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Specifications Interior designers often specify items used in the design and construction of an interior environment. Specifications describe the quality.

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Presentation on theme: "Specifications Interior designers often specify items used in the design and construction of an interior environment. Specifications describe the quality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Specifications Interior designers often specify items used in the design and construction of an interior environment. Specifications describe the quality of materials and their construction or installation. They include information that cannot be communicated graphically in the drawings.

2 There are four different types of specifications `Proprietary: specification requires a specific product from a specific manufacturer indicated by a brand name or model number For example: Knoll Group, Studio Line, Barcelona Chair, with black leather upholstery is a proprietary spec.

3 Specification types Descriptive: specification details the requirements for material properties and workmanship. Manufacturers and products are not named. Descriptive specs. are the most difficult to write because every aspect of a product must be considered, and described.

4 Specification types Performance: these specifications describe the required results of a product's use. They describe how a product or material is to perform, not necessarily what it is. The construction contractor, or FF&E contractor, has a choice of products, materials, and processes that will be used to achieve these results.

5 Specification types Reference Standard: specifications are based on requirements set by an accepted authority, such as complying with ANSI A108 Specifications for Installation of Ceramic Tile. Reference specs. tend to be the briefest type of specs.

6 Paints and Coatings What is paint? Paints are made up of four components: pigment, binder, solvent/liquid carrier, and additives. Varnishes, which form transparent or semi- transparent films, are made up of the last three components, with colored varnishes containing small amounts of pigment.

7 Paint is manufactured to meet specific needs

8 Types of Paint water base paint solvent base paint these are the two basic types of paint generally available. paint may have physical or chemical characteristics such as: matte surface, semi gloss surface, high gloss surface non-drip paint, primer, undercoats, anti-condensation, fire retardant paint (intumescent), metallic, concrete floor paint, porch paint, anti-fungus paint, heat resistant paint

9 Pigments, which give color and opacity/covering power, are finely dispersed solid particles. In some cases they can be used to impart certain protective properties, eg rust prevention, and to control gloss levels

10 The binder is the material that forms the film, giving protection to the substrate and keeping the pigment in place and evenly dispersed. It may be made up of a single, or a combination of polymers. The binder may be dissolved in a solvent, or in the form of an emulsion or colloidal dispersion in water. This results in solvent-borne and water-borne paints, respectively.

11 The solvent/liquid carrier is used to effect application of the coating. It may be water or an organic solvent, or a mixture of both, and thins the paint or varnish, allowing it to be brushed, sprayed, dipped or rolled. Once on the substrate, the solvent evaporates, leaving the dry film coating. The term 'liquid carrier' is preferable because the liquid may not be a true solvent for the binder.

12 Additives are used, in small amounts, to modify the film or paint. Examples are driers, which promote the drying time of some coatings; flow-control agents, which give a smooth surface; defoamers, which prevent the formation of bubbles that could dry in the film; and anti-skinning agents to prevent the paint from forming a 'skin' in the can

13 Water Base Vs. Solvent Base Water-based: non-flammable, clean up with water, quick drying in good conditions, low VOC content, low odor, non-yellowing Solvent-based: better drying in cold, damp conditions, better low-temperature storage, no can corrosion problems, less wood-grain raising, higher gloss


15 Fire retardant and fire resistant coatings flame retardant paints slow the rate of flame spread intumescent coatings bubble up, or expand, when exposed to extremely high heat fire resistant paints are not as effective at controlling the spread of flames as intumescent, or fire retardant paints. fire resistant paint does not burn, but it also does not help control the spread of the flames

16 Washing machine manufacturers do not need to buy cans of paint to give color to their products. Instead, they buy huge rolls of sheet steel already treated and coated with flexible and durable paints that allow the appliance casings to be cut and formed into shape without damage.

17 This technique, known as 'coil coating', used to make this 'bendable' paint. A thin coil of the metal to be painted is cleaned and pretreated before being fed along a coating line whereby the primer, top and back paint layers are applied in two stages. After each paint application, the coil is oven cured and allowed to cool before the painted coil emerges at the end of the process. The coating is formulated to have great flexibility, allowing the coated metal to be manipulated without the paint cracking.


19 Wallcoverings Wallcoverings offer improved durability over typical paint finishes while providing texture and pattern to the wall surface. The most widely used wallcoverings for commercial use are vinyls. There is a classification system used to compare all types of commercial wallcovering. This is the ASTM F793 Standard Classification of Wallcoverings by Durability Characteristics.

20 Wallcovering Classification Category 1: decorative only Category 2: decorative with medium serviceability Category 3: decorative with high serviceability Category 4: Type I Commercial serviceability Category 5: Type II Commercial serviceability Category 6: Type III Commercial serviceability

21 Vinyl Wallcoverings There is a special standard that describes vinyl wallcovering as: Type I: light duty, with a minimum weight of 7 oz/sq. yard Type II: medium duty, with a minimum weight of 13 oz/sq. yard Type III: heavy duty, with a minimum weight of 22 oz/sq. yard

22 Materials & Backings Vinyl: scrim, a loosely woven fabric backing used on Type I vinyls Osnaburg, a loose open weave fabric used on Type II vinyls Drill, a dense woven fabric with good dimensional stability used on Type II and Type III vinyls Nonwoven, a paperlike backing used on Type I vinyls.

23 Surface Materials for Walls Wood Veneer: bonding wood veneer (about 1/64" thick) to a woven backing material. Textiles: paper backing or a latex coating Fiberglass: a fiberglass fabric that is applied to a backing. Fiberglass wallcoverings must be painted after they are installed. Wallpaper : paper wallcoverings are generally restricted to residential use because of fragility and poor wear resistance.

24 Wall Preparation Four traditional ways to prepare a wall surface to receive a wallcovering: Seal: usually oil based Size: reduces the absorbency of the surface Prime: assure proper adhesion Wall liner: nonwoven sheets; cover cracks or holes in preparation for a finished wallcovering

25 Upholstered Wall Systems site constructed coverings that stretch fabric taut over a frame and infill material. the frame material is typically either a plastic extrusion, or a wood frame.

26 Upholstered Panels

27 Ceiling Finishes Ceilings are central in defining the volume of a space and shape the diffusion of sound and light within a space. Ceilings also typically conceal an array of systems components, in a plenum space. Ceilings in a space can be: –suspended –exposed –tightly attached

28 Ceiling Components Manufactured by Armstrong

29 GRG: glass reinforced gypsum glass reinforced gypsum (GRG): is used to make shapes that used to be made of plaster; column covers, domes, and molded to nearly any shape. GRG is much stronger than standard gypsum board.

30 Introduction to Acoustics When you notice a difference between loud sounds and quiet ones, your ears are perceiving changes in sound pressure level. Intensity (or volume) is measured in decibels (dB). Zero (0) dB is the softest sound that can be heard.

31 Normal conversation is around 40dB to 60dB, a whisper around 30dB. A rock concert can average between 110 and 120 dB. Pain from hearing is subjective. Levels below 125 dB may be painful to some individuals. The sound from a jet plane is approximately 140 dB

32 Decibels are measured on a logarithmic scale. Each increase of 10 on the scale represents a tenfold increase in loudness. 20 dB is 10 times as loud as 10 dB; 30 dB is 100 times louder than 10 dB, and so on.

33 Acoustic Properties There are two considerations in evaluating the acoustic properties of a ceiling system: sound absorption: typically lightweight, porous materials noise isolation: typically dense and reflective materials

34 Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC) a rating of the sound absorbing efficiency of a material, and can be used to compare different ceiling panels. the higher the NRC number, the more sound a surface can absorb




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