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Exercise As you come in, please translate the following sentences into English. 1. Il marchait depuis plus d'une lune, lorsqu'il vit un vieil homme qui.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise As you come in, please translate the following sentences into English. 1. Il marchait depuis plus d'une lune, lorsqu'il vit un vieil homme qui."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise As you come in, please translate the following sentences into English. 1. Il marchait depuis plus d'une lune, lorsqu'il vit un vieil homme qui pêchait au bord d'un fleuve. NOTE: This sentence is trickier than it seems. 2. Elle ne s'arrêtait jamais pour dire bonjour, et parfois même renversait les pauvres petites bêtes qui croisaient son chemin.

2 My Translations He had walked (had been walking) for more than a month (a moon) when he saw an old man (who was) fishing on a riverbank. She would never stop (never stopped) to say hello and sometimes would even knock over (even knocked over) the poor little creatures who would cross (crossed) her path.

3 The Future and time clauses

4 English and French Future
The future tense functions almost exactly the same in French and English. The major difference is that the French future is a simple tense, while the English future is a compound tense using the word “will.” French: Tu verras une grosse barrière qui grince. English: You will see a large gate that creaks.

5 The near future French and English also both share the near future, which expressed a future action through a present conjugation of to go/aller and the infinitive of the main verb. Note that in English, this is usally rendered not in the simple present but in the present progressive. French: Je ne vais pas manger cette pomme. English: I am not going to eat this apple.

6 Expressions associated with the Future Tense
Quand, Lorsque – When Tandis que/Alors que/Pendant que – While Dès que/Aussitôt que – As soon as Tant que – As long as Une fois que – Once Après que – After Avant que - Before Jusquà ce que – Until/till

7 Agreement of Tenses In French, when using constructions like quand, lorsque, aussitôt que, dès que, tant que, une fois que, or après que there generally has to be an agreement of tense. Past: Quand il est arrivé, il m’a posé des questions. Present: Quand il arrive, il me pose des questions. Future: Quand il arrivera, il me posera une questions. The exception to this is when there is an imperative accompanied by the future Quand tu arriveras, pose-moi une question.

8 English In English, when using the equivalents of these phrases, there is generally an agreement of tense between the two clauses, except in the future. There, the present is used for the subordinate clause. Past: When he arrived, he asked me questions. Present: When he arrives, he asks me questions. Future: When he arrives, he will ask me questions. In the case of an imperative, the subordinate clause in the future still translates into the English present. When you arrive, ask me a question.

9 The Subjunctive Many of the other constructions associated with time require the use of the subjunctive mood in the subordinate clause. Note that while there is a past subjunctive, there is no future subjunctive. Past: Je vous aidais jusqu’à ce qu’il soit parti Present: Je vous aide jusqu’à ce qu’il parte. Future: Je vous aiderai jusqu'à ce qu'il parte.

10 Translating into English
Though there is no subjunctive in English (usually), these phrases do translate more naturally, because the future is not used in the subordinate clause again. Note the use of the present progressive again. Past: I was helping (helped) you until he left. Present: I am helping you until he leaves. Future: I will help you until he leaves.

11 Other difficulties of translation
Sometimes in narratives about the past, you will see the future used in French, while th past is almost always used in English. Ex:  Né en Martinique, Aimé Césaire étudiera à Paris et redécouvrira l'Afrique.    Born in Martinique, Aimé Césaire studied in Paris and rediscovered Africa. Sometimes the French future is used as an imperative, in which case it generally translates better into the English imperative. Ex. Vous fermerez la porte, s'il vous plaît.    Close the door, please.

12 Exercises Les grand-parents iront à l’hôpital une fois que le bébé naîtra. Tant que tu habiteras ici, tu payeras le loyer. Quand j’aurai 65 ans, je prendrai ma retraite. Dès que l’avion atterrira, tu m’envoies un texto

13 More Exercises Je le ferai après qu'il partira.
Cache le cadeau avant qu'il ne le voie. Paul sera suivi par un spécialiste jusqu'à ce qu'il guérisse.


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