1 LECTURE NO. 18 (Handout) ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Objectives:To introduce asphalt concreteTo explain the asphalt concrete mixtureTo explain the types of asphalt concrete mixturesTo explain the requirements of aggregates for asphalt concrete
2 ASPHALT CONCRETE: Introduction Asphalt concrete is basically a mixture of asphalt cement and aggregates, hot-mixed in an asphalt plant and then hot-laid to form the surface course of a flexible pavementThe properties of asphalt concrete depend on:the quality of its components (i.e., asphalt binder and aggregates)the mix proportionsconstruction processAsphalt concrete must provide a stable, safe, and durable road surface
3 ASPHALT CONCRETE: Stability Stability of the asphalt concrete depends on the strength and flexibility of the mixture and the degree of compaction during placingThe strength must be sufficient to carry the load without shear occurring between particles. The structure must remain intact.The main contributor to strength is friction between grains.A dense-graded mixture, composed of particles with rough faces, with a relatively thin asphalt film between them is best for high-friction strength.Flexibility is also important as the pavement distributes the imposed load by deflecting slightly as the load is applied, without cracking or permanent deformation.To meet this requirement, a more open-graded mixture, with a higher asphalt content, is best.Strength and flexibility are evaluated by various tests, depending on the design method being used
4 ASPHALT CONCRETE: Safety Safety is very important for the surface courseSafety is achieved by making the surface course skid resistant and able to allow quick drainage of water from the surface.Skid resistance is enhanced by using smaller sized, very hard aggregates for the surface course.This provides more points of contact for the development of friction forces.Open-graded surface courses are used in very heavy traffic areas to allow immediate drainage of rainwater before it can result in hydroplaning.
5 ASPHALT CONCRETE: Durability Durability of the asphalt concrete is critical to ensure that it maintains the stability and skid resistance properties for the design service lifeAsphalt ages, and pavements become denser (i.e., aged) with time and trafficPavements fail (i.e., durability of pavement is lost) due to:changes in the aggregatespermanent deformation or ruttingcracking, either due to fatigue, or low temperaturesbleeding of asphalt to the surface
6 ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURE Asphalt concrete mixture basically consists of asphalt cement, aggregates, and air
7 ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURE---contd. Out of the total asphalt added to the mixture, some of the asphalt is absorbed in the pores of the aggregate particlesThe portion of asphalt absorbed by aggregate particles is called “absorbed asphalt”The net amount of asphalt available to coat and bind aggregates together is called “effective asphalt”
8 ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURE---contd. The mass/volume relationships of a compacted asphalt mixture are illustrated in the following figure:
13 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Asphalt concrete mixtures can be classified into following two types based on whether hot-mixed, hot laid or cold-mixed, cold-laid:Hot-mixed, hot-laid asphalt (HMA) concrete mixtureCold-mixed, cold-laid asphalt concrete mixtureAsphalt concrete mixtures can be classified into following two types based on whether in-situ-mixed or plant-mixed:Road-mixed or in place-mixed asphalt concrete mixturePlant-mixed asphalt concrete mixtureHMA concrete mixtures can be classified into following three types based on type of aggregate grading used:Dense-graded HMA concrete mixtureStone matrix asphalt (SMA) concrete mixtureOpen-graded HMA concrete mixtureAsphalt concrete mixtures can be classified into following three types based on type additives used:Rubber-modified asphalt concrete mixturePolymer-modified asphalt concrete mixtureSulfur-modified asphalt concrete mixture
14 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Hot-mixed asphalt (HMA) concrete A hot-mixed asphalt (HMA) concrete is a mixture of asphalt, fine aggregate or both fine and coarse aggregates, and mineral filler (optional)The grade of asphalt to be used depends on:the type of constructionclimatic conditionsamount and nature of trafficHMA concrete is produced and laid in the following steps:both aggregate and asphalt are heated prior to mixing to drive off moisture from the particles and make the asphalt sufficiently fluid (maximum temperatures for heating asphalt cement and emulsified asphalt are °F and 82.2 °F, respectively)after heating, all the raw materials are mixed in the plant, and the hot mixture is transported to the paving site and spread on a loosely compacted layer to a uniform, even surface with the help of a paving machinewhile the mixture is hot it is compacted by heavy, motor-driven rollers to produce a smooth, well-compacted paving courseSince the aggregates are thoroughly dried prior to mixing, stripping of asphalt (i.e., removal from the pavement) will not take place in hot-mixed, hot-laid asphalt pavements
15 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Cold-mixed asphalt concrete Like a hot-mixed asphalt concrete, cold-mixed asphalt concrete is also a mixture of asphalt, fine aggregate or both fine and coarse aggregates, and mineral filler (optional)Cold-mixed asphalt concrete is produced and laid at normal temperature, however, some heating of both the aggregates and asphalt may be required during winter seasonDrying of aggregates is not necessary except when the particles have surface moistureTo improve bonding, commercial additives are needed in this type of asphalt concrete
16 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Road-mixed and plant-mixed asphalt concretes A bituminous surface or base course produced by mixing aggregates and asphalt at the jobsite is called road-mixed or mixed-in place asphalt concreteA mixture of aggregates and emulsified or cutback asphalt prepared at a central mixing plant and spread and compacted at the jobsite at near ambient temperature is called plant-mixed, cold-laid asphalt concrete
17 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Dense-graded HMA concrete A dense-graded HMA concrete is produced using well-graded aggregates, and intended for general useWhen properly designed and constructed, a dense-graded HMA concrete is relatively impermeableDense-graded HMA concrete mixes are generally referred to by their nominal maximum aggregate sizeThey can further be classified as either fine-graded or coarse-graded. Fine-graded mixes have more fine and sand sized particles than coarse-graded mixes
18 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Dense-graded HMA concrete---contd. Fine- and course-graded definitions for dense-graded HMA concrete are presented in the following Table:Mixture Nominal Maximum Aggregate SizeCoarse-Graded MixFine-Graded Mix37.5 mm (1.5 inches) < 35 % passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4 Sieve)> 35 % passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4 Sieve)25.0 mm (1.0 inch) < 40 % passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4 Sieve)> 40 % passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4 Sieve)19.0 mm (0.75 inches)< 35 % passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8 Sieve)> 35 % passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8 Sieve)12.5 mm (0.5 inches) < 40 % passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8 Sieve)> 40 % passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8 Sieve) 9.5 mm (0.375 inches)< 45 % passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8 Sieve)> 45 % passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8 Sieve)
19 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) concrete Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) is a gap-graded HMA that is designed to maximize deformation (rutting) resistance and durability by using a structural basis of stone-on-stone contact Because the aggregates are all in contact, rut resistance relies on aggregate properties rather than asphalt binder properties.Since aggregates do not deform as much as asphalt binder under load, this stone-on-stone contact greatly reduces rutting.SMA is generally more expensive than a typical dense-graded HMA (about percent) because it requires more durable aggregates, higher asphalt content and, typically, a modified asphalt binder and fibers. In the right situations it should be cost-effective because of its increased rut resistance and improved durability.SMA, originally developed in Europe to resist rutting and studded tire wear, has been used in the U.S. since about 1990.
20 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Open-graded HMA concrete An open-graded HMA mixture is designed to be water permeable (dense-graded and SMA mixes usually are not permeable)Open-graded mixes use only crushed stone (or gravel) and a small percentage of manufactured sands. There are three types of open-graded mixes typically used in the U.S.:Open-graded friction course (OGFC). Typically 15 percent air voids, no minimum air voids specified, lower aggregate standards than Porous European mixes (PEM).Porous European mixes (PEM). Typically percent air voids, specified minimum air voids, higher aggregate standards than OGFC and requires the use of asphalt binder modifiers. See Figure 2.13.Asphalt treated permeable bases (ATPB). Less stringent specifications than OGFC or PEM since it is used only under dense-graded HMA, SMA or PCC for drainage
21 TYPES OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Rubber-, polymer-, sulfur-modified asphalt concretes Asphalt rubber also called ‘crumb rubber’, which is a recycled product from old tires, is added in quantity ranging from 1 to 5% (by wt. of asphalt) as additive in the production of HMA concrete for improving binding property of aggregate.Rubber addition increase the viscosity and the softening point of the asphaltPolymers (such as ethyl vinyl acetate, latex, silicone, and epoxies) are added to asphalt as additive to produce polymer-modified asphalt concretePolymer addition increases dispersion, ductility, and adhesiveness of asphaltSulfur is added to asphalt concrete to provide higher stiffness at elevated temperatures
22 AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Introduction In asphalt concrete mixture, aggregates may constitute about 70-75% by volume or 90-95% by weightThe roles of aggregates in a asphalt concrete pavement are todistribute wheel loads through point-to-point contact (aggregate interlock) ensuring stability of pavement (i.e., resistance to pavement deformation under load)provide resistance to abrasion and skidA number of factors, such as quality, gradation, shape, stiffness, and quantity of aggregates, determine effectiveness of aggregates in load transfer and the stability of pavementAggregates for asphalt concrete are usually classified as coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, and mineral fillerMineral filler is often used in asphalt concrete mixtures to supply the fines (smaller than 75 m or No. 200 sizes)Fines are very important in producing a dense-graded, strong material.Many natural sands do not contain the amount or type of fines required. Limestone dust is the most common material used for mineral filler
23 AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES General requirements Aggregates should be:well-graded—dense, including mineral filler (if required) for strengthhard—for resistance to wear and to polishing due to traffic.sound—for resistance to breakdown due to freezing and thawing.rough surfaced—crushed rough surfaces give higher friction strength and a better surface for adhesion of the asphalt cement.free from cubical—thin, elongated aggregate particles because they are broken easily.hydrophobic (or “water hating”) —some siliceous aggregates such as quartz are hydrophobic (“water liking”), meaning that they have a greater affinity for water than for asphalt, due to their surface charges. This may lead to stripping, as asphalt coating comes away from the particle in the presence of water.free from deleterious substances—clay particles, dust, dirt, and lightweight pieces may lead to a lower quality asphalt film on the aggregate particles or may result in breaking of some of the particles.
24 AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Types of aggregate gradation Following two types of aggregate gradation are commonly used in pavement construction: (i) open gradation and (ii) dense gradationOpen-graded aggregate is an aggregate containing little or no fine aggregate, or one in which the void content in the compacted aggregate is relatively large, as large as 20%Open-graded aggregate is used to make open-graded asphalt concrete, which provides good skid resistance and high permeability so as to permit good surface drainageDense-graded aggregate is an well-graded aggregate containing fine aggregate filling the voids in coarse aggregateUse of dense-graded aggregate provides a dense and impermeable layer and does not normally require surface treatment or seal coat
25 AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Specifications for mineral filler
26 AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Specifications for fine aggregate
27 AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES Specifications for coarse aggregate