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Bell Ringer for 10/19 Take a sheet from the front of the room.

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Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer for 10/19 Take a sheet from the front of the room."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell Ringer for 10/19 Take a sheet from the front of the room.
Put it into your binder in the class handouts/class work section (look at your table of contents page to see where this is) Work with your partner on filling in the “Survival Relationships” page (Venn Diagram AND ?’s below) Flip to your binder check sheet as I come around. You have 6 minutes!

2 Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism 1 organism harmed, 1 benefitted
1 organism left neutral, 1 benefitted ONLY 1 organism benefitted Survival relationships Between 2 organisms Take place over extended time ONLY 1 organism benefitted Neither organism harmed Both organisms benefit Mutualism

3 Class Announcements Article half sheet due tomorrow
Graphing and questions about deer populations due tomorrow If either are done early, turn them in to the folder as you leave the class Today during tutoring after school is the last chance you have to make up the exam from last Thurs  Rm. 313 after 9th Keep sheet in your binder, do not turn in.

4 Nutrition & Energy Flow
Chapter 2, Section 2: As with yesterday, this ppt mostly focuses on making connections between the vocabulary terms. Notes are encouraged, but writing down definitions of the terms is not, as you should have them on your index cards.

5 How are these items related to one another in an ecosystem?

6 How Organisms Obtain Energy
The Sun is the ultimate source of energy for life.

7 Producers Photosynthetic Autotrophs Use light energy to make glucose
Sun flower, grass, algae bloom – Qingdao, China (hosted Olympic sailing)

8 Consumers Heterotrophs Herbivores = feed only on plants
Carnivores = eat other heterotrophs Scavengers = eat dead animals Omnivores = eat both animal and plant materials Decomposers = break down and release nutrient from dead organisms Vulture: Scavenger; African WildDog: Carnivore (most efficient carnivore – kill 90% of prey they go after – work in groups); Zebra: Herbivore; Chimpanzee: Omnivore (Eat fruits and meat); South Arican Mushroom: Decomposer

9 Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems
Models to show how energy moves in one direction through an ecosystem Food Chains Food Webs Ecological Pyramids

10 Ex: berries  mice  black bear
Food Chain Arrows show transfer of energy Ex: berries  mice  black bear A portion of energy is given off as heat at each transfer Amount of energy in final transfer is only a fraction of what was at the first transfer

11 Trophic Levels = Each organism represents a feeding step in the movement of energy
Note: Book calls them 1st, 2nd, 3rd order heterotrophs

12 Food Web Shows all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community

13 Ecological Pyramids Base always represents 1st trophic level
Higher trophic levels are layered on top of one another

14 Pyramid of Energy = Energy decreases with each trophic level moving up
Total energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is only about 10%

15 Pyramid of Biomass = Less living material as you move up trophic levels

16 Cycles in Nature Matter moves through the trophic levels of an ecosystem. Energy can be lost through heat; Matter is not gained or lost, it is recycled. Ex: Water Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Phosphorous Cycle

17 Water Cycle Water present 3 billion years ago is still present today
It’s been recycled between land, ocean and atmosphere Evaporation (water gas) Condensation (clouds) Precipitation (rain)


19 The Carbon Cycle Putting Carbon in the Ground:
Plants use CO2 to create carbon compounds (sugar) for growth and energy Consumers eat plants and/or other animals to get carbon compounds for growth and energy Plants and animals die, carbon is returned to the ground where fossil fuels can form Putting Carbon in the Atmosphere: CO2 gets released during cell respiration CO2 released when burning fossil fuels


21 The Nitrogen Cycle See figure 2.19 on page 56

22 The Phosphorous Cycle See figure 2.20 on page 57

23 Practice Why is a pyramid a good shape to represent how matter and energy transfer in an ecosystem? Why not use a circle or a square?

24 According to the Law of Conservation, matter can neither be created nor destroyed. Make a relationship between this statement and the recycling of carbon in an ecosystem. (Hint: All life on this planet is carbon based. What happens to a tree that dies & falls in a forest? Who benefits from the dead tree?)

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