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Colloids and SurfacePhenomena Aspects Of Make Up and Lipstick. Group Members CHAIN, KOK KEONG LE, DIEUHANH THI MCLAUGHLIN, KELLY E VAN NATTER, RAINEE M.

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Presentation on theme: "Colloids and SurfacePhenomena Aspects Of Make Up and Lipstick. Group Members CHAIN, KOK KEONG LE, DIEUHANH THI MCLAUGHLIN, KELLY E VAN NATTER, RAINEE M."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colloids and SurfacePhenomena Aspects Of Make Up and Lipstick. Group Members CHAIN, KOK KEONG LE, DIEUHANH THI MCLAUGHLIN, KELLY E VAN NATTER, RAINEE M Date: 18 th April 2002

2 Introduction Definition of Cosmetic Ingredients Overview of Customer Requirements Role by Polymer and Surfactants Application in Cosmetic Products: –Eye shadow and Blush –Lipstick –Liquid Cream –Pressed Powder for both pale and dark skin

3 Overview of Cosmetic Consumer aspect –High quality –Safe or non allergic –Reasonable Price –Multiple Performance –Long Wearing

4 Role by Polymer And Surfactant Polymer –gel like, long chain carbon with cross-linked conformation Encapsulation Firm distribution High internal surface areas, ideal sorption and desorption mechanism Surfactant –hydrophilic head group + hydrophobic tail Emollients, wetting agents, and emulsifying agents,humectants To promote lubricant, adhesiveness, slip and covering purposes

5 What are pressed powder properties? Slip –Spread Easily, smooth feeling –Rhapsody, Zinc Stearate Adhesiveness –Cling Together –Zinc Stearate, Octyl Palmitate Other Ingredients –Coloring Pigments, Iron Oxide –Shininess Appearance –Not over darkness and chalkiness

6 Pressed Powder for both pale and dark skin

7 Action and Mechanism Zinc Stearate –Zn (C 18 H 35 O 2 ) 2, –long hydrocarbon chain – ideal physicals < 6% of moisture, alkaline, soluble in mineral oils –promoting the powder flow ability –reduced the interfacial tension Octyl Palmitate –as liquid binder, –provide cohesion –as emulsifier, emollients Iron Oxide –(Fe 2 O 3 ), Color Pigment

8 How to Produce make up? Guidelines by Ultra. Chemical Inc. –pulverize or to crush Rhapsody talc in to powder form –compress them into pan utilizing (200psi – 2000psi )

9 Lipsticks Purpose: –Protect lips from hard weather –Color lips Objectives: –Variation in color from application to application –Lasts all day –Removable with cleansers Basic categories of lipsticks: –Matte: heavy in wax and pigment but lighter in emollients. –Gloss : less wax and more oil to make the lips shinier. –Long lasting: contains silicone oil, which seals the color the lips. –Satin: combination of gloss and matte lipsticks. –Frosted: include a pearl zing agent that adds luster to the color.

10 Lipsticks Example of Lipsticks, Matte Formulation composition* Components Range % by wtPreferred by wt 1.Candellela Wax 3.0-9.03.0 2.Ozokerite1.0-4.01.0 3.Paraffin wax2.0-5.02.0 4.Isosteryl Isostearated2.0-10.010.0 5.Ultrapure HMP-S8.0-10.010.0 6.Capric/Caprylic Triglyceride2.0-10.010.0 7.Castor OilQS51.6 8.Propyl Paraben0.100.10 9.Tocopheryl Acetate0.1-1.00.10 10.Colorants: D&C #7 CA lake0.0-4.00.30 11.Red Oxide0.0-3.01.5 12.Rhapsody Talc 4M2.0-10.010.0 Total 100.0 *Ultra Chemical Inc.

11 Lipsticks Function of Ingredients 1.Emollients a. Castor oil: -extracted from castor plant b. Capric/Caprylic Triglyceride: -oily liquid extract from plant vegetable oil and dairy fats. c. Isostearyl Isostearate 2.Emulsifiers a. Paraffin Wax: -derived from petroleum b. Ozokerite Wax: -ceresin wax, naturally occurs in mineral wax. 3.Preservatives a. Propyl Parahen: -propyl-4-hydroxylbenzoate and prepare from p- bromophenol 4.Colorants a. D&C Red #7 CA lake: b. Red Oxide c. Ultrapure HMP-S 5.Binders a. Candellia wax

12 Lipsticks Processing 1. Heat the ingredients to 75-85degree Celsius 2. Mix until the batch is smooth and uniform

13 Lipstick Shapes, packaging and price *There are different shapes and packaging of lipsticks. The prices are ranging from $1.99 to $29.99, depending to the Brand name of product, such as Lancôme, Avon, L’Oreal, etc.

14 Eyeshadow & Rouge Purpose: –To provide color Requirements & Objectives: –Contain pigments –Adhere to skin –Have adequate “slip” to spread onto skin –Limited solubility in perspiration (to avoid streaking), but easily removable with cleansers –Safe for eyes (preservatives) ~40 sec

15 Forms Liquid suspension/ emulsion Solid, stick (L’Oreal) (Wet N Wild) Dry, Compact (Almay, Inc.) (Black Opal/ BioCosmetic Research Labs ) Solid, creamy ~25 sec

16 Rouge/Eyeshadow Ingredients Filler Pigments and Opacifiers Binders Emulsifiers Emollients Preservatives Absorbents Perfume Carriers Viscosity controllers/thickeners (Brief Overview Slide)

17 Main Ingredients Dry, Compact Cosmetics: –Talc ( 3MgO·4SiO 2 ·H 2 O ) (Filler) –“Slip” and shine due to lamellar structure –Very soft –White –Adheres to skin evenly Liquid/Gel Rouges: –Water (Solvent) Cream/Solid Cosmetics: –Caprylic/capric triglyceride (Solvent & Emollient) –Octyl Palmitate (Binder & Emollient) –Mineral Oil (Binder) –Castor Oil (see “Lipsticks”) ( Marmion, Sagarin 223-224 ) Talc already discussed (kkc) - don’t describe in detail Below: esters and oils Talc already discussed (kkc) - don’t describe in detail Below: esters and oils

18 Pigments & Opacifiers Purpose: –To provide the color for the cosmetic –Opacifiers increase the opaqueness (coverage) of the applied cosmetic color Objectives: –Should not change color, bleed, or streak with pH changes, water, or oil (perspiration) –Should not fade significantly when exposed to light –Be heat stable –Be easy to add into product –Be non-toxic –All pigments of same particle size ~15 sec (Sagarin 229-235, Poucher III 283)

19 Common Inorganic Pigments ( Marmion 99-111, Sagarin 228,233, PCI, Jones ) 5 sec- refer them to web site Pigment StructureColor(s) TalcMgO·4SiO 2 ·H 2 OWhite (Filler, Opacifier) Zinc Oxide ZnOWhite/yellowish white (Opacifier) Titanium dioxideTiO 2 White (Opacifier) MicaK 2 Al 4 (Al 2 Si 6 O 20 )(OH 4 ) or H 2 KAl 3 (SiO 4 ) 3 White, pearlescence Carbon blackC(s)Black Iron OxidesFe 3 O 4 Black Iron Oxides, ochres, umbersFe 2 O 3 Red, brown Iron Oxides, Yellow ochresFe 2 O 3 ·H 2 OYellow-orange SiennasYellow, Brown Ultramarines~Na 7 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 S 3 Blues, violets, greens, pinks, reds Chromium oxides, hydroxideCr 2 O 3, Cr 2 O 3 ·3H 2 OYellowish (sage) green, bluish green Aluminum powderAl (s)Silver Ferric Ferro-Cyanide, ferric ammonium ferrocyanide Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 XH 2 O,Prussian blue Manganese Violet~Mn 3+ NH 4 P 2 O 7 violet Bismuth OxychlorideBiOClPearly lustre

20 Binders, Emulsifying Agents, Surfactants, and Emollients Binders: –Provide cohesion of powders Emulsifying Agents/Surfactants –Promote the mixing of otherwise immiscible liquids –Lower surface tension, promoting more even mixing Emollients –Soften and smooth the skin ***Many cosmetic ingredients serve more than 1 of these purposes, and thus they have been combined for the purpose of listing ingredients. (“European Commission”, Sagarin 257)

21 Zinc and Magnesium Stearate (dry binder) Caprylic/capric triglyceride (solvent/emollient) Octyl Palmitate (binder/emollient) Mineral Oil (binder/emollient) Petroletum (binder/emollient) Squalane (liquid binder/emollient) Isopropyl myristate (liquid binder) Waxes (binders/emulsion stabilizers/emollients/viscosity controlling agents) Castor Oil (see “lipsticks”) Common Binders, Emulsifying Agents, Surfactants, and Emollients (“European Commission”, Sagarin 227,256-258,288,390, Poucher I 50,344) Only discuss those found in sample formulation that I pick

22 Preservatives & Absorbents Preservatives –Purpose Inhibit the growth of micro-organisms –Examples Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) Glyceryl Monolaurate EDTA Imidazolidinyl Urea Absorbents: –Purpose: Absorb water/oil. –Examples: Magnesium carbonate, Kaolin Perfume Carriers: –Examples: Magnesium carbonate, Chalk (“Product Dictionary”), (European Commission) Paraben (p-hydroxybenzoate)

23 Compact Powder Eyeshadow (Almay, Inc.) (Compact Powder Rouge is manufactured similarly) (Almay, Inc.) Talc (Filler)64.7%(wt) Ultramarine Blue (Pigment)20.0% Octyl Palmitate (Liquid Binder)7.0% Squalane (Liquid Binder)3.5% Iron Oxides (Pigment)2.6% Zinc Stearate (Solid Binder)2.0% Glyceryl Monolaurate (monoglyceride) (Preservative)0.5% EDTA (Preservative)0.1% (Ultra Chem) Procedure: 1. Mill, grind, mix dry powder ingredients 2. Spray liquid phase into powder while mixing 3. Distribute 4. Press 5. Dry (Ultra Chem), (Sagarin 258-261) Filler64.7% Pigment22.6% Liquid Binder10.5% Solid Binder2.0% Preservatives0.6%

24 Liquid/Gel Rouge Water (softened or distilled)67% Glycerin (solvent)19% Diethylene glycol monostearate (emulsifier)4.3% Cetyl alcohol ethoxylate2.9% Titanium dioxide2-3% Pigment2.0% Iso-Propyl myristate (binder)1.9% Cetyl alcohol (emulsifier/emollient)0.48% Perfume0.2% Methyl paraben (preservative)0.15% Bromo acid (colourant)0.02% (L’Oreal) (Poucher III 284) 1.Heat and mix emulsion base. 2.Dissolve methylparaben in glycerin by heat (separate vessel). 3.Add water to glycerin and heat to 75°C. 4.Add water-glycerin mixture to emulsion base with slow, continuous stirring. 5.Allow to cool with continuous stirring. 6.Add perfume and pigment, including titanium dioxide, to mixture and mix well. Procedure : Water67% Other Solvents19% Pigment4.5% Emulsifiers9.6% Perfumes0.2% Preservatives0.15%

25 Solid (stick) Rouge (Wet N Wild) Castor Oil77.4% Candelilla wax9.9% Carnauba wax2.7% Color10.0% Perfumeq.s. (Processed similar to lipstick) (Sagarin 254)

26 (Black Opal/ BioCosmetic Research Labs ) Petroleum jelly* (binder/base)25.6% Paraffin wax (binder/emollient)22.6% Isopropyl palmitate (binder/emollient)16.4% Lustre Pigments10.3% Pigments8.2% Beeswax (binder/emollient)5.1% Oleyl alcohol (emulsion stab.)5.1% Lanolin (emollient)4.1% Cetyl alcohol (emulsifier/emollient)3.1% Perfume0.5% Butylparaben (preservative)0.02% Propylparaben (preservative)0.01% Cream-Solid Eyeshadow (Poucher III 294) Procedure: Heat together non-wax binders/emulsifiers/emollients Mix in preservatives and pigments Melt waxes and add with lustre pigments to base mixture Cool, and add perfume Pour into moulds and allow to set Binders/Emollients/ Emulsifiers82.0% Pigment18.5% Perfumes0.5% Preservatives0.03%

27 Mascara (Almay) (Poucher III 305) Isoparaffin (Solvent)69.7% Pigments12.0% Beeswax5.4% Ozokerite wax5.4% Polyethylene 4.2% Carnauba wax2.0% Microcrystalline wax1.2% Procedure: 1. Mix polyethylene with about half the solvent 2. Heat to about 100°C with stirring 3. Add remainder of solvent 4. Cool rapidly 5. Add the pigments and melted waxes, and mixed thoroughly. Solvent69.7% Waxes14.0% Pigments12.0% Polyethylene 4.2%

28 Properties of Liquid Cream Cover blemishes in skin Even skin tone and texture Does not rub off Removable with cleansers

29 Liquid Cream Composition

30 Function of Ingredients Humectants –Reduce drying out of cream –Moisturize skin –Plasticize product –Control texture Emulsifiers –Create stable mixture of oil and water

31 Function of Ingredients Emollients –Smooth skin –Soften skin Gums –Protective colloid –Suspending agent –Film formation

32 Function of Ingredients Vehicle –Deionized water Filler/Matrix –Talc, Rhapsody 4M Colorants –Add color –Iron oxides and titanium dioxide

33 Function of Ingredients Fragrances Preservatives

34 Processing Add deionized water to kettle and water phase ingredients Disperse gums and pigments Heat to 75 deg C Combine oil phase ingredients separately Heat to 70 deg C

35 Processing Add oil phase to water phase Cool to 35 deg C Add fragrance and preservatives Cool to 28 deg C

36 Product -> Market -> Consumer Marketing Techniques –Advertisement Visual, internet Odor, magazine –Free Sample –Counseling Product advice –Consumer research questionnaires –Efficiency

37 Cosmetics Labeling Manufactures of cosmetics must print certain information on the labels of each product: –The identity of the product –The net quantity in metric units –The name and address of the manufacturer or distributor –Any warnings or cautions necessary for the safe use of the product.

38 Labeling Types of labels –White labels – Clear labels – Labels on the bottles

39 Conclusion Characteristics of Polymer and Surfactant –Suspension of cosmetic ingredients –Favorable adhere to skin Eye shadow and Blush –Color; binders (dry compact), emulsifiers (gel/cream) Lipstick –Color; Waxes and vegetable oils as emulsifiers Liquid Cream –Emulsifiers, preservatives Face Powder –Reduce interfacial tension, adhere, slip

40 References Andersen, Kristin. “Cosmetic Colorants.” Healthwell. Penton Media (04 Apr 2002). European Commission Enterprise DG UNIT F/3 - Biotechnology, Competitiveness in Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics. “The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients.” (23 Oct 2001). - Inventory of Cosmetic Ingredients Jones, Mr. “Photographic Chemical Descriptions.” (23 Mar 2001). - photographic chemical site, used to get pigment color of ferric ferrocyanide Marmion, Daniel M. Handbook of U.S. Colorants for Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons (1984). Paint and Coatings Industry (PCI). (Iron Oxide Information),1846,13449,0 0.html. Poucher, W.A., and G.M. Howard. Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Vol. I. 8th Ed. Chapman and Hall (1974). Poucher, W.A., and G.M. Howard. Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Vol. III. 8th Ed. Chapman and Hall (1974). “Product Dictionary.” Make Me Up (2000). - List and short description of cosmetic ingredients Sagarin, Edward, Ed. Cosmetics: Science and Technology. Interscience Publishers (1957). Ultra Chemical Inc. “Pressed Eyeshadow, Matte.” (2000). Walgreens. - Cosmetics photos.

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