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Chapter 2- The Ocean Environment!!!!!

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1 Chapter 2- The Ocean Environment!!!!!

2 Review of Terms!!!!!! Abiotic-> non-living organisms
Biotic-> All living things Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors Habitat-> specific place where an organism is found Microhabitat-> mini habitats (sand granules) Homeostasis-> maintaining equilibrium / balance

3 Abiotic!!!!!!!!!!!!

4 Biotic!!!!

5 Ecosystems

6 Habitat


8 Microhabitats

9 Homeostasis

10 Homeostasis with Marine Organisms
Problems: Death Fail to reproduce

11 Optimal Range * Death *Reprod -uction does not occur Cannot Maintain
Zone of Intolerance Stress Zone Optimal Range Zones of Intolerance * Death *Reprod -uction does not occur Cannot Maintain Homeostasis Expend too much energy and they won’t reproduce All environmental Factors are met C Expend too much energy and they won’t reproduce. Environment is too far gone from the optimal range that the organisms cannot survive.

12 What happens if an organism lives outside its optimal range?
Death Failure to reproduce Can’t maintain homeostasis

13 Physical Characteristics of the Marine Environment
Sunlight Temperature Salinity Pressure Nutrients Wastes

14 Sunlight

15 Sunlight Photosynthesis-> Energy for all life
Aids in Vision-> avoid predators, capture prey, and communicate Darkness-> rely on other senses, taste / smell

16 Phytoplankton-> largest photosynthetic organism.
Microscopic, plantlike and bacteria that float in ocean currents. They thrive on sunlight and nutrients so if the water is cloudy they won’t survive. Example-> North Atlantic plankton has to live in the shallows because sunlight can only penetrate about three feet or one meter. South Pacific= 200 meters or 600 feet

17 Sunlight and the Shoreline
Excessive sunlight = intense heat= desiccation (drying out) Algae suffers pigment destruction when exposed to too much sunlight which limits their ability to photosynthesize.

18 Temperature

19 Ectotherms!!!! Obtain body heat from their surroundings
Examples-> fish and crabs


21 Endotherms Regulate body temperature from the inside because of its metabolism (generates heat internally / lots of fat) Examples-> mammals and birds


23 Tidal Pools and Temperature
Exposed to high and low tide Drastic changes in temp. from hot days to very cold nights. Organisms have to adapt quickly Fish kills

24 Fish Kills!!!!



27 Salinity

28 Defined as : The amount of the concentrated dissolved inorganic salts in the water.

29 Most organisms membranes are permeable (things can pass through the skin)
Not permeable to everything- selective In order to maintain homeostasis there needs to be a balance between water and solutes When a solute cannot move across the membrane osmosis takes over (H2O goes from areas of high concentration to low concentration)

30 Example In the open ocean spider crabs cannot regulate the salt concentration of their body fluids because their bodies absorb water and salt. Bays, estuaries, and tide pools are really affected because of evaporation. Water evaporates but the salt remains highly concentrated. Fiddler Crab-> able to adjust the salt content of their body tissues by regulating salt and water retention.

31 Pressure Water is denser than air
The deeper you go the more pressure you feel Know that the human body is mostly water, and that in recreational diving, water pressure will be felt in the air spaces of the body (lungs, sinuses and ear canals). 10 meters=33 feet=1 atm=14.7 pounds per square inch 3,700 meters= 370 atm = 2.7 tons

32 Decompression Sickness- do not put in notes
Build up of nitrogen bubbles in the body- Breathe in 79% Dive-> pressure increases in and around our body->nitrogen becomes absorbed in our body tissues When it reaches saturation that’s when you have a problem because the pressure needs to be released

33 If you do not do this-> nitrogen bubbles build up in the body
Ascend slowly with frequent “decompression stops” every feet. This allows for the built up of nitrogen to slowly exit the body. If you do not do this-> nitrogen bubbles build up in the body The bubbles must normally be on the arterial side of the circulatory system to be harmful - they are usually harmless on the venous side. There are many different types. Do Not put in notes

34 Extreme Fatigue Joint and Limb Pain Tingling Numbness Red Rash on Skin
Respiratory Problems Heart Problems Dizziness Blurred Vision Headaches Confusion Unconsciousness Ringing of the Ears Vertigo Stomach Sickness Do Not put in notes


36 Metabolic Requirements

37 Nutrients Not just food but also organic and inorganic materials.

38 Seawater Alone produces nitrogen (no plants=low nitrogen) and phosphorus which phytoplankton and plants need Calcium-> corals, shells, skeletons, and crustaceans


40 Oxygen By-product o photosynthesis
Life evolved in lack of a free oxygen environment so when it entered it was probably harmful (like pollutants and chemicals are to organisms now) Allowed environment that would allow evolution of multicellular organisms

41 Oxygen dissolves at or near surface
Waters ability to dissolve oxygen comes from temperature and salinity Cooler/ less salty water= more oxygen Warm / saline water= less oxygen

42 Anaerobic Survive and thrive without oxygen Deep Sea Salt marshes
Sand / mud flats

43 Deep Sea Isopod



46 Aerobic Organisms Plant, Algae, animals, marine microbes
Need oxygen for survival

47 Marine Microbes





52 Too many nutrients cause issues such as run-off (eutrophication) which increases nutrient levels -> Explosion= algal blooms or photosynthetic plankton blooms -> plankton dies-> bacteria decomposes-> decomposition depletes water of oxygen -> organisms die-> decomposition-> massive die offs

53 Metabolic Waste Release CO2 Nitrogen rich feces Plants release oxygen
Most of the time waste is recycled primarily by bacteria, sometimes levels are toxic

54 Populations A group of the same species

55 Example

56 Characteristics Breed with one another Rely on the same resources
Deal with the same environmental factors Geographical boundaries where it lives

57 Population= Pod of Killer Whales (J, K, & L) Breed with one another- super pods Same resources-> salmon Deal with same environmental factors-> salinity, temperature, pollutants, etc. Geographic boundaries-> Haro Strait



60 How is population determined?
Look at whole area. * Example- hermit crabs in a salt marsh

61 2. Count the # of individuals in a specific area
2. Count the # of individuals in a specific area. * Example- 500 barnacles on a rock or 10 sea anemones in a tidal pool.

62 3. Aerial Surveys * Ex- Whales and dolphins


64 4. Sampling Methods-> counting animals in a plot or transect
4. Sampling Methods-> counting animals in a plot or transect. * Take the individuals per plot multiplied by the total # of plots = population size



67 Mark- Recapture Captured-> tagged-> released-> wait a sufficient amount of time for the animals to mix back into the population = sample is taken again and the ration of marked: unmarked is documented. Example: Tag 10 nurse sharks-> release-> two weeks later catch 10 more-> and two of the 10 have tags= 20% of the entire population in the area-> population would be 50 sharks because 20% of 50 =10, and 10 is how many were tagged initially.


69 Population Density The number of individuals per unit area or volume.
Example-> the number of barnacles on a square meter of rock Three types-> Clumped, Uniform, and Random


71 Clumped Densely packed in patches May only grow in a certain area
Snails clump in areas that are highly populated in algae Ex- oysters, barnacles, schools of fish


73 Uniform Evenly spaced out. Result in competition
Seaweeds compete for sunlight Ex- Sea stars


75 Random All over the place Lack of strong interaction among individuals
Ex- Conchs, Snails



78 Changes in Population Size
Added via reproduction and immigration Eliminated via death and emigration Each have their own birth and death rate Intermediate ages survive longer (young and old die faster) Generation time-> average time between an individuals birth and the birth of its first offspring. (shorter generation time = higher population)

79 Examples Killer Whales Gestation period equals 16 months!

80 Spiny Dogfish= 2 years

81 Blue Sharks- 135 babies at once

82 Sand Tigers- two offspring

83 Female Sea turtle- Lays about 100 eggs


85 Survivorship- Life expectancy
1000 Type I # Survivors 100 Type II 10 1 Type III .1 Young Old

86 Type I Low death rates with early / middle Higher older death rates
Ex- Marine Mammals such as whales

87 Marine Mammals

88 Type II Constant Mortality rates over time
Ex- Marine birds and crabs (molting)

89 Crabs and Birds

90 Type III High mortality rates for young
Lots of offspring in a short period of time Ex- fish, bivalves,

91 Salmon

92 Life History Clutch size # of reproductive events
Age at first reproduction Affect the number of offspring a female will have

93 Clutch Size # of offspring produced each time Ex-> Sea Turtles

94 # Events # times reproduced
Ex-> Pacific Salmon and Octopus reproduce only once and then die.

95 Age Young age-> less energy for later maintenance
Older-> uses up energy for maintenance and could die

96 Invest all of its energy
What would be the benefit of an organism reproducing once in its lifetime Invest all of its energy

97 How many of its own offspring survive to produce their own offspring.
Biological Fitness How many of its own offspring survive to produce their own offspring.

98 Opportunistic Species
Phytoplankton species Reproduce in large numbers when environment is favorable

99 Equilibrium Species Better methods of homeostasis
Less affected by environmental changes

100 Population Growth Recruitment 1. Reproduction
2. Immigration (new individuals from other populations joining

101 Phytoplankton have to wait for conditions to be right such as nutrients

102 Carrying capacity is where it levels off= how much the environment can support or hold.

103 Population Regulation
What factors determine the carry capacity of an environment? Density dependent factors Density independent factors

104 Density- Dependent Factors
Decrease reproduction Predators- have more to choose from Increase mortality-> decreased food supply Health / survivorship= too many plants in one area will be smaller Stress-> shrinks reproductive organs

105 Density Independent Factors
Size doesn’t matter Weather / Climate Ex-> Hurricanes can wipe out an entire population

106 Communities-> Populations of different species in the same habitat


108 Example= Rocky Intertidal
Barnacles Mussels Seaweeds Sea Stars Snails

109 Niche-> “occupation” its role in the environment

110 Examples Mussels- Stick to rocks and filter seawater Crabs- scavenge
Worms- burrow in sediment



113 What makes up a niche? Predator-prey relationships Parasitism
Competition for resources Organisms that provide shelter for others

114 Fight / compete for space, food, and mates
Competition Fight / compete for space, food, and mates



117 2 Types!!!!!= Intraspecific and Interspecific
Between different species. Intraspecific Between members of a single species

118 Interspecific

119 Intraspecific


121 No two groups of organisms can use exactly the same resources in exactly the same place at the same time.

122 Results of Competition
Local extinction of a less successful competitor= competitive exclusion

123 Predator Prey Interactions
The #of herbivores are crucial Plants->herbivores-> omnivores/carnivores If there is not enough vegetation herbivores decline because of starvation-> vegetation increases-> herbivores increase.

124 Carnivores and their prey (they switch when prey declines)
Some predators focus on species that are abundant because they expend less energy -> eats lots of one species

125 They keep the entire ecosystem in check
Keystone Species They keep the entire ecosystem in check

126 Examples NW Pacific-> Ochre sea star which is a dominant predator that feeds on many organisms but mainly mussels.

127 Ochre Sea Star Cont. Ochre Sea Stars were removed for five years-> mussels replenished-> mussels overcrowded the intertidal area-> ochre sea star came back and the sea anemones, chitons, seaweeds, etc. were able to survive again in this habitat.




131 Example- Sea Otters Were hunted to near extinction for their fur.
Predominately eat sea urchins and sea urchins annihilate kelp forests and seaweeds.

132 Sea otter population Urchin population Kelp population

133 Outcome Sea otters became protected by the MMPA and their population slowly came back and the urchins decreased and kelp increased again.

134 Symbiosis-> relationships between organisms-> “living together”

135 Mutualism Both organisms benefit

136 Examples for Mutualism
Clownfish and sea anemone-> Clownfish has a special mucus all over its body that protects it from anemones stings. Clownfish picks up anemones scent that way the anemone does not eat it. Clownfish gains protection. Anemone gains protection from organisms that might eat it.


138 Commensalism One benefits and the other is unharmed

139 Examples of Commensalism
Remoras and sharks (remora gains protection from the shark as well as eat the leftover food)


141 Barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale or shell of a mollusk: The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available. Free ride all around the ocean and are exposed to different nutrients.


143 Parasitism One benefits and the other is harmed.

144 Example of Parasitism Parasitic tapeworm infects fish and mammals. They live in the intestines and deprive the organism of nutrients.



147 Videos

148 Energy flow through ecosystems

149 Producers / Autotrophs
Make their own food from sunlight. Examples-> phytoplankton, seaweeds, plants






155 Not all producers are photosynthetic, some are chemosynthetic (use energy from chemical reactions)
Ex.-> Bacteria inhabit deep sea vents

156 Consumers / Heterotrophs
Rely on others for food.


158 Detritivores-> Feed on dead organic matter
Decomposers-> Break down dead organisms

159 Biomass Flow of energy from one trophic level to the next.
Decrease in available energy from one level to the next. 10% rule= decreases 10% each level



162 Food Web

163 Food Chain

164 Biogeochemical Cycles
cycles of nutrients needed for life

165 Hydrologic Cycle Water
Equator= supplies the greatest amount of evaporation in all the oceans due to excessive eat and sunlight. Water vapor is carried north and south from the equator and west to east within each hemisphere. When air masses cool and rise = precipitation

166 Sea Salt= precipitation nuclei= sea salt enters the air because of waves crashing. They then collect water droplets and when they get heavy enough they fall back onto the ground as precipitation.

167 Carbon Cycle Carbon is essential for all living things
Backbone of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

168 Living organisms produce carbon when they respire
Organism dies Decomposers breakdown tissues (CO2) Marine producers use the CO2 in photosynthesis to make carbohydrates Carbohydrates are used to make other materials CO2 reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which forms hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions Bicarbonate ions are absorbed by marine life and they combine with calcium carbonate (shells and skeletons) The calcium carbonate collects in the sediment and becomes limestone. The limestone appears on land through geological processes where it becomes weathered (wind / rain) -> washes back into the ocean.

169 Nitrogen Cycle Producers require nitrogen for protein synthesis, growth, and reproduction Ammonia= NH3, ammonium=NH4, nitrite=NO2, nitrate= NO3 Producers use energy from photosynthesis to concentrate the nitrogen in their tissues and then turn that energy into amino acids-> proteins Nitrogen is then passed in the form of proteins to consumers Proteins and amino acids get processed and released through uric acid, urea, and ammonia Atmosphere= 79% Thunderstorms-> produce nitrates that enter through precipitation Major nitrogen fixing organism in the ocean is cyanobacteria Run-off from land contains nitrogen from fertilizers, sewage, and dead biotic factors= huge growth of phytoplankton

170 Biosphere- The Earth Kelp forests, estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, rocky shores, sandy shores, coral reefs, open ocean Estuary- Receive FW and SW (Tampa Bay) Intertidal Zone- area of shore that is exposed to both high and low tide

171 Pelagic Zone Water Column

172 Benthic Zone Oceans bottom

173 Neritic Zone Water overlies the continental shelf

174 Open Ocean Water that covers the deep water basins

175 Photic Zone Sunlight occurs = photosynthesis
Largest number of photosynthetic organisms and # animals

176 Aphotic Zone Darkness= no sunlight penetrates

177 Shelf Zone Lowest tide to the edge of the continental shelf

178 Bathyal Zone Continental shelf to 4,000 meters

179 Abyssal Zone 4,000 to 6,000 meters deep

180 Hadal Zone 6,000 +


182 Epifauna Organisms that live on the bottom

183 Infauna Organisms that live in the bottom sediment.

184 Plankton Drift with currents




188 Nekton Active swimmers that move against currents

189 Niches

190 Blue mussels are distributed based on the abiotic factors it requires
Sea Star’s are found in overlapping areas because of the abundance of mussels Seaweed provides food and shelter Snails are distributed based on where the seaweed and algae is located.

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