Presentation on theme: "SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH GEOPOLYMER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS Prof. (Dr.) N. R. Bose Gandhi Institute of Engineering."— Presentation transcript:
1 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH GEOPOLYMER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS Prof. (Dr.) N. R. BoseGandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada, Orissa, India
2 INTRODUCTION Name : DR. NRIPATI RANJAN BOSE Qualifications : B. Sc. ; B. Tech. (Chemical) ; M.Tech. (Chemical) ; Ph.D.(Tech.) inPolymer Science & Technology3. Nationality : Indian4. Past position : Principal Scientist at Central Glass & Ceramic Research Instituteunder Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (C.S.I.R.), Govt. of India5. Work Experience : (a) 8 years in Plastics, Paints, Fibreglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) andPlywood Industries(b) years as Scientist for R & D work having following output :* Publications in International Journals :* Patents : 1 International ; Indian* Presented Papers in International Conferences :* Technical Know-How Transferred to Industries :* -Guided Ph.D. students : 2Present Activities : (a) Director of New Era Polyset Engineering Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata, India(b) Consultant of Sols 4 All Consultants , Kolkata, India(c) Expert for the project “Development of Bullet Resistant ArmourPanels “ at Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkataunder CSIR, Govt. of India(d) Contract research, Product Development and Commercial UtilisationAuthor of two Chapters : Books published by Woodhead Publications, U.K.Membership with Professional Scientific bodies : (a) Institute of Materials, U.K. , (b) Indian Concrete institute(c) Indian Plastics institute , (d) Indian Science Congress Association
3 Serious Pollution Hazards Rapid urbanization-----Building industries-----Uses of Diesel & Petrol-----Generation of Solid Waste-----Increase of PopulationIndustrialization-----Increase of Cement Industries-----Generation of Solid Waste such as :* Fly Ash * GGBS * Rice Husk Ash * Red Mud * Food Waste* Wood Dust * Hospital Waste * Radioactive Waste etc.*
4 Present Scenario(1)One ton cement production require 2 tons of shale and limestone releases 0.87 ton Co2, 3 Kg. NO and airborne particulate matter that is harmful to the respiratory tract when inhaled.Thermal Power Stations, and Steel Industries are using coal and creating environmental pollution by their by-products (a) Fly Ash (FA), and (b) Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag GGBS)Aluminium Industries creating environmental pollution by their by-products Red Mud4. Uranium Industries, Nuclear Power Plants & Atomic Reactors are generating toxic radioactive wasteChemical Industries are creating (a) liquid waste which are polluting river & underground water, (b) Toxic gases from chimneys polluting air in the environment
5 Present Scenario(2)6. Food Industries are generating solid & liquid waste7. Plywood Industries and saw mills are generating wood dust --- creating air pollution8. Ceramic processing industries are polluting air by releasing carbon dioxide from chimneys9. Bricks manufacturing industries are polluting air by releasing carbon dioxide from chimneys10. Surface coating industries are creating air pollution by using solvent based paint and coating resins
6 Recent trends for controlling pollution Total Quality Management of production processes and to ensure zero pollution hazard in the environmentDevelopment of green building materialsProduction of Geopolymer binder from solid wasteConversion of chimney gases into products or absorpsion of chimney gasses in suitable chemical solution by scrubbersProduction of fire resistant composite panels by using Waste-Waste SystemEncapsulation of radioactive waste & other toxic materials in Geopolymer binder and to produce composite panels
7 Major industrial wastes in India Fly ash million tonnesGranulated blast furnace slag million tonnesRice husk ash Huge quantityRed mud million tonnes
8 Composition of waste materials These waste materials contain SiO2 and Al2O3 along with Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, MnO, etc, and have immense potential as man made raw materials for the production of geopolymeric cement and binder.
10 Fundamentals of Geopolymer Geopolymer is essentially a mineral chemical compound or mixture of compounds consisting of repeating units, for example silico-oxide (-Si-O-Si-O-), silico-aluminate (-Si-O-Al-O-), ferro-silico-aluminate (-Fe-O-Si-O-Al-O-) or alumino-phosphate (-Al-O-P-O-) created through a process of geopolymerization
11 Applications of Geopolymer Geopolymers are new materials for :Fire- and heat-resistant coatingsAdhesives & medicinal applicationsHigh-temperature ceramicsNew binders for fire-resistant fiber compositesToxic and radioactive waste encapsulationNew cements for concrete.
12 Methods of making geopolymers(1) A novel three-dimensional mineral polymers named as geopolymers are designated in IUPAC International Symposium on Macromolecules, Stockholm in 1976, Topic III; and PACTEC IV, 1979, Society of Plastic Engineers, USA, preprint page These mineral polymers are called polysialates, and have this empirical formula :Mn[(-Si-O2)z -Al-O2-]n, wH2OWherein z is 1,2 or 3; M is a monovalent cation such as potassium or sodium, andn is the degree of polycondensation. When z is 2, the polysialate has the formula :Mn(-Si-O-Al-O- Si-O -)n,,wH2OO O Oand is called poly(sialate-siloxo) or PSS for short. These new polymers are of the PSS type where M is sodium or a mixture of sodium and potassium. In the latter case, the polymer is called (sodium, potassium) poly(sialate-siloxo) or (Na, K) - PSS. The chemical formula of (Na, K) - PSS may be written as :(Na, K)n (-Si-O-Al-O- Si-O -)n,,wH2OO O O
13 Method of making geopolymers(2) The method of making (Na, K) - PSS comprises preparing a sodium silico-aluminate / potassium silico-aluminate and water mixture where the composition of the reactant mixture, in terms of oxide-mole ratios, falls within the ranges shown in Table 1 below.Table1. Oxide-Mole-Ratios of the Reactant Mixture_____________________________________(Na2O, K2O) / SiO toSiO2 / Al 2O to 4.50H2O / (Na2O, K2O) to 17.50(Na2O, K2O) / Al 2O to 1.20______________________________________
14 Geopolymer binder from Fly Ash ____________________________________________________________Amount of component (grams) Wt %50 % Sodium Hydroxide Solution37.60 % Sodium Silicate SolutionClass F Fly AshAdditional water Nil Nil___________________________________________________________
15 Preparation of specimens & test results Two samples of Fly Ash based GP binder mixture of are casted in a mould and heat cured at 90 oC for 18 hours, and then removed to ambient conditions. After two days, the specimens are prepared in accordance with ASTM C-192 and ASTM C-617 for measurement of compressive strength. The specimens are then tested for compressive strength according to ASTM C-39.________________________________________________________Preparation of specimens & test resultsExample No. Curing Curing CompressiveTemp. (oC) Time (hrs.) Strength (MPa)_________________________________________________________There is an enormous scope for the development of various value added products by reinforcing fibres and fillers in Fly Ash based geopolymer binder mixture. Notable value added products such as bricks, pavement tiles, fire resistant panels etc. can be manufactured
16 GGBS based Geopolymers Conventional iron manufactures leaves slag as a crystalline stone that is dispersed as waste or used as road-railway-track base material in replacement of crushed basalt or graniteSuch crystalline structure does not provide geopolymeric reactivity. Only those slags that are glassy and have been prevented from crystallization can be used as geopolymer precursorThe blast furnace slag is a molten material that is formed from the smelting of the siliceous gangue found in iron core, the residue of coke combustion, the limestone and other added ingredients. Its temperature is in the range between 1400o and 1600oC and is close to that of the molten iron.
17 Contd.The slag becomes suitable for geopolymeric reaction when quenched from the melt. It is called granulated slag or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)The glassy material is obtained either poured into pits filled with water or by high-pressure water jets at the blast furnace, when it flows out of the spoutA modern system of granulation, the pelletizer, has been developed in Canada (Margesson ) and in England during the year From a geopolymeric chemistry point of view, gehlenite [Ca-poly(alumino-sialate) based blast furnace slag is the reactive molecule with effective potential as geopolymeric precursor
18 Composition of gehlenite based GGBS The average composition of gehlenite based blast furnace slag with the main oxides of different countries is given in the following Table____________________________________________________________Slag origin SiO2 % Al 2O3 % CaO % MgO %AustraliaUSAGermanyCzeh. RepCanadaFrance
19 Mole ratios of oxides For making GGBS based geopolymer composite For making GGBS based geopolymer composite, the following oxide mole ratios are optimized at the laboratory of Prof. Joseph Davidovits at Saint Quentin, France. The mole ratios of oxides are given in the following TableMole ratios of oxides_____________________________________________Oxides Mole-ratioM2O / SiO : to 0.36SiO2 / Al 2O : to 4.12H2O / M2O : to 20M2O / Al 2O : to 1.36______________________________________________where M2O represents either Na2O, or K2O, or the mixture of Na2O and K2O. To 100g of the oxide mixture given in the above Table about 15g to 26g of a finely ground blast furnace slag is used. High early compressive strength of more than 250 MPa is obtained by using this mineral polymer composition with filler and /or fibres.
20 Rice husk ash based geopolymers Rice milling generates a by-product known as husk. This surrounds the paddy grain. During the milling about 78 % of weight is received as rice and bran. The remaining 22 % is the huskThe latter is used as fuel in the rice mills to generate steam. The husk contains about 75 % organic volatile matter and 25 % of the weight is converted into ash during the firing process, known as rice husk ashRice husk ash in turn contains around 85 % - 90 % amorphous silica SiO2. For every 1000 kg. of paddy milled, about 220 Kg. (22 %) husk is produced, and when the husk is burnt in the boilers, about 55 Kg. (25 %) of rice husk ash is generatedThe most profitable use of silica fume and rice husk ash is in the cement and concrete industriesGeopolymer binder is made by mixing rice husk ash and silica fumes with NaOH or KOH solution. For the development of geopolymer concrete Al(OH)3 powder is used up to 10 % as activator and 1 % Boric acid as stabilizer at 115o CThe compressive strength of rice husk ash mortar is MPaHigh compressive strength value added products can also be developed by incorporating fibres in this geopolymer cement binder.
21 Geopolymer Technology Developed By Prof Geopolymer Technology Developed By Prof. Davidovids, Founder of Geopolymer Institute, Saint Quentin, France (Paper presented in July, 2013)
23 New Avenues For The Development of High Value Composite Materials Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Cement Based Composite Materials1. Fire Resistant Structural Panels2. Insulated Foamed Roof Panels3. Chemical Resistant Panels4. Door Panels5. Bricks6. Tiles
24 Importance of Geopolymer PART-1 Geopolymer has great potential to reduce the environmental pollution in two ways :1 Fulfillment of the demand of portland cement by usingGeopolymer cement without going for new cement industries2. Fruitful utilisation of waste materials such as FA and GGBSfor the production of good quality Geopolymer cement bychemical transformation of Al and Si
25 Importance of Geopolymer PART-2 Properties of GPCC mixes :Compressive strength in 24 hours : MPaCompressive strength in 28 days : MPaModulus of Elasticity : Marginally lower thancement concreteHigh stiffnessAcid, Alkali, Heat and Fire ResistantBond Strength with Steel is higher than cement concrete( IS : )Durability as per ASTM 1202 C : Better protection of steelas compared to cement concrete
26 Importance of Geopolymer PART-3 Geopolymer Cement Concrete (GPCC)materials are inorganic polymer compositesusing Geopolymer Cement prepared by alkaliactivation of industrial aluminosilicate wastematerials such as FA & GGBS
27 Proposed Design of Fire Resistant Composite Panels Impregnation of Ceramic Blanket with GeopolymerCement Slurry Blended with Water Settable PolyesterResin + Redox Catalyst + SBR Latex + Fillers + Wateras required : Formed into Prepreg LayersAssembly of Multiple Prepreg Layers as per desired thickness in between two Aluminium Metal Sheets3, Pressing in Cold Hydraulic PressThe above design is based on ESTERCRETEUSES :* Blast Resistant Structural Panels for Defense Sector* Bridge Decks & Industrial FlooringCompressive Strength : More than Ordinary Concrete
28 Proposed Design of Insulated Foamed Roof Panels 1. Geopolymer Cement Slurry + Water Settable Phenolic Resole Resin+ SBR Latex + PTSA Catalyst Sand + Stone aggregates + Super-plasticizer + Polypropylene Fibre + Water as requiredPolyurethane Foam System (Part A & Part B)Silicone Rubber MouldAnti Sticking Silicone SprayCompacting Box System to Hold Silicone Rubber MouldProduction Process :After Mixing Part A & Part B of item No. 2 then add Item No After mixing pour into the closed Mould properly coated with anti sticking Silicone Spray
29 Proposed Design of Chemical Resistant Floor Water Settable Isophthalic Polyester ResinGeopolymer SlurryRedox Catalyst SystemSBR LatexSandStone (6-8 mm) AggregatesPolypropylene FibreWater as requiredApplication : After Mixing item Nos in a Gear Mixerit is to be pumped through Hose Pipe inside the Framedworkplace. Curing for hours will develop highcompressive strength.
30 Proposed Design For Doors and Windows Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP) Casings as per size of the doors and windows2. Geopolymer Slurry PU Foam System Water SettablePolyester Resin + Redox Catalyst + SBR Latex + PolypropyleneFibre + Superplasticizer + Water as requiredProduction :1. Mixing all ingredients of item No. 2 and then injection intoindividual FRP casings2. Curing time : 12 hours
31 PROPER SOLUTION 1. Production of Geopolymer for gainful utilisation of FA and GGBS and to savethe environment by reducing stockpilesUse of Geopolymer cement as a rightsubstitute of Portland Cement for theproduction of value added compositeproducts
32 Possibilities for New Research Projects Nano fibre development from Geopolymer Gel by using Electrospinning EquipmentAnti Rust and High Heat Resistant Inorganic Waterbase Geopolymer-Zinc Rich Coating for Cathodic Protection of SteelDevelopment of Advanced Nano CeramicComposites Based on Geopolymer Gel
33 ConclusionGeopolymer concrete shows significant potential to be a material for the future because it is not only environmentally friendly but also possesses excellent mechanical propertiesRecommendations on use of geopolymer concrete technology in practical applications such as precast concrete products and waste encapsulation need to be developed* Geopolymeric binder can be utilized for fire resistant panels and coatings on different substrates, advanced nano-ceramic composites, development of foam concrete, encapsulation of radioactive waste, low cost bricks etc.
34 ConclusionBecause of lower internal energy (almost 20% to 30 % less) andlower CO2 emission contents of ingredients of geopolymer based composites compared to those of conventional Portland cement concretes, the new composites can be considered to be more eco-friendly and hence their utility in practical applications needs to be developed and encouraged.Geopolymer based cement is having high early strength and high setting characteristics. These characteristics of geopolymer cement based products are ideal for patching or resurfacing of highways and airport runways.
35 Conclusion ( FA, GGBS, RHA and Red Mud ) through Geopolymer * It is possible to utilize various solid waste materials( FA, GGBS, RHA and Red Mud ) through GeopolymerChemistry for the development of binder and cement* It is poosible to formulate mixing compound withsemi solid waste materials , geopolymer binder andwater soluble polymer for the development of highvalue products
36 Future course of action * To involve myself in collaborative or sponsored Research ProjectTo work jointly with suitable organization for the development of new products by utilizing any kind of waste materialsTo save the environment through techno-commercial waste managementTo substitute prefabricated cement based concrete with geopolymer based concrete* To develop blast resistant composite panels for defence sectorsThank you all