Photos of the test results Here, in the annex to the report, given fotostability obtained on the basis of test preparation «BPI». 3.4 Data measurements of physico-chemical parameters of samples of fuel containing the drug BPI. Tab. 7. Fraccionada composición de muestras de gasolina The study of physico-chemical parameters of samples of fuels are summarized in the tables. 7-8.
Gasoline BaselineWith BPI in the concentration of 4 g/60 l With BPI in the concentration of the 8g/60 l Density at 20 grad.S., kg / m³ 768 Eyes units. 92,692,592,4 OCHM, units. 82.4 Tab. 8. La densidad y el número de octanos de las muestras de combustible
4. The findings of the study According to the results of the study to the following conclusions: «BPI» is shown to be effective in cleaning internal cavities of the engine. - Reduction of the mass of sediment is particularly noticeable in the engine intake valves. - Reduction in the mass of deposits on the spark-plug and outlet valves are less pronounced, but there are noticeable changes in the structure of deposits. Most likely, the drug BPI burn organic binder ash deposits, which results in the destruction layer of sediments with the corresponding mass loss. - use leads to a slight change in the physico-chemical parameters of the base fuel. It should be noted that there is no impact on the octane number of gasoline (indicated by a slight deterioration of the eyes should be referred to the measurement error). The small effect of the drug has on the fractional composition of fuel, as evidenced by the change curve of fractional razgonki in the zone of low temperatures. However, such a change should not significantly affect the volatility of petrol and ignition characteristics of the engine. It should be to draw attention to the increasing neisparyaemogo balance of the bulb when you enter into gasoline product BPI;
- During testing there was a slight decrease in the area of detonation when using the drug BPI, with the engine at high loads. Since the octane number of magnitude changes were not found, this fact can be explained by effect of detergent additives. On the reduction of weight of sediment decreases the level of temperatures in the combustion chamber, which reduces the tendency for engine detonation; - In the long work of contaminated petrol engine with drug BPI there is a trend of reducing specific fuel consumption, increase power and change the toxicity of exhaust gases. To analyze the obtained effects were introduced intermediate points power, efficiency, effective efficiency, toxicity of individual components of CO, CH, NOx, calculated as the average percentage deviation of the engine parameters obtained when tested on gasoline on the reference. Averaging carried out on the 27 regimes of stress and load characteristics. This sign «+» indicates an improvement with respect to the parameter reference, «-» - a deterioration.
The results of calculating the quality of gasoline are summarized in the table. 9. Average effects on the % of petrol AI-92 Power ful of FuelIndicators. efficiency СОСНNOx Immediately after introducing the drug BPI 3,613,653,3211,0618,934,52 After the first filling 4,123,473,28-18,6222,89-1,29 After the second 4,354,804,81-32,9017,69-5,06 After the third fuel 6,517,457,25-50,3218,98-0,52 Tab. 9. Averaged effects obtained at prolonged engine BA3-2111 with gasoline - Local effects of reducing fuel consumption significantly dependent on the mode of operation and more pronounced in the zone of small loads, prevailing in the urban cycle of the engine. So, after making 180 liters of gasoline containing the drug BPI, reducing specific fuel consumption in the zone loads up to 20... 30% of the face more than 10% with an average - 7.5%
- The dynamics of the product reveals the following common features. There are three main stages of the drug. First, start, characterized by some increase in engine performance, because, obviously, the influence of high dose on the rate of combustion of fuel. Availability naphthalene component in the product should change the parameters of combustion upward its completeness and speed, which affects the performance of engine. At this stage, and there is a significant improvement in the toxicity of all components, which confirms the conclusion of the improvement process of burning fuel. However, all these figures are relatively significant deterioration of the parent received during the reference of pollution, where a mixture of several toplivovozdushnaya zabednyaetsya as compared with the base even if there is a workable system lyabda-regulation of the engine. - Then begins the second phase of cleaning the engine, accompanied by some irregularity in the supply of fuel caused by falling into the dispensing system of particles of dirt, stripped surface cleaning additives. The work of the engine is some volatility, lower combustion efficiency. Hence, there is almost no effect on the growth of power and fuel consumption with a significant deterioration of the toxicity of CO in this phase. In this case, you should not talk about the deterioration of performance, and their restoration to the state parameters as the initial value of these parameters are significantly understated in relation to «clean» the engine because of the marked above a certain impoverishment of the mixture.
The third stage indicates steady growth parameters of engine power and economy, the persistence of the effect of residual hydrocarbons, in the further restoration of the indicators of toxicity. It should be noted that during the tests was not achieved full stabilization of the parameters of power and fuel consumption, which allows to expect a certain effect on growth while continuing operation of the engine to fuel the content of the drug BPI to a level greater than approximately 10%.- It is also clear that the effectiveness of the drug will significantly depend on the initial state of the engine, state of wear and contamination, the level of quality and group composition of gasoline.
Photos of test results FGOU «Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University» Fig. P1. A general view of the combustion chamber from the head unit after Reference Pollution Fig. A2. A general view of the combustion chamber from the head unit after long-term work on petrol with drug BPI
Fig. P3. A general view of the combustion chamber of the cylinder block after Reference Pollution Fig. P4. A general view of the combustion chamber of the cylinder block after long-term work on petrol with drug BPI
Fig.P5. A general view of the inlet channel, the cylinder head after Reference Pollution Fig. P6. A general view of the inlet channel, the cylinder head after long-term work on petrol with drug BPI
Fig.P7. A general view of the reference surfaces of the valves after contamination Fig.P8. A general view of the valve after a long work on petrol with drug BPI
Fig. P9. A general view of spark plugs, after reference of pollution Fig. P10 general view of spark plugs after a long work on petrol with drug BPI