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Chemical and Biological Safety Training Center for Environmental Health and Safety SIUC.

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1 Chemical and Biological Safety Training Center for Environmental Health and Safety SIUC

2 Training is required annually for all people who work with chemical or biological agents. There are two regulatory agencies which required annual training: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, and the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA.

3 OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a Federal agency BUT in Illinois, the OSHA regulations are administered by the Illinois Department of Labor So the Illinois Department of Labor is our OSHA agency

4 OSHA Standard #1 Formaldehyde Regulates the use of formaldehyde, formalin, and paraformaldehyde Establishes Permissible Exposure Limit of 0.75 parts per million in 8 hours Formaldehyde products are known human carcinogens

5 OSHA Standard #2 Air Contaminants Lists more than 400 substances Establishes Permissible Exposure Limits, PELs – legal limits Most PELs are outdated and too high Better numbers are from Recommended Exposure Limits, RELs PELs can be enforced by law, but RELs are just recommendations

6 OSHA Standard #3 Respiratory Protection Requires that respiratory protection be used if engineering controls can’t remove all the air contaminants Must have a medical evaluation and annual fit testing Use full-face and half-face respirators Disposable paper masks and surgical masks DO NOT protect you against chemicals!

7 OSHA Standard #4 Hazard Communication Standard Mainly for industrial use of chemicals, like in factories You have the right to know about hazardous chemicals! Requires improved chemical safety labeling, with 9 hazard pictograms Requires improved safety data sheets Requires training

8 OSHA Standards #5 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Protects against hazardous chemical exposure in laboratories Requires a chemical hygiene plan Requires safety data sheets Requires training for physical and health hazards Requires training records

9 Chemical Hygiene Plan A safety manual for laboratories Distributed in the new Chemical and Biological Safety Manual This 3-ring binder is in every lab on campus Lists standard operating procedures Must be reviewed every year

10 Safety Data Sheets Sent by the manufacturer the FIRST time you order a chemical Keep them in the lab or always accessible (not locked up somewhere) You must have an SDS for every chemical in your lab Only one source of safety information; other sources can be used too

11 Chemical Exposure Routes of exposure: inhalation, absorption, ingestion, injection (parenteral) Chronic exposure is long-term, usually low-level Acute exposure is short-term, usually high- level Symptoms: coughing, burning, itching, rash, eye or throat irritation

12 Reduce Chemical Exposure Work with the smallest amount of chemical possible Don’t leave chemical containers open Work in a fume hood. CEHS measures and certifies the hoods at least annually. Wear personal protective equipment: lab coat (buttoned up), disposable gloves, eye protection

13 Glove Protocol Don’t use latex gloves. Choose nitrile or vinyl. Never re-use a disposable glove. Once you put gloves on, you must assume that all the surfaces are contaminated. Don’t touch the light switch, faucet handles, drawer handles. Take your gloves off before you leave the lab! Do NOT wear gloves in the halls!

14 Physical Hazard in the Lab These are things that release energy violently. We will discuss the most common ones found in our labs. They are the most common source of injuries in labs.

15 Physical Hazards Flammable Liquids –Handle them in a fume hood! –Store them in a flammables cabinet Extreme temperatures –Autoclaves, Cryogens, High-Temperature Processes Air- and water-reactive compounds –Don’t handle them on the bench! –Use a glove box!

16 Physical Hazards Corrosives –Acids (low pH) and bases (high pH) –Handle in a fume hood! Compressed gas cylinders –Must be tied up at all times –Must have a cap over the valve, unless a regulator is attached –Separate empty cylinders from full cylinders

17 Physical Hazards Oxidizers: Chemicals that promote and support fires. Chemicals with “per” in the name (peroxides, permanganates), nitric acid, most nitrate salts. Store them AWAY from flammable liquids! Peroxidizable compounds: Chemicals that become shock-sensitive with time, like ether and THF. Keep them only for a year!

18 Health Hazards in the Lab Hazard Carcinogens (formaldehyde) Reproductive toxins (chloroform) Allergens (latex) Corrosives (acids, bases) Specific organ toxicity (acrylomide, neurotoxin) Controls for all health hazards Minimize exposure Use fume hoods Wear correct PPE Use smallest amount possible

19 Institutional Oversight, Part 1 There are certain things with which you cannot work until you have special training, submit a protocol form to an institutional committee, and get approval. IRB: Institutional Review Board – for work with human subjects IBC: Institutional Biosafety Committee – for work with recombinant DNA and human pathogens

20 Institutional Oversight, Part 2 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, IACUC: all vertebrate animals Radiation Safety Committee: radioisotopes, sealed sources

21 Training Records Each person must have a paper training record completely filled out and signed, kept in the lab where he/she works Put them in the correct section of the new Chemical and Biological Safety Manual

22 Emergency Contingency Plan Required by both OSHA and EPA Fill out, sign, date every year Hang inside lab near door Color-coded each year

23 Commonly-Cited OSHA Noncompliances Cluttered, dirty workspaces

24 Commonly-Cited OSHA Noncompliances Unlabeled or improperly labeled containers

25 Commonly-Cited OSHA Noncompliances Blocked emergency exits and blocked safety equipment

26 Chemical Spills You clean it up –If it’s a small spill –If you have the correct personal protective equipment –Clean it up, put it in a plastic bag, label it as chemical waste CEHS cleans it up –If you are afraid of reactions or offgassing –If you don’t have the correct PPE –If it’s larger than 5 gallons

27 Biological Safety There aren’t many laws about biological safety Funding agency, National Institutes of Health (NIH) has regulations If anyone on campus receives NIH funding, everyone must abide by the NIH regulations Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories – BMBL

28 Hazardous Waste Regulatory agency is the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA There is a Federal agency, and state agencies We have Illinois EPA as our agency The law is called “Resource Conservation Recovery Act, ” or RCRA

29 What NOT to Put Down the Drain or In the Trash! Flammable liquidsFlammable liquids –Alcohols, acetone, ethyl acetate, etc. Corrosive liquidsCorrosive liquids –acids with a pH less than 2 or bases with a pH over 9.5 Air- or Water-reactive compoundsAir- or Water-reactive compounds Toxic compoundsToxic compounds –Metals, solvents, herbicides, pesticides, toxic organic compounds

30 CEHS Disposes Hazardous Waste We will bring you clean, dry, unlabeled bottles with screw tops, any size from 100 g to 55 gallons You collect waste and store it in your “Satellite Waste Accumulation Area” Request a waste pickup online CEHS will come get it, bring it to our “Central Waste Accumulation Area” and send it offsite to a contractor THERE IS NO CHARGE FOR ANY OF THIS! If in doubt – don’t put it down the drain, send it to CEHS

31 Chemical Waste: Containers Use bottles with screw lids. –No stoppers –No parafilm –No duct tape!

32 Chemical Waste: Labeling Completely remove all other labels Use a yellow “Hazardous Waste” label Do NOT put it on top of another label!

33 Waste Segregation Do NOT pour all chemical waste into one container! Separate out waste streams as much as possible. It’s more easily recycled, less expensive, less likely to react CEHS will give you as many bottles for waste as you want, for free

34 Satellite Waste Accumulation Area Choose a place for waste in your lab and hang the poster up Get everything else out from the area – no good reagents, no apparatus, no junk Place the bottles with the yellow labels in it One bottle for each kind of waste When you fill up a bottle, file an electronic pickup request form and CEHS will get it

35 Satellite Waste Accumulation Area Area must be inspected every 31 days! Fill the form out, sign and date it, put it in the 3-ring binder

36 Common Chemical Waste Noncompliances No yellow label on waste container Multiple labels on a single container

37 Common Chemical Waste Noncompliances Any chemical container in the lab that is damaged, leaking, bulging, rusty, or unlabeled is DEEMED BY EPA to be hazardous waste. Get rid of them!

38 Biological Waste There are two kinds of biological waste. This kind is heavily regulated. Keep it separate. Potentially infectious medical waste: –Sharps containers –Recombinant DNA –Chemotherapeutic agents –Pathogenic microorganisms –Waste soaked in human blood This kind is less heavily regulated. Keep it separate. Non-potentially infectious medical waste: –Animal carcasses –Petri plates –Exam room waste

39 Biological Waste Disposal Put biological waste in a red bag, then in a red plastic bin or a specially marked cardboard box Fill out an online pickup request form CEHS collects biological waste on Wednesdays and takes it to the incinerator at Physical Plant

40 Waste Minimization Separate different kinds of waste (acids, bases, solvents, toxic salts, etc.) Substitution of less hazardous materials Work on semi-micro or micro scale Purchase the smallest amount useable Avoid: As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag, CN Don’t purchase compressed cylinders; order refillable ones from Airgas Use digital photography if possible

41 No Mercury! Mercury thermometers and mercury- containing equipment are no longer allowed at SIU Mercury is very environmentally persistent Mercury vapor is a potent neurotoxin If you spill mercury, DO NOT try to clean it up! Get everyone out of the lab and call CEHS.

42 Questions? Contact: Center for Environmental Health and Safety 453-5187

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