2 Review of Terms!!!!!! Abiotic-> non-living organisms Biotic-> All living thingsEcosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factorsHabitat-> specific place where an organism is foundMicrohabitat-> mini habitats (sand granules)Homeostasis-> maintaining equilibrium / balance
10 Homeostasis with Marine Organisms Problems:DeathFail to reproduce
11 Optimal Range * Death *Reprod -uction does not occur Cannot Maintain Zone of IntoleranceStress ZoneOptimal RangeZones of Intolerance* Death*Reprod -uction does not occurCannotMaintainHomeostasisExpend too much energy and they won’t reproduceAll environmentalFactors are met CExpend too much energy and they won’t reproduce.Environment is too far gone from the optimal range that the organisms cannot survive.
12 What happens if an organism lives outside its optimal range? DeathFailure to reproduceCan’t maintain homeostasis
13 Physical Characteristics of the Marine Environment SunlightTemperatureSalinityPressureNutrientsWastes
15 Sunlight Photosynthesis-> Energy for all life Aids in Vision-> avoid predators, capture prey, and communicateDarkness-> rely on other senses, taste / smell
16 Phytoplankton-> largest photosynthetic organism. Microscopic, plantlike and bacteria that float in ocean currents. They thrive on sunlight and nutrients so if the water is cloudy they won’t survive.Example-> North Atlantic plankton has to live in the shallows because sunlight can only penetrate about three feet or one meter.South Pacific= 200 meters or 600 feet
17 Sunlight and the Shoreline Excessive sunlight = intense heat= desiccation (drying out)Algae suffers pigment destruction when exposed to too much sunlight which limits their ability to photosynthesize.
28 Defined as :The amount of the concentrated dissolved inorganic salts in the water.
29 Most organisms membranes are permeable (things can pass through the skin) Not permeable to everything- selectiveIn order to maintain homeostasis there needs to be a balance between water and solutesWhen a solute cannot move across the membrane osmosis takes over (H2O goes from areas of high concentration to low concentration)
30 ExampleIn the open ocean spider crabs cannot regulate the salt concentration of their body fluids because their bodies absorb water and salt.Bays, estuaries, and tide pools are really affected because of evaporation. Water evaporates but the salt remains highly concentrated.Fiddler Crab-> able to adjust the salt content of their body tissues by regulating salt and water retention.
31 Pressure Water is denser than air The deeper you go the more pressure you feelKnow that the human body is mostly water, and that in recreational diving, water pressure will be felt in the air spaces of the body (lungs, sinuses and ear canals).10 meters=33 feet=1 atm=14.7 pounds per square inch3,700 meters= 370 atm = 2.7 tons
32 Decompression Sickness- do not put in notes Build up of nitrogen bubbles in the body- Breathe in 79%Dive-> pressure increases in and around our body->nitrogen becomes absorbed in our body tissuesWhen it reaches saturation that’s when you have a problem because the pressure needs to be released
33 If you do not do this-> nitrogen bubbles build up in the body Ascend slowly with frequent “decompression stops” every feet. This allows for the built up of nitrogen to slowly exit the body.If you do not do this-> nitrogen bubbles build up in the bodyThe bubbles must normally be on the arterial side of the circulatory system to be harmful - they are usually harmless on the venous side.There are many different types.Do Not put in notes
34 Extreme Fatigue Joint and Limb Pain Tingling Numbness Red Rash on Skin Respiratory ProblemsHeart ProblemsDizzinessBlurred VisionHeadachesConfusionUnconsciousnessRinging of the EarsVertigoStomach SicknessDo Not put in notes
40 Oxygen By-product o photosynthesis Life evolved in lack of a free oxygen environment so when it entered it was probably harmful (like pollutants and chemicals are to organisms now)Allowed environment that would allow evolution of multicellular organisms
41 Oxygen dissolves at or near surface Waters ability to dissolve oxygen comes from temperature and salinityCooler/ less salty water= more oxygenWarm / saline water= less oxygen
42 Anaerobic Survive and thrive without oxygen Deep Sea Salt marshes Sand / mud flats
52 Too many nutrients cause issues such as run-off (eutrophication) which increases nutrient levels -> Explosion= algal blooms or photosynthetic plankton blooms -> plankton dies-> bacteria decomposes-> decomposition depletes water of oxygen -> organisms die-> decomposition-> massive die offs
53 Metabolic Waste Release CO2 Nitrogen rich feces Plants release oxygen Most of the time waste is recycled primarily by bacteria, sometimes levels are toxic
56 Characteristics Breed with one another Rely on the same resources Deal with the same environmental factorsGeographical boundaries where it lives
57 Population= Pod of Killer Whales (J, K, & L) Breed with one another- super pods Same resources-> salmon Deal with same environmental factors-> salinity, temperature, pollutants, etc. Geographic boundaries-> Haro Strait
64 4. Sampling Methods-> counting animals in a plot or transect 4. Sampling Methods-> counting animals in a plot or transect. * Take the individuals per plot multiplied by the total # of plots = population size
67 Mark- RecaptureCaptured-> tagged-> released-> wait a sufficient amount of time for the animals to mix back into the population = sample is taken again and the ration of marked: unmarked is documented.Example: Tag 10 nurse sharks-> release-> two weeks later catch 10 more-> and two of the 10 have tags= 20% of the entire population in the area-> population would be 50 sharks because 20% of 50 =10, and 10 is how many were tagged initially.
78 Changes in Population Size Added via reproduction and immigrationEliminated via death and emigrationEach have their own birth and death rateIntermediate ages survive longer (young and old die faster)Generation time-> average time between an individuals birth and the birth of its first offspring. (shorter generation time = higher population)
79 ExamplesKiller Whales Gestation period equals 16 months!
92 Life History Clutch size # of reproductive events Age at first reproductionAffect the number of offspring a female will have
93 Clutch Size# of offspring produced each timeEx-> Sea Turtles
94 # Events # times reproduced Ex-> Pacific Salmon and Octopus reproduce only once and then die.
95 Age Young age-> less energy for later maintenance Older-> uses up energy for maintenance and could die
96 Invest all of its energy What would be the benefit of an organism reproducing once in its lifetimeInvest all of its energy
97 How many of its own offspring survive to produce their own offspring. Biological FitnessHow many of its own offspring survive to produce their own offspring.
98 Opportunistic Species Phytoplankton speciesReproduce in large numbers when environment is favorable
99 Equilibrium Species Better methods of homeostasis Less affected by environmental changes
100 Population Growth Recruitment 1. Reproduction 2. Immigration (new individuals from other populations joining
101 Phytoplankton have to wait for conditions to be right such as nutrients
102 Carrying capacity is where it levels off= how much the environment can support or hold.
103 Population Regulation What factors determine the carry capacity of an environment?Density dependent factorsDensity independent factors
104 Density- Dependent Factors Decrease reproductionPredators- have more to choose fromIncrease mortality-> decreased food supplyHealth / survivorship= too many plants in one area will be smallerStress-> shrinks reproductive organs
105 Density Independent Factors Size doesn’t matterWeather / ClimateEx-> Hurricanes can wipe out an entire population
106 Communities-> Populations of different species in the same habitat
121 No two groups of organisms can use exactly the same resources in exactly the same place at the same time.
122 Results of Competition Local extinction of a less successful competitor= competitive exclusion
123 Predator Prey Interactions The #of herbivores are crucialPlants->herbivores-> omnivores/carnivoresIf there is not enough vegetation herbivores decline because of starvation-> vegetation increases-> herbivores increase.
124 Carnivores and their prey (they switch when prey declines) Some predators focus on species that are abundant because they expend less energy -> eats lots of one species
125 They keep the entire ecosystem in check Keystone SpeciesThey keep the entire ecosystem in check
126 ExamplesNW Pacific-> Ochre sea star which is a dominant predator that feeds on many organisms but mainly mussels.
127 Ochre Sea Star Cont.Ochre Sea Stars were removed for five years-> mussels replenished-> mussels overcrowded the intertidal area-> ochre sea star came back and the sea anemones, chitons, seaweeds, etc. were able to survive again in this habitat.
136 Examples for Mutualism Clownfish and sea anemone-> Clownfish has a special mucus all over its body that protects it from anemones stings.Clownfish picks up anemones scent that way the anemone does not eat it.Clownfish gains protection. Anemone gains protection from organisms that might eat it.
141 Barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale or shell of a mollusk: The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available.Free ride all around the ocean and are exposed to different nutrients.
164 Biogeochemical Cycles cycles of nutrients needed for life
165 Hydrologic Cycle Water Equator= supplies the greatest amount of evaporation in all the oceans due to excessive eat and sunlight.Water vapor is carried north and south from the equator and west to east within each hemisphere. When air masses cool and rise = precipitation
166 Sea Salt= precipitation nuclei= sea salt enters the air because of waves crashing. They then collect water droplets and when they get heavy enough they fall back onto the ground as precipitation.
167 Carbon Cycle Carbon is essential for all living things Backbone of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
168 Living organisms produce carbon when they respire Organism diesDecomposers breakdown tissues (CO2)Marine producers use the CO2 in photosynthesis to make carbohydratesCarbohydrates are used to make other materialsCO2 reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) whichforms hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ionsBicarbonate ions are absorbed by marine lifeand they combine with calcium carbonate(shells and skeletons)The calcium carbonate collects in the sediment and becomes limestone. The limestone appears on land through geological processes where it becomes weathered (wind / rain) -> washes back into the ocean.
169 Nitrogen CycleProducers require nitrogen for protein synthesis, growth, and reproductionAmmonia= NH3, ammonium=NH4, nitrite=NO2, nitrate= NO3Producers use energy from photosynthesis to concentrate the nitrogen in their tissues and then turn that energy into amino acids-> proteinsNitrogen is then passed in the form of proteins to consumersProteins and amino acids get processed and released through uric acid, urea, and ammoniaAtmosphere= 79%Thunderstorms-> produce nitrates that enter through precipitationMajor nitrogen fixing organism in the ocean is cyanobacteriaRun-off from land contains nitrogen from fertilizers, sewage, and dead biotic factors= huge growth of phytoplankton
170 Biosphere- The EarthKelp forests, estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, rocky shores, sandy shores, coral reefs, open oceanEstuary- Receive FW and SW (Tampa Bay)Intertidal Zone- area of shore that is exposed to both high and low tide
190 Blue mussels are distributed based on the abiotic factors it requires Sea Star’s are found in overlapping areas because of the abundance of musselsSeaweed provides food and shelterSnails are distributed based on where the seaweed and algae is located.