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Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Painting: The crowning touch Creates character.

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Presentation on theme: "Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Painting: The crowning touch Creates character."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Painting: The crowning touch Creates character in the set 2 Main Areas: 1.Materials 2.Techniques

2 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Materials Paints Applicators

3 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Paints 4 Elements of Paint 1.Pigment – Material that imparts color to a paint or dye 2.Filler – Material that creates opacity in paint 3.Vehicle – Liquid medium – water, oil, lacquer, and the like – in which pigments, fillers, and binders are suspended to create a pain mixture; after the paint is applied, the vehicle evaporates 4.Binder – The adhesive that bonds the pigment and filler together **most scenic paints are water-vehicle paints – nonflammable / less expensive / easier to mix / quicker to dry / lighter in weight / easier to clean

4 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Safety Note Dry pigment & binders… Sometimes chemicals in paint are highly toxic!!! When in dry form, they are easy to inhale Consult MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) to know how to handle certain materials!!!

5 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Dry Pigment and Binder Oldest form of scene paint Pigment and filler are pre-mixed and kept in dry form (powder) Requires size water to create the paint… Size water – A mixture of one cup hot animal glue and one tablespoon of Lysol per gallon of warm water (white glue can be substituted) Comes in wide range of colors (See Table 10.1 – pg. 250) Relatively inexpensive & stores indefinitely Going ‘out of style’ Size water will spoil!!! – Throw it away!!! Don’t use spoiled paint!!!

6 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Casein Paint Water-based paint with a binder based in soy protein or milk Comes in a concentrate that can be thinned with water Easily mixed Has excellent covering properties Matte finish Water repellent when dry Negatives: Spoils quickly when opened – and smells like super-sour milk Smell remains once dried!!!

7 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Latex Paint Latex = Synthetic liquid plastic with flexible qualities White latex is used as a base to mix tints with more saturated colors Can use dry pigment / aniline dyes / casein / vinyl acrylic concentrates to tint latex Matte finish Adheres to wood and fabric well Aniline dye – A transparent pigment made from aniline, a poisonous derivative of benzene; characterized by brilliant hues and full saturation Vinyl acrylic concentrate – A highly saturated pigment with a vinyl acrylic binder; mixed with an opaque base (for tints) or a transparent base (for fully saturated hues) to create a working paint

8 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Vinyl Acrylic Paint Water-based paint with a vinyl acrylic binder Excellent adhesion Extremely flexible Suitable for painting wood, fabric, & most metals and plastics Water-resistant Can create a glaze (transparent wash) by diluting this type of paint with 8 to 10 parts water

9 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Aniline Dye Often carcinogenic & toxic – Safety 1 st when using these!!! Powder form Transparent, brilliant, saturated dyes when mixed with water 1 tsp dye to 1 qt boiling water as average mix Paint scrims & muslin drops & cycs Tint water-based scene paints Dye tends to bleed / spread – needs a binder Add starch / white flex glue / animal glue size / clear vinyl acrylic base as binder

10 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Varnish Transparent coating made of synthetic or natural resinous materials suspended in oil (oil varnish), alcohol (spirit varnish), or synthetic vehicle (polyurethane, vinyl acrylic) Sealing coat Matte, satin, glossy finish Polyurethane believed to be better for stage – easier to apply and dries more quickly than other types

11 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Shellac Transparent finish coating made of resinous material (lac – insect secretion) suspended in alcohol Extremely volatile substance – needs to be handled carefully Often used as a vehicle for bronzing powders Lacquer – Form of shellac or varnish that has been diluted with alcohol or other quick-drying solvents

12 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Polyester Resin Not actually paint! Used to form fiberglass Finishing method that can hold color and textures Must be mixed with MEK to harden Resin takes time to ‘set’ Virtually impossible to remove once put in place MEK – methylethylketone – catalyst-hardener

13 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Enamel An opaque paint with an oil, lacquer, or synthetic base Hard surface Excellent covering power Smooth satin or gloss finish Surface to be covered should have an enamel undercoat for proper sealing and finished look

14 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Important Safety Tips Check MSDS Sheets for proper handling of all paints and dyes Visit the MSDS FAQ online to get more information on how to ‘read’ this information properly Make sure to wear proper masks / respirators when mixing dry pigment Oil-, alcohol-, and lacquer-base paints and some synthetic- base paints are flammable Keep all hazardous materials in appropriate storage and also work with them in well-ventilated areas!!!

15 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Applicators

16 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Brushes Good brushes are expensive – but worth it! Natural bristles are best – Look for length and a natural springiness when wet 3 types of brushes 1.Priming – applies 1 st coat – large (6 to 7 inches wide) 2.Lay-in – applies base coat – medium (4 to 5 inches wide) 3.Detail – Used for fine work – small (1/4 to 2 inches wide) Multiple types of brushes exist for multiple purposes Match the purpose to a specific brush for best results

17 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Other types of applicators Sponges – Use for texture and for creating several different paint treatments Rollers – Use with water-base paints to get large amounts of coverage Aerosol Spray Can – Allows for some control of paint – often used to distress objects due to look of paint once sprayed Spray Gun – Variety of methods use these – Drops to furniture can be painted with these **Useful for applying glaze coats, fire retardants, spattering

18 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Auxiliary Scene-Painting Tools

19 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Auxiliary Scene-Painting Tools Charcoal & Chalk – Used to draw parts of the design before painting Handle extender – Allows painters to reach inaccessible areas with ease (Often made of bamboo) Bucket Straightedge – Guide to painting straight lines / beveled underside to prevent paint from ‘creeping’ Chalk Line – a.k.a. snap line – Aids in creating lines Paint Cart – Convenient to carry paints Electric glue pot – essential for creating size water Immersion heater – Helpful for mixing and heating water, paint, dye, etc. Stirrers

20 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Preparing Scenery for Painting Repair Holes Patch on the BACK of the flat Applying Dutchmen 4-6 inch wide strips of muslin to cover joints between flats Compound – ¾ water to ¼ glue Flame proofing All scenery must be flame proofed Compound – 1 lb borax, 1 lb sal ammoniac, ½ pt vinegar, 1 g hot water Horizontal and Vertical painting Prepare the paint space for whichever method will be used Horizontal – large amounts of clean floor space Vertical – large amounts of wall space and more care from the painters

21 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Vertical Painting Structures…

22 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Preliminary Coating of Paint 2 basic coatings Size coat Shrinks the fabric (tightens to frame) Fills the surface of the cloth to better take paint Water & hot glue (16 to 1) Prime coat a.k.a. Ground coat 1 st layer of paint Usually painted over with detail layer – use ‘garbage paint’ Neutral color to prevent bleedthrough

23 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Paint-Mixing Techniques Dry Pigment & Binder – No set formula – working to get consistency of coffee cream Casein – 1 part paste to 2 to 4 parts water Latex – If undiluted – extend with 1 pint of water to 1 gallon of paint Vinyl Acrylic – Versatile with a wide variety of techniques for mixing

24 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scene Painter’s Palette = Light = Pigment

25 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scene Painter’s Palette Practical Hints and Tips Be sure all paint is thoroughly mixed and stirred To reduce value or saturation – add complimentary hue add a less saturated pigment add black (last resort) To increase value – add pigment of same hue but higher value add white (judiciously…) When mixing high values – start mixing with lightest pigment and slowly add other components When mixing dark colors – start with darkest and slowly add lighter colors If mixing large quantities be sure to box the paint Paint appears lighter when dry – test your mix with various samples to make sure you are getting the correct end result

26 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Painting Techniques Smooth Base Coat Vertical – paint top down Horizontal – paint corner out Keep brush fully loaded with paint Keep a wet edge Don’t scrub surface with brush Dry pigment & binder – apply with a cross-hatch pattern to avoid brush marks Application here is being done in a cross- hatch pattern working from the top down in a vertical painting situation

27 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Painting Techniques Graded Base Coat One that generally changes hue or value over the height or width of the painted surface. Common to ‘fake’ a sense of age or being well-worn Requires speed – blend must be done while paint is wet – small areas at a time Look at the images from top to bottom to see the stages of creating a graded base coat

28 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Painting Techniques Scumbling Blends several hues together – creates illusion of texture Two guidelines – 1.Use a separate brush for each color to maintain integrity 2. Work rapidly – paints must be wet for blending to take place Textures – rough plaster / wood / stone / dirt / etc. 1.Sharply textured, high-contrast curvilinear 2.Softly textured, low-contrast curvilinear 3.High-contrast linear scumble 4.Low-contrast linear scumble

29 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Painting Techniques Aniline Dye Different due to type of color produced – high, intense, transparent color Mix in boiling water (vinegar or alcohol as a potential way around boiling – still requires hot water!!!) Dye – Penetrates rather than covers!!! Dye must be mixed with a binder – or fabric must be sized Difficult surfaces to penetrate – 8 parts water to one part vinyl Non-porous surfaces – 3 parts water to one part clear vinyl

30 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Spraying Techniques Fastest method of applying paint 3 Parts: 1.Spray gun – A pistol-like device that shoots out a cone of paint 2.Spray cone – The pattern of paint emitted from the nozzle of a spray gun. 3.Compressor – A pump, typically electric- or gasoline-powered, that drives air into a tank, output pressure from the tank is controlled by a valve called a regulator.

31 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Cartooning The process of transferring detail to the scenery after prime and base coats are applied. Combination of technical transfer using scale measurements and grids to freehand sketching Painter’s elevation provides the information on the details to be transferred

32 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Grid Transfer In scale a 1’ sq grid is drawn on the elevation In full-scale, 1’ sq grid is placed on the surface Painter makes transfer of information using grid for placement

33 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Projection Transfer Uses an opaque projector to project the painter’s elevation onto the scenery Design is then traced in charcoal or chalk Drawbacks – 1. Shop must be dark for this process 2. Projector must be placed perpendicular to the center point or keystoning occurs **Computer technology is changing and improving this method which is more efficient than grid transfer

34 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Standard Texture Coats Spattering Process of applying small drops of paint to a surface Age the paint job, alter the hue, smooth out irregularities of base coat Can be done by hand or with a garden sprayer (Hudson is the brand preferred by many professional scenic artists)

35 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Standard Texture Coats Stippling Applies a heavier texture than spattering to the scenery Uses an applicator loaded with paint in a random pattern With a brush With a sponge With a feather duster

36 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Standard Texture Coats Dry Brushing Painting with a brush that holds very little paint Tip of brush is dipped in paint, scraped across the lip of the bucket, then dragged across the surface of the work Most commonly used to create wood grain

37 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Standard Texture Coats Lining Painting narrow, straight lines of varying widths – creates the appearance of depth Uses highlight and shadow to ‘trick’ the eye

38 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Applications of Painting Techniques Foliage Wood Stone Marble

39 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Specialized Finishing Techniques Texturing – Use of additives in paint to give depth and texture Stenciling – Large cut patterns used to apply paint in detailed, intricate patterns like wallpaper Front-Back Painting – a.k.a. translucent painting – Paint / Light the back AND the front of a muslin drop Glazing – Applying a clear top coat to an existing finish Metallic Finishes – Generates the illusion of metal or provides accent Wallpapering – Alternative to painting – costly and should be done on hard flats

40 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Drop Painting Techniques Drops must be stretched and framed before being painted Horizontal vs. Vertical – once stretched this is the orientation painting will occur in If being painted horizontal – may require bogus paper to absorb excess paint If no existing frame, one will need to be built Temporary drop stretcher

41 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 10: Scene Painting © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic painting relies on the talent and ingenuity of the artist There are no true ‘rules’ for the painter Experimentation Trial and error & learning from happy accidents are the main guidelines for scene painting


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