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Bepex AGGLOMERATION Combining the resources of K - G R I E T Z S C H U G I S T R O N G - S C O T T.

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Presentation on theme: "Bepex AGGLOMERATION Combining the resources of K - G R I E T Z S C H U G I S T R O N G - S C O T T."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bepex AGGLOMERATION Combining the resources of K - G R I E T Z S C H U G I S T R O N G - S C O T T

2 Bepex Outline IntroductionIntroduction Binder OverviewBinder Overview Pressure Agglomeration / CompactionPressure Agglomeration / Compaction Wet Agglomeration OverviewWet Agglomeration Overview Tumbling Agglomeration / Instant MixingTumbling Agglomeration / Instant Mixing Extrusion AgglomerationExtrusion Agglomeration Thermal AgglomerationThermal Agglomeration Batch vs Continuous ProcessingBatch vs Continuous Processing Selection of an Agglomeration SystemSelection of an Agglomeration System

3 Bepex Defining Agglomeration The process of transforming finely divided particles into particles of a larger size by the introduction of outside forces.

4 Bepex Reasons For Agglomeration Minimize or eliminate dustMinimize or eliminate dust Improve flowabilityImprove flowability Improve storage and handling characteristicsImprove storage and handling characteristics Improve metering and dosing characteristicsImprove metering and dosing characteristics Formulation stability, prevent segregationFormulation stability, prevent segregation

5 Bepex Reasons For Agglomeration Increase or control bulk densityIncrease or control bulk density Defined shape, size, or weightDefined shape, size, or weight Solubility control, dispersabilitySolubility control, dispersability Improved appearanceImproved appearance Increased product valueIncreased product value

6 Bepex Industrial / Consumer Applications Salt Pellets, Charcoal BriquettesSalt Pellets, Charcoal Briquettes Laundry / Dishwasher DetergentsLaundry / Dishwasher Detergents Agricultural ChemicalsAgricultural Chemicals Feed SupplementsFeed Supplements Instant Drink MixesInstant Drink Mixes Nutraceuticals / Functional FoodsNutraceuticals / Functional Foods Many othersMany others

7 Bepex Binding Mechanisms (According To Pietsch) - Solid Bridges - Chemical Reactions- Liquid Bridges - Sintering - Adhesion Forces -Capillary Pressure -Crystallization of Soluble - Highly Viscous Binders - Interfacial Forces Substances - Adsorption Layers -Hardening of melted subs. -Cohesion Forces - Matrix Binder- Interlocking - Molecular Forces - Capillary Forces -Form Closed Bonds - Electrical Forces (conglomerates saturated - Magnetic Forces with liquid)

8 Bepex Agglomeration Methods Pressure Agglomeration - Briquetting- Tableting - Compacting- Piston Press

9 Bepex Agglomeration Methods Tumbling Agglomeration Tumbling Agglomeration - Mechanical - Tumbling - Mechanical - Tumbling High/Low Speed - Pneumatic High/Low Speed - Pneumatic

10 Bepex Agglomeration Methods Extrusion Agglomeration - Low Pressure Extruder - Gear Pelletizing - Pellet Mill - High Pressure Extruder

11 Bepex Agglomeration Methods Thermal Agglomeration Hot Melting/Forming Hot Melting/Forming - Flakes/Pastilles - Flakes/Pastilles - Prilling - Prilling Sintering Sintering - Rotary Kiln - Rotary Kiln - Traveling Grate - Traveling Grate

12 Bepex Pressure Agglomeration Application of High Pressure to: Densify powder feed materialDensify powder feed material Partially crush incoming particlesPartially crush incoming particles Force particles into close proximityForce particles into close proximity Rely on interparticular forcesRely on interparticular forces Rely on particle moldingRely on particle molding

13 Bepex Advantages of Pressure Agglomeration Little or no binders requiredLittle or no binders required Drying or curing post treatment not requiredDrying or curing post treatment not required High capacity with low energy inputHigh capacity with low energy input Wide range of feed sizes acceptableWide range of feed sizes acceptable High product density achievedHigh product density achieved Robust design promotes extended equipment lifeRobust design promotes extended equipment life

14 Bepex Pressure Agglomeration Product Characteristics Densify powder feed materialDensify powder feed material High density productsHigh density products High strengthHigh strength Uniform shape and sizeUniform shape and size Large product size possibleLarge product size possible Possibility for no binder additionPossibility for no binder addition Limited dispersabilityLimited dispersability

15 Bepex Double Roll Compaction Material drawn between counter rotating rollsMaterial drawn between counter rotating rolls Force feeders usually usedForce feeders usually used High pressure applied in the nipHigh pressure applied in the nip Roll surface dictates product shapeRoll surface dictates product shape End product: Briquettes, or sheets for granulationEnd product: Briquettes, or sheets for granulation

16 Bepex Feed Limitations for Double Roll Compaction Aerated feed materials require special features to deaerate or minimize vibrationAerated feed materials require special features to deaerate or minimize vibration Only “dry” feed acceptableOnly “dry” feed acceptable Abrasiveness, elasticity, plasticity, and brittleness need to be consideredAbrasiveness, elasticity, plasticity, and brittleness need to be considered Heat and pressure sensitive materials not compatibleHeat and pressure sensitive materials not compatible Toxic materials are difficult to containToxic materials are difficult to contain

17 Bepex Double Roll Compactors

18 Bepex

19

20 Products Produced In Roll Compactors

21 Bepex Wet Agglomeration Process Dry Particles Wet Particles Effective Collision Forming of Liquid Bridge

22 Bepex Wet Agglomeration Model Less liquid More liquid Small agglomerates Larger agglomerates

23 Bepex % Liquid Particle Size MixingAgglomeration Influence of Moisture on Particle Size

24 Bepex Increasing Solid:Liquid Ratio Very little liquid  powder coatingVery little liquid  powder coating More liquid  agglomeratesMore liquid  agglomerates A lot of liquid   pasteA lot of liquid   paste Mainly liquid  slurryMainly liquid  slurry

25 Bepex Liquid Feed Pre-Mix Conditioning Sizing Agglomeration Final Product SizeReduction Oversize Solids Feed Wet Agglomeration General Flow Sheet

26 Bepex Tumbling Agglomeration Feedstock must be a fine powderFeedstock must be a fine powder Binder or moisture must be addedBinder or moisture must be added Typical for capacity to be highTypical for capacity to be high Good alternative for dedusting / disposalGood alternative for dedusting / disposal Capital and operating costs are low (without post-drying)Capital and operating costs are low (without post-drying)

27 Bepex Tumbling Agglomeration Product Characteristics Good dispersabilityGood dispersability Medium to low density and strengthMedium to low density and strength Rounded shapeRounded shape Small, uniform sizeSmall, uniform size Binder requiredBinder required

28 Bepex Tumbling Agglomeration Mixers Rotary Type Mixers Agitator Type Mixer Low Energy Medium Energy PIN MIXER DRUM DEEP DISH CONE PAN or DISC STEPPED PAN

29 Bepex Turbulizer® Mixer / Agglomerator Solids Inlet Liquid Injection Points AdjustablePaddles

30 Bepex Combine powder and liquid streams with high shearCombine powder and liquid streams with high shear High level mixing quality requiredHigh level mixing quality required High production capacityHigh production capacity Value added productsValue added products Agglomerate Qualities:Agglomerate Qualities: – Relatively porous – Particle size range 0.1 to 1.5 mm – Easily dispersed, compressed, dissolved Tumbling Agglomeration for Instant Mixing

31 Bepex Advantages of Instant Mixing High capacity, short residence timeHigh capacity, short residence time High speed contact yields smaller, more uniform particlesHigh speed contact yields smaller, more uniform particles Capacity to handle sticky productsCapacity to handle sticky products Atomized liquid injection systemAtomized liquid injection system Liquid/steam addition in seriesLiquid/steam addition in series

32 Bepex Instant Mixing Agglomerator Instant mixing

33 Water Dispersible Granule Plant Flow Diagram

34 Bepex Extrusion Agglomeration Feedstock as fine powder, wet cake, or pasteFeedstock as fine powder, wet cake, or paste Moisture or binder may be addedMoisture or binder may be added Curing or post drying may be requiredCuring or post drying may be required Improve the drying efficiency of wet cakesImprove the drying efficiency of wet cakes Capacity to handle sticky and high viscosity productsCapacity to handle sticky and high viscosity products Optional temperature control for high fat or waxy productsOptional temperature control for high fat or waxy products Further processing possible (spheres)Further processing possible (spheres)

35 Bepex Extrusion Agglomeration Product Characteristics Medium density productMedium density product Medium dispersabilityMedium dispersability Good for time release dispersionGood for time release dispersion Product is cylindrical, with constant cross sectionProduct is cylindrical, with constant cross section Typical diameter 1 to 10 mmTypical diameter 1 to 10 mm Uniform particle size and shapeUniform particle size and shape Product very resistant to breakdownProduct very resistant to breakdown Binder may need to be addedBinder may need to be added

36 Bepex Extrusion Process

37 Bepex Extrusion Agglomeration Product

38 Bepex Extrusion Process 1.Powder Weigh Feeder 2.Premixer 3.Liquid Metering System 4.Extruder 5.Continuous Fluid Bed Dryer

39 Bepex Extrusion Agglomeration Further Processing by Spheronization

40 Bepex Thermal Agglomeration Uses heat transfer processesUses heat transfer processes Difficult to generalize product propertiesDifficult to generalize product properties Examples include:Examples include: – Prilling – Drum Flaker – Sintering – Rotary Kiln Nodulizing

41 Bepex Prilling Can produce particles up to 1,500 um diameter, 300 um diameter is more commonCan produce particles up to 1,500 um diameter, 300 um diameter is more common Product is spherical, not ideal sphereProduct is spherical, not ideal sphere Hollow sphere in turbulent mixing, indented sphere in laminar mixingHollow sphere in turbulent mixing, indented sphere in laminar mixing Usually followed by Vibratory Fluid Bed to cool productUsually followed by Vibratory Fluid Bed to cool product

42 Bepex Drum Flaker Rotating Drum chills productRotating Drum chills product Product hardens on surfaceProduct hardens on surface Product is scraped off to form flakesProduct is scraped off to form flakes Feed material must be in liquid formFeed material must be in liquid form

43 Bepex Batch vs Continuous Processing BATCHBATCH Bad lots easily identifiedBad lots easily identified More labor with switching batchesMore labor with switching batches Low production ratesLow production rates Intermittent productionIntermittent production Frequent product changeoverFrequent product changeover Frequent system clean outFrequent system clean out CONTINUOUSCONTINUOUS More uniform productMore uniform product Less labor requiredLess labor required High production ratesHigh production rates Few shutdownsFew shutdowns Few different product specificationsFew different product specifications Seldom need to stop and clean outSeldom need to stop and clean out

44 Bepex Selection of an Agglomeration System Any agglomeration method can be applied to most materialsAny agglomeration method can be applied to most materials – May need to modify feed materials first End product functionality requirements dictate methodEnd product functionality requirements dictate method

45 Bepex Selection of an Agglomeration System End Product Characteristics DispersabilityDispersability Dissolution rateDissolution rate FlowabilityFlowability CompressibilityCompressibility DensityDensity StrengthStrength ShapeShape SizeSize Size DistributionSize Distribution FormulationFormulation

46 Bepex End Product Types Multi stage spray drying Multi stage spray drying Disc granulation Disc granulation Powder clustering by instant mixing Powder clustering by instant mixing Form granulation by mechanical force Form granulation by mechanical force

47 Bepex 4 – Very good / excellent 3 – good 2 – moderate 1 - poor Product Form / Product Properties Onion Skin ClustersExtrudate Hollow Sphere Compacted Granule Briquette Flowing Properties Bulk Density Dispersability Instant Characteristics Particle Size 1-5 mm mm mm < 200  m mm 5 mm+ Product Comparison

48 Bepex Selection of an Agglomeration System Raw material limitationsRaw material limitations Upstream processUpstream process Downstream processDownstream process Formulation flexibilityFormulation flexibility Product changeoverProduct changeover Equipment maintenanceEquipment maintenance Capital vs Operating costsCapital vs Operating costs

49 Bepex Examples of Machine Selection Charcoal – Briquetting on Double Roll CompactorCharcoal – Briquetting on Double Roll Compactor Instant Drink Mix – Turbulizer and Fluid BedInstant Drink Mix – Turbulizer and Fluid Bed Stearic Acid – Prilling TowerStearic Acid – Prilling Tower

50 Bepex Conclusions Agglomeration equipment is the key part of a total agglomeration systemAgglomeration equipment is the key part of a total agglomeration system Various options exist for most feed materialsVarious options exist for most feed materials Desired product characteristics will dictate the method to useDesired product characteristics will dictate the method to use


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