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 Abiotic-> non-living organisms  Biotic-> All living things  Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat-> specific place where.

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Presentation on theme: " Abiotic-> non-living organisms  Biotic-> All living things  Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat-> specific place where."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Abiotic-> non-living organisms  Biotic-> All living things  Ecosystems-> made up of all biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat-> specific place where an organism is found  Microhabitat-> mini habitats (sand granules)  Homeostasis-> maintaining equilibrium / balance

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10  Problems: › Death › Fail to reproduce

11 Zone of Intolerance Stress ZoneOptimal RangeStress ZoneZones of Intolerance * Death *Reprod - uction does not occur Cannot Maintain Homeostasis Expend too much energy and they won’t reproduce All environmental Factors are met C Expend too much energy and they won’t reproduce. Environment is too far gone from the optimal range that the organisms cannot survive.

12  Death  Failure to reproduce  Can’t maintain homeostasis

13  Sunlight  Temperature  Salinity  Pressure  Nutrients  Wastes

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15  Photosynthesis-> Energy for all life  Aids in Vision-> avoid predators, capture prey, and communicate  Darkness-> rely on other senses, taste / smell

16  Phytoplankton-> largest photosynthetic organism. › Microscopic, plantlike and bacteria that float in ocean currents. They thrive on sunlight and nutrients so if the water is cloudy they won’t survive.  Example-> North Atlantic plankton has to live in the shallows because sunlight can only penetrate about three feet or one meter.  South Pacific= 200 meters or 600 feet

17  Excessive sunlight = intense heat= desiccation (drying out)  Algae suffers pigment destruction when exposed to too much sunlight which limits their ability to photosynthesize.

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19  Obtain body heat from their surroundings  Examples-> fish and crabs

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21  Regulate body temperature from the inside because of its metabolism (generates heat internally / lots of fat)  Examples-> mammals and birds

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23  Exposed to high and low tide  Drastic changes in temp. from hot days to very cold nights.  Organisms have to adapt quickly  Fish kills

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28  Defined as :  The amount of the concentrated dissolved inorganic salts in the water.

29  Most organisms membranes are permeable (things can pass through the skin)  Not permeable to everything- selective  In order to maintain homeostasis there needs to be a balance between water and solutes  When a solute cannot move across the membrane osmosis takes over (H2O goes from areas of high concentration to low concentration)

30  In the open ocean spider crabs cannot regulate the salt concentration of their body fluids because their bodies absorb water and salt.  Bays, estuaries, and tide pools are really affected because of evaporation. Water evaporates but the salt remains highly concentrated.  Fiddler Crab-> able to adjust the salt content of their body tissues by regulating salt and water retention.

31  Water is denser than air  The deeper you go the more pressure you feel  Know that the human body is mostly water, and that in recreational diving, water pressure will be felt in the air spaces of the body (lungs, sinuses and ear canals).body  10 meters=33 feet=1 atm=14.7 pounds per square inch  3,700 meters= 370 atm = 2.7 tons

32  Build up of nitrogen bubbles in the body- Breathe in 79%  Dive-> pressure increases in and around our body->nitrogen becomes absorbed in our body tissues  When it reaches saturation that’s when you have a problem because the pressure needs to be released

33  Ascend slowly with frequent “decompression stops” every feet. This allows for the built up of nitrogen to slowly exit the body.  If you do not do this-> nitrogen bubbles build up in the body  The bubbles must normally be on the arterial side of the circulatory system to be harmful - they are usually harmless on the venous side.circulatory system  There are many different types. Do Not put in notes

34  Extreme Fatigue  Joint and Limb Pain  Tingling  Numbness  Red Rash on Skin  Respiratory Problems  Heart Problems  Dizziness  Blurred Vision  Headaches  Confusion  Unconsciousness  Ringing of the Ears  Vertigo  Stomach Sickness Do Not put in notes

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37  Not just food but also organic and inorganic materials.

38  Alone produces nitrogen (no plants=low nitrogen) and phosphorus which phytoplankton and plants need  Calcium-> corals, shells, skeletons, and crustaceans

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40  By-product o photosynthesis  Life evolved in lack of a free oxygen environment so when it entered it was probably harmful (like pollutants and chemicals are to organisms now)  Allowed environment that would allow evolution of multicellular organisms

41  Oxygen dissolves at or near surface  Waters ability to dissolve oxygen comes from temperature and salinity  Cooler/ less salty water= more oxygen  Warm / saline water= less oxygen

42  Survive and thrive without oxygen  Deep Sea  Salt marshes  Sand / mud flats

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46  Plant, Algae, animals, marine microbes  Need oxygen for survival

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52  Too many nutrients cause issues such as run-off (eutrophication) which increases nutrient levels -> Explosion= algal blooms or photosynthetic plankton blooms - > plankton dies-> bacteria decomposes-> decomposition depletes water of oxygen -> organisms die-> decomposition-> massive die offs

53  Release CO2  Nitrogen rich feces  Plants release oxygen  Most of the time waste is recycled primarily by bacteria, sometimes levels are toxic

54  A group of the same species

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56 1. Breed with one another 2. Rely on the same resources 3. Deal with the same environmental factors 4. Geographical boundaries where it lives

57 Population= Pod of Killer Whales (J, K, & L) Breed with one another- super pods Same resources-> salmon Deal with same environmental factors-> salinity, temperature, pollutants, etc. Geographic boundaries-> Haro Strait

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60 1. Look at whole area. * Example- hermit crabs in a salt marsh

61 2. Count the # of individuals in a specific area. * Example- 500 barnacles on a rock or 10 sea anemones in a tidal pool.

62 3. Aerial Surveys * Ex- Whales and dolphins

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64 4. Sampling Methods-> counting animals in a plot or transect. * Take the individuals per plot multiplied by the total # of plots = population size

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67  Captured-> tagged-> released-> wait a sufficient amount of time for the animals to mix back into the population = sample is taken again and the ration of marked: unmarked is documented.  Example: Tag 10 nurse sharks-> release-> two weeks later catch 10 more-> and two of the 10 have tags= 20% of the entire population in the area-> population would be 50 sharks because 20% of 50 =10, and 10 is how many were tagged initially.

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69  The number of individuals per unit area or volume.  Example-> the number of barnacles on a square meter of rock  Three types-> Clumped, Uniform, and Random

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71  Densely packed in patches  May only grow in a certain area  Snails clump in areas that are highly populated in algae  Ex- oysters, barnacles, schools of fish

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73  Evenly spaced out.  Result in competition  Seaweeds compete for sunlight  Ex- Sea stars

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75  All over the place  Lack of strong interaction among individuals  Ex- Conchs, Snails

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78  Added via reproduction and immigration  Eliminated via death and emigration  Each have their own birth and death rate  Intermediate ages survive longer (young and old die faster)  Generation time-> average time between an individuals birth and the birth of its first offspring. (shorter generation time = higher population)

79  Killer Whales Gestation period equals 16 months!

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85 YoungOld # Survivors Type III Type II Type I

86  Low death rates with early / middle  Higher older death rates  Ex- Marine Mammals such as whales

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88  Constant Mortality rates over time  Ex- Marine birds and crabs (molting)

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90  High mortality rates for young  Lots of offspring in a short period of time  Ex- fish, bivalves,

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92  Clutch size  # of reproductive events  Age at first reproduction Affect the number of offspring a female will have

93  # of offspring produced each time › Ex-> Sea Turtles

94  # times reproduced  Ex-> Pacific Salmon and Octopus reproduce only once and then die.

95  Young age-> less energy for later maintenance  Older-> uses up energy for maintenance and could die

96  Invest all of its energy

97  How many of its own offspring survive to produce their own offspring.

98  Phytoplankton species  Reproduce in large numbers when environment is favorable

99  Better methods of homeostasis  Less affected by environmental changes

100  Recruitment › 1. Reproduction › 2. Immigration (new individuals from other populations joining

101  Phytoplankton have to wait for conditions to be right such as nutrients

102  Carrying capacity is where it levels off= how much the environment can support or hold.

103  What factors determine the carry capacity of an environment? › Density dependent factors › Density independent factors

104  Decrease reproduction  Predators- have more to choose from  Increase mortality-> decreased food supply  Health / survivorship= too many plants in one area will be smaller  Stress-> shrinks reproductive organs

105  Size doesn’t matter  Weather / Climate  Ex-> Hurricanes can wipe out an entire population

106 Communities-> Populations of different species in the same habitat

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108  Barnacles  Mussels  Seaweeds  Sea Stars  Snails

109 Niche-> “occupation” its role in the environment

110  Mussels- Stick to rocks and filter seawater  Crabs- scavenge  Worms- burrow in sediment

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113  Predator-prey relationships  Parasitism  Competition for resources  Organisms that provide shelter for others

114  Fight / compete for space, food, and mates

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117 Interspecific Between different species. Intraspecific Between members of a single species

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121  No two groups of organisms can use exactly the same resources in exactly the same place at the same time.

122  Local extinction of a less successful competitor= competitive exclusion

123  The #of herbivores are crucial  Plants->herbivores-> omnivores/carnivores  If there is not enough vegetation herbivores decline because of starvation-> vegetation increases- > herbivores increase.

124  Carnivores and their prey (they switch when prey declines)  Some predators focus on species that are abundant because they expend less energy -> eats lots of one species

125  They keep the entire ecosystem in check

126  NW Pacific-> Ochre sea star which is a dominant predator that feeds on many organisms but mainly mussels.

127  Ochre Sea Stars were removed for five years-> mussels replenished-> mussels overcrowded the intertidal area-> ochre sea star came back and the sea anemones, chitons, seaweeds, etc. were able to survive again in this habitat.

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131  Were hunted to near extinction for their fur.  Predominately eat sea urchins and sea urchins annihilate kelp forests and seaweeds.

132  Sea otter population  Urchin population  Kelp population

133  Sea otters became protected by the MMPA and their population slowly came back and the urchins decreased and kelp increased again.

134 Symbiosis-> relationships between organisms-> “living together”

135  Both organisms benefit

136  Clownfish and sea anemone-> Clownfish has a special mucus all over its body that protects it from anemones stings.  Clownfish picks up anemones scent that way the anemone does not eat it.  Clownfish gains protection. Anemone gains protection from organisms that might eat it.

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138  One benefits and the other is unharmed

139  Remoras and sharks (remora gains protection from the shark as well as eat the leftover food)

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141  Barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale or shell of a mollusk: The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available.  Free ride all around the ocean and are exposed to different nutrients.

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143  One benefits and the other is harmed.

144  Parasitic tapeworm infects fish and mammals. They live in the intestines and deprive the organism of nutrients.

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147  9BvK_4o 9BvK_4o  XYXVRHkQ XYXVRHkQ  diCQxbyg diCQxbyg

148 Energy flow through ecosystems

149  Make their own food from sunlight.  Examples-> phytoplankton, seaweeds, plants

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155  Not all producers are photosynthetic, some are chemosynthetic (use energy from chemical reactions)  Ex.-> Bacteria inhabit deep sea vents

156  Rely on others for food.

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158  Detritivores-> Feed on dead organic matter  Decomposers-> Break down dead organisms

159  Flow of energy from one trophic level to the next.  Decrease in available energy from one level to the next.  10% rule= decreases 10% each level

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164  cycles of nutrients needed for life

165  Water  Equator= supplies the greatest amount of evaporation in all the oceans due to excessive eat and sunlight.  Water vapor is carried north and south from the equator and west to east within each hemisphere. When air masses cool and rise = precipitation

166  Sea Salt= precipitation nuclei= sea salt enters the air because of waves crashing. They then collect water droplets and when they get heavy enough they fall back onto the ground as precipitation.

167  Carbon is essential for all living things  Backbone of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

168  Living organisms produce carbon when they respire   Organism dies   Decomposers breakdown tissues (CO2)   Marine producers use the CO2 in photosynthesis to make carbohydrates   Carbohydrates are used to make other materials   CO2 reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which  forms hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions   Bicarbonate ions are absorbed by marine life  and they combine with calcium carbonate  (shells and skeletons)   The calcium carbonate collects in the sediment and becomes limestone. The limestone appears on land through geological processes where it becomes weathered (wind / rain) -> washes back into the ocean.

169  Producers require nitrogen for protein synthesis, growth, and reproduction  Ammonia= NH3, ammonium=NH4, nitrite=NO2, nitrate= NO3  Producers use energy from photosynthesis to concentrate the nitrogen in their tissues and then turn that energy into amino acids-> proteins  Nitrogen is then passed in the form of proteins to consumers  Proteins and amino acids get processed and released through uric acid, urea, and ammonia  Atmosphere= 79%  Thunderstorms-> produce nitrates that enter through precipitation  Major nitrogen fixing organism in the ocean is cyanobacteria  Run-off from land contains nitrogen from fertilizers, sewage, and dead biotic factors= huge growth of phytoplankton

170  Kelp forests, estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, rocky shores, sandy shores, coral reefs, open ocean  Estuary- Receive FW and SW (Tampa Bay)  Intertidal Zone- area of shore that is exposed to both high and low tide

171  Water Column

172  Oceans bottom

173  Water overlies the continental shelf

174  Water that covers the deep water basins

175  Sunlight occurs = photosynthesis  Largest number of photosynthetic organisms and # animals

176  Darkness= no sunlight penetrates

177  Lowest tide to the edge of the continental shelf

178  Continental shelf to 4,000 meters

179  4,000 to 6,000 meters deep

180  6,000 +

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182  Organisms that live on the bottom

183  Organisms that live in the bottom sediment.

184  Drift with currents

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188  Active swimmers that move against currents

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190  Blue mussels are distributed based on the abiotic factors it requires  Sea Star’s are found in overlapping areas because of the abundance of mussels  Seaweed provides food and shelter  Snails are distributed based on where the seaweed and algae is located.


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