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 Abiotic-> non-living organisms  Biotic-> All living things  Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat-> specific place where.

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Presentation on theme: " Abiotic-> non-living organisms  Biotic-> All living things  Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat-> specific place where."— Presentation transcript:


2  Abiotic-> non-living organisms  Biotic-> All living things  Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat-> specific place where an organism is found  Microhabitat-> mini habitats (sand granules)  Homeostasis-> maintaining equilibrium / balance








10  Problems: › Death › Fail to reproduce

11 Zone of Intolerance Stress ZoneOptimal RangeStress ZoneZones of Intolerance * Death *Reprod - uction does not occur Cannot Maintain Homeostasis Expend too much energy and they won’t reproduce All environmental Factors are met C Expend too much energy and they won’t reproduce. Environment is too far gone from the optimal range that the organisms cannot survive.

12  Death  Failure to reproduce  Can’t maintain homeostasis

13  Sunlight  Temperature  Salinity  Pressure  Nutrients  Wastes


15  Photosynthesis-> Energy for all life  Aids in Vision-> avoid predators, capture prey, and communicate  Darkness-> rely on other senses, taste / smell

16  Phytoplankton-> largest photosynthetic organism. › Microscopic, plantlike and bacteria that float in ocean currents. They thrive on sunlight and nutrients so if the water is cloudy they won’t survive.  Example-> North Atlantic plankton has to live in the shallows because sunlight can only penetrate about three feet or one meter.  South Pacific= 200 meters or 600 feet

17  Excessive sunlight = intense heat= desiccation (drying out)  Algae suffers pigment destruction when exposed to too much sunlight which limits their ability to photosynthesize.


19  Obtain body heat from their surroundings  Examples-> fish and crabs


21  Regulate body temperature from the inside because of its metabolism (generates heat internally / lots of fat)  Examples-> mammals and birds


23  Exposed to high and low tide  Drastic changes in temp. from hot days to very cold nights.  Organisms have to adapt quickly  Fish kills





28  Defined as :  The amount of the concentrated dissolved inorganic salts in the water.

29  Most organisms membranes are permeable (things can pass through the skin)  Not permeable to everything- selective  In order to maintain homeostasis there needs to be a balance between water and solutes  When a solute cannot move across the membrane osmosis takes over (H2O goes from areas of high concentration to low concentration)

30  In the open ocean spider crabs cannot regulate the salt concentration of their body fluids because their bodies absorb water and salt.  Bays, estuaries, and tide pools are really affected because of evaporation. Water evaporates but the salt remains highly concentrated.  Fiddler Crab-> able to adjust the salt content of their body tissues by regulating salt and water retention.

31  Water is denser than air  The deeper you go the more pressure you feel  Know that the human body is mostly water, and that in recreational diving, water pressure will be felt in the air spaces of the body (lungs, sinuses and ear canals).body  10 meters=33 feet=1 atm=14.7 pounds per square inch  3,700 meters= 370 atm = 2.7 tons

32  Build up of nitrogen bubbles in the body- Breathe in 79%  Dive-> pressure increases in and around our body->nitrogen becomes absorbed in our body tissues  When it reaches saturation that’s when you have a problem because the pressure needs to be released

33  Ascend slowly with frequent “decompression stops” every feet. This allows for the built up of nitrogen to slowly exit the body.  If you do not do this-> nitrogen bubbles build up in the body  The bubbles must normally be on the arterial side of the circulatory system to be harmful - they are usually harmless on the venous side.circulatory system  There are many different types. Do Not put in notes

34  Extreme Fatigue  Joint and Limb Pain  Tingling  Numbness  Red Rash on Skin  Respiratory Problems  Heart Problems  Dizziness  Blurred Vision  Headaches  Confusion  Unconsciousness  Ringing of the Ears  Vertigo  Stomach Sickness Do Not put in notes



37  Not just food but also organic and inorganic materials.

38  Alone produces nitrogen (no plants=low nitrogen) and phosphorus which phytoplankton and plants need  Calcium-> corals, shells, skeletons, and crustaceans


40  By-product o photosynthesis  Life evolved in lack of a free oxygen environment so when it entered it was probably harmful (like pollutants and chemicals are to organisms now)  Allowed environment that would allow evolution of multicellular organisms

41  Oxygen dissolves at or near surface  Waters ability to dissolve oxygen comes from temperature and salinity  Cooler/ less salty water= more oxygen  Warm / saline water= less oxygen

42  Survive and thrive without oxygen  Deep Sea  Salt marshes  Sand / mud flats




46  Plant, Algae, animals, marine microbes  Need oxygen for survival






52  Too many nutrients cause issues such as run-off (eutrophication) which increases nutrient levels -> Explosion= algal blooms or photosynthetic plankton blooms - > plankton dies-> bacteria decomposes-> decomposition depletes water of oxygen -> organisms die-> decomposition-> massive die offs

53  Release CO2  Nitrogen rich feces  Plants release oxygen  Most of the time waste is recycled primarily by bacteria, sometimes levels are toxic

54  A group of the same species


56 1. Breed with one another 2. Rely on the same resources 3. Deal with the same environmental factors 4. Geographical boundaries where it lives

57 Population= Pod of Killer Whales (J, K, & L) Breed with one another- super pods Same resources-> salmon Deal with same environmental factors-> salinity, temperature, pollutants, etc. Geographic boundaries-> Haro Strait



60 1. Look at whole area. * Example- hermit crabs in a salt marsh

61 2. Count the # of individuals in a specific area. * Example- 500 barnacles on a rock or 10 sea anemones in a tidal pool.

62 3. Aerial Surveys * Ex- Whales and dolphins


64 4. Sampling Methods-> counting animals in a plot or transect. * Take the individuals per plot multiplied by the total # of plots = population size



67  Captured-> tagged-> released-> wait a sufficient amount of time for the animals to mix back into the population = sample is taken again and the ration of marked: unmarked is documented.  Example: Tag 10 nurse sharks-> release-> two weeks later catch 10 more-> and two of the 10 have tags= 20% of the entire population in the area-> population would be 50 sharks because 20% of 50 =10, and 10 is how many were tagged initially.


69  The number of individuals per unit area or volume.  Example-> the number of barnacles on a square meter of rock  Three types-> Clumped, Uniform, and Random


71  Densely packed in patches  May only grow in a certain area  Snails clump in areas that are highly populated in algae  Ex- oysters, barnacles, schools of fish


73  Evenly spaced out.  Result in competition  Seaweeds compete for sunlight  Ex- Sea stars


75  All over the place  Lack of strong interaction among individuals  Ex- Conchs, Snails



78  Added via reproduction and immigration  Eliminated via death and emigration  Each have their own birth and death rate  Intermediate ages survive longer (young and old die faster)  Generation time-> average time between an individuals birth and the birth of its first offspring. (shorter generation time = higher population)

79  Killer Whales Gestation period equals 16 months!






85 YoungOld # Survivors Type III Type II Type I

86  Low death rates with early / middle  Higher older death rates  Ex- Marine Mammals such as whales


88  Constant Mortality rates over time  Ex- Marine birds and crabs (molting)


90  High mortality rates for young  Lots of offspring in a short period of time  Ex- fish, bivalves,


92  Clutch size  # of reproductive events  Age at first reproduction Affect the number of offspring a female will have

93  # of offspring produced each time › Ex-> Sea Turtles

94  # times reproduced  Ex-> Pacific Salmon and Octopus reproduce only once and then die.

95  Young age-> less energy for later maintenance  Older-> uses up energy for maintenance and could die

96  Invest all of its energy

97  How many of its own offspring survive to produce their own offspring.

98  Phytoplankton species  Reproduce in large numbers when environment is favorable

99  Better methods of homeostasis  Less affected by environmental changes

100  Recruitment › 1. Reproduction › 2. Immigration (new individuals from other populations joining

101  Phytoplankton have to wait for conditions to be right such as nutrients

102  Carrying capacity is where it levels off= how much the environment can support or hold.

103  What factors determine the carry capacity of an environment? › Density dependent factors › Density independent factors

104  Decrease reproduction  Predators- have more to choose from  Increase mortality-> decreased food supply  Health / survivorship= too many plants in one area will be smaller  Stress-> shrinks reproductive organs

105  Size doesn’t matter  Weather / Climate  Ex-> Hurricanes can wipe out an entire population

106 Communities-> Populations of different species in the same habitat


108  Barnacles  Mussels  Seaweeds  Sea Stars  Snails

109 Niche-> “occupation” its role in the environment

110  Mussels- Stick to rocks and filter seawater  Crabs- scavenge  Worms- burrow in sediment



113  Predator-prey relationships  Parasitism  Competition for resources  Organisms that provide shelter for others

114  Fight / compete for space, food, and mates



117 Interspecific Between different species. Intraspecific Between members of a single species




121  No two groups of organisms can use exactly the same resources in exactly the same place at the same time.

122  Local extinction of a less successful competitor= competitive exclusion

123  The #of herbivores are crucial  Plants->herbivores-> omnivores/carnivores  If there is not enough vegetation herbivores decline because of starvation-> vegetation increases- > herbivores increase.

124  Carnivores and their prey (they switch when prey declines)  Some predators focus on species that are abundant because they expend less energy -> eats lots of one species

125  They keep the entire ecosystem in check

126  NW Pacific-> Ochre sea star which is a dominant predator that feeds on many organisms but mainly mussels.

127  Ochre Sea Stars were removed for five years-> mussels replenished-> mussels overcrowded the intertidal area-> ochre sea star came back and the sea anemones, chitons, seaweeds, etc. were able to survive again in this habitat.




131  Were hunted to near extinction for their fur.  Predominately eat sea urchins and sea urchins annihilate kelp forests and seaweeds.

132  Sea otter population  Urchin population  Kelp population

133  Sea otters became protected by the MMPA and their population slowly came back and the urchins decreased and kelp increased again.

134 Symbiosis-> relationships between organisms-> “living together”

135  Both organisms benefit

136  Clownfish and sea anemone-> Clownfish has a special mucus all over its body that protects it from anemones stings.  Clownfish picks up anemones scent that way the anemone does not eat it.  Clownfish gains protection. Anemone gains protection from organisms that might eat it.


138  One benefits and the other is unharmed

139  Remoras and sharks (remora gains protection from the shark as well as eat the leftover food)


141  Barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale or shell of a mollusk: The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available.  Free ride all around the ocean and are exposed to different nutrients.


143  One benefits and the other is harmed.

144  Parasitic tapeworm infects fish and mammals. They live in the intestines and deprive the organism of nutrients.



147  9BvK_4o 9BvK_4o  XYXVRHkQ XYXVRHkQ  diCQxbyg diCQxbyg

148 Energy flow through ecosystems

149  Make their own food from sunlight.  Examples-> phytoplankton, seaweeds, plants






155  Not all producers are photosynthetic, some are chemosynthetic (use energy from chemical reactions)  Ex.-> Bacteria inhabit deep sea vents

156  Rely on others for food.


158  Detritivores-> Feed on dead organic matter  Decomposers-> Break down dead organisms

159  Flow of energy from one trophic level to the next.  Decrease in available energy from one level to the next.  10% rule= decreases 10% each level





164  cycles of nutrients needed for life

165  Water  Equator= supplies the greatest amount of evaporation in all the oceans due to excessive eat and sunlight.  Water vapor is carried north and south from the equator and west to east within each hemisphere. When air masses cool and rise = precipitation

166  Sea Salt= precipitation nuclei= sea salt enters the air because of waves crashing. They then collect water droplets and when they get heavy enough they fall back onto the ground as precipitation.

167  Carbon is essential for all living things  Backbone of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

168  Living organisms produce carbon when they respire   Organism dies   Decomposers breakdown tissues (CO2)   Marine producers use the CO2 in photosynthesis to make carbohydrates   Carbohydrates are used to make other materials   CO2 reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which  forms hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions   Bicarbonate ions are absorbed by marine life  and they combine with calcium carbonate  (shells and skeletons)   The calcium carbonate collects in the sediment and becomes limestone. The limestone appears on land through geological processes where it becomes weathered (wind / rain) -> washes back into the ocean.

169  Producers require nitrogen for protein synthesis, growth, and reproduction  Ammonia= NH3, ammonium=NH4, nitrite=NO2, nitrate= NO3  Producers use energy from photosynthesis to concentrate the nitrogen in their tissues and then turn that energy into amino acids-> proteins  Nitrogen is then passed in the form of proteins to consumers  Proteins and amino acids get processed and released through uric acid, urea, and ammonia  Atmosphere= 79%  Thunderstorms-> produce nitrates that enter through precipitation  Major nitrogen fixing organism in the ocean is cyanobacteria  Run-off from land contains nitrogen from fertilizers, sewage, and dead biotic factors= huge growth of phytoplankton

170  Kelp forests, estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, rocky shores, sandy shores, coral reefs, open ocean  Estuary- Receive FW and SW (Tampa Bay)  Intertidal Zone- area of shore that is exposed to both high and low tide

171  Water Column

172  Oceans bottom

173  Water overlies the continental shelf

174  Water that covers the deep water basins

175  Sunlight occurs = photosynthesis  Largest number of photosynthetic organisms and # animals

176  Darkness= no sunlight penetrates

177  Lowest tide to the edge of the continental shelf

178  Continental shelf to 4,000 meters

179  4,000 to 6,000 meters deep

180  6,000 +


182  Organisms that live on the bottom

183  Organisms that live in the bottom sediment.

184  Drift with currents




188  Active swimmers that move against currents


190  Blue mussels are distributed based on the abiotic factors it requires  Sea Star’s are found in overlapping areas because of the abundance of mussels  Seaweed provides food and shelter  Snails are distributed based on where the seaweed and algae is located.

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