Carbohydrate functions Energy sources (glucose/glycogen) Structural elements cell wall (plants, bacteria) connective tissues adhesion between cells
composed of L-iduronate (many are sulfated) + GalNAc-4-sulfate linkages is (1, 3) Dermatan sulfate
The most abundant heteropolysaccharides in the body are the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These molecules are long unbranched polysaccharides containing a repeating disaccharide unit. The disaccharide units contain either of two modified sugars--- N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and a uronic acid such as glucuronate or iduronate. GAGs are highly negatively charged molecules, with extended conformation that imparts high viscosity to the solution. GAGs are located primarily on the surface of cells or in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Along with the high viscosity of GAGs comes low compressibility, which makes these molecules ideal for a lubricating fluid in the joints. At the same time, their rigidity provides structural integrity to cells and provides passageways between cells, allowing for cell migration. The specific GAGs of physiological significance are hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, heparin, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate.
Characteristics of GAGs GAG LocalizationComments Hyaluronate synovial fluid, vitreous humor, ECM of loose connective tissue large polymers, shock absorbing Chondroitin sulfatecartilage, bone, heart valvesmost abundant GAG Heparan sulfate basement membranes, components of cell surfaces contains higher acetylated glucosamine than heparin Heparin component of intracellular granules of mast cells lining the arteries of the lungs, liver and skin more sulfated than heparan sulfates Dermatan sulfate skin, blood vessels, heart valves Keratan sulfate cornea, bone, cartilage aggregated with chondroitin sulfates Characteristics of GAGs
Fructans are probably the most abundant storage carbohydrate in plants next to starch and sucrose. Fructans are linear or branched polymers of mostly ß- fructosyl-fructose linkages. Unlike sucrose they are synthesized and stored in vacuoles and can accumulate in the stems, bulbs and tubers of a number of plants
Fructooligosaccharides are a fruit derived sugar. These promote the grown of bifidobacteria in the gut. Bifidobacteria produce a natural antibiotic against E.Coli 0157:H7 AND stroptococcus. There are fewer bifidobacteria in the elderly (who also tend to eat less fruit). So, it is the elderly who mostly die from this deadly E.Coli infection.
-Glucan Monomer: Glucose Bonding: -1,4/ -1,3 The ß-1,3 glucan, callose, also similar to cellulose, is an important polymeric component of sieve plates of phloem tubes. Callose is also produced during wound healing of damaged plant tissues
Dextran Dextran is an α-D-1,6-glucose-linked glucan with side-chains 1-3 linked to the backbone units of the Dextran biopolymer. The degree of branching is approximately 5%. The branches are mostly 1-2 glucose units long. Dextran can be obtained from fermentation of sucrose-containing media by Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512F.
Olestra is synthesized using a sucrose molecule, which can support up to eight fatty acid chains arranged radially like an octopus, and is too large to move through the intestinal wall. Olestra has the same taste and mouthfeel as fat, but since it does not contain glycerol and the fatty acid tails can not be removed from the sucrose molecule for digestion, it passes through the digestive system without being absorbed and adds no calories or nutritive value to the diet.sucroseoctopusmouthfeeldigestive system
Product Description: Silverlon™ CA Advanced Antimicrobial Alginate Dressing, is a sterile, non- woven pad composed of a High M (manuronic acid) alginate and a silver nylon contact layer. The silver ions provides an antimicrobial barrier which protects the dressing from bacterial contamination. The dressing absorbs exudates, maintains a moist wound environment and allows for intact removal. Silverlon® Calcium Alginate Wound Dressings
INGREDIENTS CoolMint: Pullulan, Menthol, Flavours, Aspartame, Acesulfame Potassium, Copper Gluconate, Polysorbate 80, Carrageenan, Glyceryl Oleate, Cineole (Eucalyptol), Methyl Salicylate, Thymol, Locust Bean Gum, Propylene Glycol, Xanthan Gum, Fast Green FCF. Dissolve on your tongue instantly just one strip will freshen-up your breath in seconds. Leave you with a clean mouth feeling. Contain no sugar or calories.
Tablet Excipients Excipients are inactive, non-medicinal ingredients that are used by all manufacturers of tableted products to impart desirable characteristics important for manufacture, convenience of use, and product efficacy. Most are inert powdered materials that are blended with the active ingredients prior to tableting. Excipients may be classified as follows according to their general function.
Binders are added to hold a tablet together after it has been compressed. Without binders, tablets would break down into their component powders during packaging, shipping, and routine handling. Disintegrants are used to ensure that, when a tablet is ingested, it breaks down quickly in the stomach. Rapid disintegration is a necessary first step in ensuring that the active ingredients are bioavailable and readily absorbed.
Lubricants are required during manufacture to ensure that the tableting powder (i.e. the raw ingredient blend) does not stick to the pressing equipment. Lubricants improve the flow of powder mixes through the presses, and they help finished tablets release from the equipment with a minimum of friction and breakage. Sweetening and Flavoring Agents are commonly added to chewable tablet formulations to improve taste, texture and overall palatability.
Coating Agents are used to impart a finished look and a smooth surface to tablets, and to mask any unpleasant flavors that the tablet ingredients may have. Coating agents are applied after tablet pressing in a separate operation. Emulsifying agents are widely used as dispersing, suspending and clarifying agents. They are used to stabilize blends of liquids that are not mutually soluble and improve the bioavailability of some lipid-soluble compounds.
Starch and Pregelatinized Starch are used primarily as binders to improve tablet durability and integrity. Both are derived from corn. Pregelatinized starch is partially hydrolyzed and dried to make it flow better during tableting. It also has superior binding characteristics. Starch and pregelatinized starch are also used as disintegrants. After ingestion, these starch granules swell in the fluid environment of the stomach and force the tablet to break apart. Microcrystalline Cellulose serves multiple functions in tablet formulas. It is an excellent binder and disintegrant. It is derived from plant fiber.
Modified Food Starch (Dextrin) functions as a stabilizer and a binder. It may also help to improve tablet solubility and texture. It is produced from starch. Guar Gum functions as a strong binder. It helps to keep the tablets from disintegrating during packaging, storage and handling. It is derived from the seed kernel of the guar plant.
Croscarmellose Sodium (Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose) is called a "super disintegrant" because it is very effective even at very low concentrations at promoting the breakdown of tablets following ingestion. It is manufactured from cellulose (plant fiber) which has been processed to have a high affinity for water. Dextrose a simple sugar is used in some formulas as binder and disintegrant.
Fructose, Mannitol, and Xylitol are used in chewable tablets as sweetening agents to mask the unpleasant taste of vitamins and minerals and to improve texture. These natural sweeteners are extracted and purified from plant sources, particularly from fruits. In addition, these ingredients have good binding properties and aid in the tablet formation and integrity. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose is constituent of the film- coating agent used on most USANA tablets. As its name implies, this excipient is derived from cellulose or plant fiber. It helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease of swallowing the tablets.
Maltodextrin is another constituent of the film-coating agent on most USANA tablets. It helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease of swallowing the tablets. It is derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch.