Presentation on theme: "Food additives growth promoters: improve the production traits of healthy animals Antibiotics: produces by other microorganisms, fungi that protect the."— Presentation transcript:
1 Food additives growth promoters: improve the production traits of healthy animals Antibiotics: produces by other microorganisms, fungi that protect the growth of bacteriareduce the number of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella sp., etc.), prevent the infection of the digestive tract,increase the absorptive capacity of the small intestine (decrease the thickness of the intestinal wall)reduce the competition of bacteria with the host (bacteria ferment the nutrients before digestion)they have been used mainly in pig and poultry nutritiontheir widespread use could cause the ability of certain strains to be resistant to many antibioticstherefore in the EU the use of antibiotic growth promoters has been restricted since 2000
2 Probiotics: live microbial food supplement containing mostly lactic acid producing bacteriaby reducing the pH in the intestine, reducing the numbers of harmful bacteria (competitive exclusion)enhance immune competenceare heat sensitive (pelleting)
3 Symbiotics: contain both probiotics and prebiotics Prebiotics: oligosaccharides (2-20 monosacharides) that modify the balance of the microfloral population by promoting the growth of the beneficial bacteriacan be fermented by the favourable bacteriadecreasing the attachment of harmful bacteria with the gut wallgalactooligosaccharides (GOS) (legume seeds)fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (cereal grains)mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) (yeast cell walls)Symbiotics: contain both probiotics and prebioticsOrganic acids: (lactic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, propionic acid etc.)stabilise the intestinal microflora by decreasing the pHcan be effective in early weaned, young animalsincorporated into the diet (6-25 g/kg) or into the drinking water
4 Flavory materials: (sugars, vanilla, canella etc.) Enzymes:as a result of advances in biotechnology, more effective enzyme preparations can be produced relatively inexpensivelysupplement the insufficient enzyme secretion of young animals (amylase, protease, lipase etc.)can improve the availability of plant storage polysaccharides (starch, oils and proteins) by degrading the cell wall content like cellulose by the enzyme cellulase (5-10% improvement can be achieved in poultry and pig trials)destroy ant-nutritive materials that interfere with the digestion and utilisation of nutrients (glucanase, xylanase destroy cereal cell wall compounds, β-glucans and arabinoxylans)phytase releases phosphorous and other minerals from phytic acid in cereals and oilseeds (greater availability of minerals, less need for inorganic phosphorous, beneficial effect on the environment)Flavory materials: (sugars, vanilla, canella etc.)increase the feed intakecan be effective mostly in young intensively growing animalstheir effect depends on the flavour sensation of different animal species
5 Effect of -glucanase enzyme supplementation on the growth of broiler chicks control enzymewheat content of the diet
6 Plant extracts, essential plant oils: (sage, peppermint, garlic, thyme etc.) can be used for the partial replacement of antibioticscomplex effects (flavour materials, antimicrobial compounds, antioxidants etc.)the products in the practice are mostly the mixture of different plant extracts and oilstheir market share is increasing in Europeb., other food additivesNPN materials: (urea, ammonium salts)can be used in ruminant animal nutritionmostly in low milk producing cows, beef cattlethey are strict rules for using themToxin binders: used for binding mycotoxins (zearalenon (F2); T2 toxin; ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins, aflatoxin etc.), decrease their absorptionaluminium silicates (bentonit)glucomannans (yeast cell wall extracts)they efficiency is toxin dependentbind also some minerals and nutrients
7 crystallinene amino acids: L – lysineDL – methioninein the near future threonine, tryptophan and arginine will also be available in the feed industryfor ruminants must be fed in by pass form (covering by fatty acids, protecting against the bacterial degradation)can be optimise the amino acid composition of food proteinscan be decreased the protein content of dietsthe price of compound feeds can be cheaperdecrease the N-excretioncolour materials: carotenoids (zeaxanthin, lutein, licophin, capsanthin etc.)egg yolkskin, the fat below the skinusing is synthetic colour compounds is limited in the EUantioxidants: protecting vitamins and fatty acids from the oxidationsynthetic antioxidantsetoxi-methil-quinolin (EMQ)butil-hidroxi-toluol (BHT)natural antioxidants (vit. E, vit. C, carotenes etc.)they need depends on the fat and unsaturated fatty acid content of the diet.
8 Investigation the in vitro binding efficiency of different toxin adsorbents on mycotoxins and microelementsOBJECTIVESThe main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro binding efficiency of some toxin binders for different mycotoxins and microelementsMETHODSFive different commercial adsorbents (Zeolit, Toxy-Nil, Redutox, Mycofix 3.E and Mycosorb) were tested in 4 replicates for ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZON), T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON). Besides testing the toxin binding efficiency, the effect of adsorbents on the iron, copper, manganese and zinc was also determined. The in vitro model employed simulated the in vivo conditions (pH, transit time) of the poultry gastrointestinal tract. The amounts of adsorbents, purified toxins and microelements were determined according to their practical occurrence or recommendations.
11 CONCLUSIONSThe binding efficiency of the investigated adsorbents was toxin dependent. The highest values were found for ZON (57-69%), while the lowest for DON (25-30%). The highest difference among adsorbents was found in the case of OTA (27-42%). Binding affinity for T-2 toxin ranged between 27 and 37%.Zeolite bound zinc at 11%, the other 3 microelements in a significant higher ratio (34-44%). The other adsorbents showed lower, but still significant affinity for the microelements 12,5-16,5% for cupper, 5-17% for zinc, 6-14% for iron and 6,5-22,7% for manganese.From the results it can be concluded, that the efficacy of toxin binders used in this experiment is only limited for ZON, DON, OTA and T-2 toxin and they can bind beside mycotoxins also significant amount of micro nutrients. Further in vitro and in vivo studies needed to determine the toxin binder specific mineral and vitamin supplementations of poultry diets, if these types of feed additives are used.