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Science Fair Packet Cover should be a report cover Do not put in binder or folder
Abstract The Illinois Junior Academy of Science Category : Biochemistry Name : Ms. Kosiak & Joe Schmoe Grade : Eighth Grade School : Homer Junior High School City : Homer Glen, Illinois Sponsor : Ms. Kosiak Title : One Apple Spoils the Whole Bunch Purpose : Which preservative property, lemon juice, ground up vitamin C tablets, vinegar, vitamin E oil, salt, or sugar, preserves an apple the best? Procedure : First, I labeled the six preservatives on the dry erase board and put the piece of foil on the right of them. After that, I labeled six small Tupperware containers as salt, sugar, vinegar, vitamin E oil, vitamin C, and lemon juice and put 3/8 of each into the correct container. Next, I cut an apple into seven pieces measuring ¼ inch tall by 1 inch long by 1inch wide and put 1/8 of each ingredient on the apple and placed it across from the name, on the foil. I then took a picture at the starting time, which was 6:00, to note the beginning of the process on October 28 th, After each hour for five more hours, I recorded the browning levels and took a picture of the apple pieces. I followed the same steps for two more days. I found the averages of all the preservatives and I determined whether my hypothesis was supported or not. Conclusion : In conclusion, my hypothesis was supported because I predicted that lemon juice would preserve an apple the best and it ended up being one of the two preservatives that did. The other preservative was salt. This was so because oxidation was not occurring on these apples, however, the other apples did go through oxidation. Some preservatives may not have been enough to preserve or some may have been too strong. To generalize, this experiment can be used when cooking, baking, eating, or just for fun.
Safety Sheet SAFETY SHEET The Illinois Junior Academy of Science Directions: The student is asked to read this introduction carefully, fill out the bottom of this sheet, and sign it. The science teacher and/or advisor must sign in the indicated space. SAFETY AND THE STUDENT: Experimentation or research may involve an element of risk or injury to the student and to others. Recognition of such hazards and provision for adequate control measures are joint responsibilities of the student and the sponsor. Some of the more common risks encountered in research are those of electrical shock, infection from pathogenic organisms, uncontrolled reactions of incompatible chemicals, eye injury from materials or procedures, and fire in apparatus or work area. Countering these hazards and others with suitable controls is an integral part of good scientific research. In the space below, list the principal hazards associated with your project, if any, and what specific precautions you have used as safeguards. Be sure to read the entire section in the Policy and Procedure Manual of the Illinois Junior Academy of Science entitled "SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR EXPERIMENTATION" before completing this form. There were no major safety issues, but I wore safety goggles as I was doing the lab. SIGNED ________________________________________________________________ Student SIGNED ________________________________________________________________ Sponsor*
Title Page One Bad Apple Spoils the Bunch By Ms. Kosiak & Joe Schmoe
Table of Contents Abstract Safety Sheet Title Page Table of Contents Purpose/Hypothesis Acknowledgements Review of Literature Materials/Procedure Results/Graphs Conclusion Works Cited
Purpose / Hypothesis Page 1 Purpose: Which preservative property preserves an apple the best; lemon juice, ground up vitamin C tablets, vinegar, vitamin E oil, salt, or sugar? Hypothesis: We think that the lemon juice property will preserve the apple the best, because the lemon juice is a liquid and it contains fruit nutrients which will keep the apple moist and prevent it from becoming dry..
Acknowledgements Page 2 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my science teacher, Ms. Kosiak, for helping me with my questions, giving ideas about my project, and explaining each step thoroughly. I would also like to thank the librarians for giving their time and effort to set up and distribute books about my topic for research. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents for buying the materials I needed and helping me plan out my project and my sister who helped me with my packet..
Review of Literature Page 3 Review of Literature What is that brown color on that apple? Many people may wonder why and how a brown color forms on an apple when it is left out too long. Well, that is called oxidation. Oxidation is referred to as the reaction of oxygen and other substances coming together. Mold can be the result of oxidation in some cases. An example would be of apples. If you leave it out, it may spoil or become moldy. However, preservatives can prevent mold from appearing. To begin with, mold can be a result of oxidation, apples are an example of something that can go through oxidation, and preservatives can prevent oxidation. To start off, mold can be a result of oxidation. Mold is a microscopic organism that lives on plants, animals, or other items. Some things that mold needs to grow are spores, food, reasonable temperature, and it needs moisture and wetness. Mold eats up the decaying material. Mold is a fungus that one can find growing within the soil or on plants and animals. Although one might categorize it as all one type of mold, there are actually many different types of mold-over 100,000 species. However, the most mold found in homes is black mold. There are two main categories of mold. These two categories are household molds and toxic mold. Household molds include Clodosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Alternaria. Toxic molds include Stachybotrys, Memnoniella, and Acremonium. The three toxic molds are black molds. Although there are names of mold, a person can also identify molds by their look as well. For example, blue and green molds are water molds. Sometimes they might be fuzzy or bumpy. On another note, mold reproduces by spores. Mold spores spread throughout the air, to water, or to insects. Sometimes the molds may not produce if they are dry. Mold needs to be wet or moist to
Review of Literature Page 4 grow, like stated before. Although molds seem disgusting, they are very interesting and cool to look at! Secondly, apples are an example of something that can go through oxidation. For example, when you leave an apple out and it rots, oxidation is seen because the brown color shows how the oxygen comes in contact with the ingredients of the apple. To begin with, an apple is a citrus fruit that is loaded with fiber. There are many varieties of apples, 7,000. Although some are not usually seen, a few of these apples are John gold, McIntosh, Granny Smith, Cameo, Brae burn, Gala, Golden Delicious, Cortland, Fuji, Rome Beauty, and Red Delicious. On the other hand, apples weren’t just grown. Along with the colonists, came apples. Apples have been grown in Asia and Europe for thousands of years. These continents have produced the most widely used fruit. Although apples are loaded with fiber, they have several other ingredients as well. Apples have a lot of nutrients. These nutrients come from water, energy, protein, carbohydrates, and 0.49 grams of fat all contained in one apple. Along with nutrients are vitamins. These vitamins include vitamin C, A, E, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B9. Apples are not just red things. There are many types, shapes, colors, and much more! Finally, preservatives can prevent oxidation. A preservative is an ingredient that keeps something from spoiling, rotting, or molding. Six main preservatives are salt, sugar, lemon juice, vinegar, vitamin C, and vitamin E oil. To begin with, salt is a main preservative. According to Wikipedia, salt has been the best-known food preservative, especially for meat, for many thousands of years. (Wikipedia) Salt is a mineral containing Sodium and Chlorine producing Sodium Chloride, also known as table salt. Next, is sugar. Sugar was produced in India. Back in ancient times, honey was the popular sweetener before sugar was until the Indians made sugarcane juice and produced it into tiny crystals. Then, there is lemon juice. Lemon juice has
Review of Literature Page 5 high amounts of vitamin C. On the other hand, it has lower amounts of vitamins B1 and B2. Although there is not much to say about lemon juice, it is a great preservative that is very delicious when making some lemonade. Next, vinegar is a main preservative. Vinegar is a very sour smelling, thin liquid that has been known as a preservative for many years. According to the Vinegar Information Center, Vinegar is a thin, sour liquid used for thousands of years as a preservative. (Vinegar Information Center) Now, there is vitamin C. Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant that maintains connective tissues. Lastly, vitamin E oil is a main preservative. Vitamin E oil protects human skin strongly. It also has a 3 year expiration date. These are just six of many preservatives. In conclusion, mold can be a result of oxidation, apples are an example of something that can go through oxidation, and preservatives can prevent oxidation. If an apple becomes moldy, a preservative would have been a great idea to put onto the apple so that the apple wouldn’t rot. Mold is a guideline to show you what can happen when leaving something wet, apples are great fruits that come in many shapes, colors, and sizes, and preservatives are useful ingredients when wanting to keep something fresh!
Materials Page 6 Materials: 3 Red Delicious apples 1/8 teaspoon measuring spoon One 18 cm strip of foil Six small Tupperware containers 3/8 teaspoon of lemon juice (separated by 1/8 for each test) 3/8 teaspoon of vinegar (separated by 1/8 for each test) 3/8 teaspoon of ground up vitamin C tablets (separated by 1/8 for each test) 3/8 teaspoon of vitamin E oil (separated by 1/8 for each test) 3/8 teaspoon of salt (separated by 1/8 for each test) 3/8 teaspoon of sugar (separated by 1/8 for each test) Paper towels (for any spills) Small paring knife Dry erase board and markers Cutting board Goggles
Procedure Page 7 Procedure: 1. Number and label the 6 possible preservatives on the dry erase board along with a plain category for an apple piece untreated by a preservative. Place the strip of foil on the right of the board. 2. Label six Tupperware containers as sugar, iodized salt, vitamin C, vitamin E, lemon juice and vinegar. Pour the amounts of each in the correct container. 3. Cut a Red Delicious apple into 7 skinned pieces measuring approximately 2 ½ cm wide by 2 ½ cm long by ½ cm tall. Pour approximately 1/8 of a teaspoon of each preservative on the apple piece and place them on the foil across from the correct preservative labeled on the dry erase board. 4. Take a photo of the dry erase board to note the beginning of the process. (Process begins at 5:00 p.m. Friday October 28th, 2012) 5. Take a picture of slices once every hour to record any browning that you notice. (5:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m.) Record browning level on the Preservative Chart after each hour. 6. Repeat steps 1-5 on Saturday October 29, 2012 and Sunday October 30, 2012, for a total of 3 consecutive days that tests were performed. 7. After each test, record the browning level of each preservative and figure out the average in your chart. Determine if your hypothesis was supported or not.
Data Table Browning Levels PlainVinegar Vitamin E Oil Crushed Vitamin C SaltSugar Lemon Juice 1 6:00 P.M :00 P.M :00 P.M :00 P.M :00 P.M :00 P.M Total Browning Level Average Browning Levels 0=No Browning 1=Slight Browning 2=Medium Browning 3=Heavy Browning Page 8
Conclusion Page 12 Conclusion In conclusion, my hypothesis was supported because I thought that lemon juice would preserve the apple the best and it ended up being one of the two preservatives that did. The other preservative that worked was salt. This happened because oxidation was not occurring on these apples. However, oxidation did occur on the other apples. Some preservatives may not have been enough to preserve or some may have been too strong. I’m not surprised that salt was a preservative that worked because when researching, I recall Wikipedia stating that salt has been a great and widely used preservative for many years. In my first test trial, the plain, vinegar, vitamin E, and sugar apples all had a browning level of one. The plain apple browned fast because it had no protective shield to rebel the oxidation. The vinegar apple may have browned fast because it was too strong. Just from smelling it, my nose dried out. The vitamin E apple may have browned fast because as I was popping the pill to get the oil out, most of it got on my fingers instead of on the apple. Also, although vitamin E protects human skin strongly, it wasn’t enough for the apple’s skin. The sugar apple browned quickly because it was too sweet. The apple needed something a little stronger. To generalize, this experiment can be used when cooking or baking foods with apples in them, eating when someone is hungry, or just for fun!
Works Cited Carle, Eric. Hello, Red Fox. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, Print. Flagerstrom, Derek. “Give the Illusion of Levitation: A Way to fool other people.” Show Me How: 500 Things You Should Know, Instructions for Life from the Everyday to the Exotic. Print. Jozefowicz, Chris. “Diversionary Tactics.” Current Science. 2010: 8-9. Print. Marshall, Anne. “Magic Menu.” Utterly Crazy: Ripley’s Believe it or Not! Print. Smale, Alan. “Measuring the Electromagnetic Spectrum.” 9 October Web. Wired School Sound Waves.” 9 October Web. Page 13