2 SmartPave: Technical Details Asphalt Rheometer according to AASHTO TP5, T315-04 FeaturesPerfect temperature controlLowest thermal gradients due to the actively heated hoodDesigned for testing according to AASHTO T315No water or gas flowSpecial asphalt softwareAutomatic temperature calibration-30°C (-40°C) -> 120°C (200°C)Amplitude sweep linearity testBased on MCRHighly dynamic EC-MotorAir bearing of extremely high stiffness Torque range: 0.1µNm to 150 mNm Angle resolution: 0.01 µrad
3 What is Bitumen? What is Asphalt? Bitumen = BinderAsphalt = Binder + Additives (ash, ...)Contents of binderhydrocarbonsresinsparaffins, waxes and fatsheavy oilsproteins, lignins and complex oxygen, nitogen and sulfur compoundsFormed by microorganisms as part of crude oil and coal.Residue from evaporation/distillation at 400 °C.Example: Bitumen 1 Bitumen 280 % hydrocarbons 60 % hydrocarbons10 % resins 20 % resins1 % asphaltenes 15 % asphaltenes9 % others 5% others
4 PTD – Asphalt Peltier Temperature Device MCR Series Peltier Temperature DeviceExcellent Heating and Cooling characteristicsTemperature range -30°C to 120°CTruly Peltier heated hoodSliding Rail for peltier hoodQuick ConnectToolmaster for basis plate & hoodControl Boards are part of the MCRCombination of Radiation & Conductive Heating and CoolingCertified temperature calibration sensorConstant counter cooling temperature over a wide working rangeMeasuring plates and insets 25mm, 8mmTruly Peltier Heated HoodPatented Technology-30°C to 120°CSliding Rail: Flexible PositioningPeltier Convection & RadiationMCR Integrated Control BoardsPeltier Heated Basis Plate
5 PTD – Peltier Temperature Device Sliding Rail for the Modular Peltier Hood Any description needed ?Quick ConnectToolmasterSliding Rail for flexible positioning of the peltier hood
6 Test Specimen Preparation Sample Handling…Test Specimen PreparationDirect pourNo mould.Limits stearic hardening.Referee method.Mould pouringCan pour multiple specimens at once.Convenient.Can mount specimen on upper or lower plate.Limit time in mould, 2 hrs max., stearic hardening a concern.
7 Specimen TrimmingCleanly trimming the specimen, this is very important.Excessive material (smears) leftover after trimming and/orremoving too much material can lead to errors.Recommendations:Keep specimen to a manageable size.Trim in small sections.Heat the trimming tool to appropriate temperature, avoid too hot (smoking) and too cool (pulling) conditions.Trimming tool design important.
9 PTD – Peltier Temperature Device Verification / Calibration of the sample temperature For those customers who have to verify the temperature in the measuring gap:Automatic temperature calibration routine (Rheoplus Software)Certified sensorCalibration sensor in the measuring gapConnection of the calibration sensor to the rheometerPlug & play
10 SmartPave: Technical Details Accessories Accessories for SmartPave:Software RheoplusInsets 25 and 8 mmMeasuring plates 25 and 8 mmCalibration sensor CSAPeltier chamber P-PTD200/56/IPeltier hood H-PTD120
11 AASHTO T315 ApplicationPerformance based Asphalt Binder SpecificationsHigh and low temperaturesLoading conditionsVehicle speed of 100 km/hTraffic volume
12 AASHTO T315 ApplicationEnvironmental conditions may lead to the following phenomenaRuttings: Aqua planingFatigue crackingThermal cracking
13 Effects of Road Aging Protective Layer Binder Layer Support Layer Underground
14 RTFO & PAV Application Aging in the Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFO): Simulates the thin films of binder as they are exposed to heat and forced air during the mixing process and placementEvaporation and oxidation (small molecules disappear)Aging in the Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV):Simulates in-service aging after 5 to 10 years in the fieldAsphalt Binders are exposed to high temperature (100°C) and air pressure (2.07 MPa) for 20 hours to simulate long-term aging. Resulting viscosity of the PAV-aged asphalt binder is approximately 8+ times the viscosity of the unaged asphalt binder.Source: SHRP 1994
15 Rheoplus Supported Tests AASHTO T315 The standard defines 4 tests:Original Binder Deformation/RuttingsRolling Thin Film Oven - RTFO Aged Binder Deformation/RuttingsPressure Aging Vessel Residue - PAV Aged Binder Fatigue CrackingLinearityGrading:Used to define the performance grade of an unknown sampleTest at start temperature (58°C, 19°C for PAV)Test failed:Temperature step until sample passes 6°C (3°C for PAV)Test passed:Temperature step until samples failsVerification:Carried out at one pre-defined temperatureTo verify the grading of a sample (passed or failed)
16 Rheoplus Predefined Asphalt Workbooks Predefined workbooks according to AASHTO T315 can be found in the RheoplusThe Smart Applications guide the user through the setup of the instrument.
17 Rheoplus Grading Tests AASHTO T315 – Grading Settings for grading testsParallel-Plate: PP25/1mm gap or PP08/2mm gap for PAVAngular Frequency: 10 rad/sBinder [ G*/sin(delta) > 1.0 kPa ]Strain for Binder: 12%Start temperature: 58°CMore temperatures: (46, 52, 58, 64, 70, 76, 82)°CRTFO [ G*/sin(delta) > 2.2 kPa ]Strain for RTFO: 10%Start temperature 58°CMore temperatures (46, 52, 58, 64, 70, 76, 82)°CPAV [ G*/sin(delta) < 5000 kPa ]Strain for PAV: 1%Start temperature 19°CMore temperatures (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 37, 40)°C
18 Rheoplus Grading Tests AASHTO T315 – Grading Settings for verification testsParallel-Plate PP25 (PP08 for PAV)Angular Frequency for all samples: 10 rad/sBinder [ G*/sin(delta) > 1.0 kPa ]Strain for Binder: 12%Performed at grading temperatureRTFO [ G*/sin(delta) > 2.2 kPa ]Strain for RTFO: 10%PAV [ G*/sin(delta) < 5000 kPa ]Strain for PAV: 1%
19 Rheoplus Predefined Asphalt Workbooks RheoPlus Software with special simple to run Asphalt Workbooks
20 Rheoplus Asphalt Workbook RheoPlus software with special asphalt workbooks that guide the user step-by-step