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FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT Rise of towns & trade in W. Eur  Indirect contact with China (FC.64) Chinese rag paper.

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Presentation on theme: "FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT Rise of towns & trade in W. Eur  Indirect contact with China (FC.64) Chinese rag paper."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT Rise of towns & trade in W. Eur  Indirect contact with China (FC.64) Chinese rag paper reaches Eur. via Muslim Spain.(FC.46) Chinese wood block printing comes to Eur. Via Muslims (FC.56) Black Death hits Western Eur. (FC.71) Decline of Church largely from rise of money econ. (FC.72) Secular ideas of Italian Renaissance (FC.76) Develop oil-based paints for art (FC.77A) Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment (FC.97) Protestant Reformation ends Cath. Ch’s dominance (FC.84) High death rate among monks crowded together in monasteries Fewer book copiers  Higher cost of copying books Incentive to find cheaper way to copy books Developed into oil-based inks  Adhere to metal type Plentiful supply of relatively cheap paper Buy lots of clothes  Rags when they wear out Higher standard of living for survivors who inherit family lands Interchangeable metal type  Durable & prints every letter evenly on paper Squeeze press for making paper adapted to pressing type uniformly onto paper Johannes Gutenburg, a German goldsmith, puts all these elements together to invent the printing press Wider reading public & increased literacy Church can’t stop spread of controversial new ideas Accelerates spread of accurate data & research Printing press spreads information: QUICKLYACCURATELY

3 FC.75 THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY OF EUROPE (c ) Money to finance nat’l monarchies (FC.79) Merchants undercut guilds w/cottage indust’s (FC.65) Capitalism: Economic system using large sums of money in large scale trade, manufacture,or agriculture & characterized by: Money to finance Ital. Renaissance (FC.76) Black Death especially hurts nobles (FC.71) Age of Explor.  New mkts & sources of $ (FC.81) Radically alters W. Eur’s polit. & social structure: Ger. mining boom  More $ in circulation Adoption of Arabic numerals & accounting Large scale of manuf.  Growing gap b/w workers & owners Profit motive (vs. Church view of profit as sin)  Incentive & innovations Law of supply & demand, not guild regulations, determines prices Private ownership of means of prod. Unlike guilds’ strict control Middle class replenishes noble ranks by buying titles & offices from king Revival of kings’ power to safeguard peace & order Surviving peasants inherit victims’ property & buy freedom from serfdom Agric., popul., towns & trade revive by 1450 New mkts w/more people w/modest amounts of $ Look for new markets & goods outside Europe Deposit banks & credit  Safer to invest Joint stock companies  People w/ moderate $ can also invest Insurance companies  Safer to invest More money invested & circulating rather than being hoarded More jobs Stimulates increased production More trade New business techniques to handle larger trade volume:

4 FC.75A THE BIRTH OF BANKING Rise of capitalism (FC.75) Church collects taxes all over W. Europe Storms Need to send those taxes to Pope in Italy N. Italian merchants trade all over W. Eur. Need to send $ from Italy to do business Pirates Risky to carry cash long distances Merchants send agents to other countries who borrow local Church taxes & use them for their business Send letters of credit back to N. Italy worth the amount of Church taxes they had borrowed Home office repays the pope in Italy the Church taxes it had borrowed abroad without either party having to transfer cash across Europe Other people deposit money with wool merchants’ branch offices in one place & take letters of credit to withdraw money in other branch offices so they do not have to carry cash across Europe Merchants charge service fees for transferring funds from one branch office to the next Merchants start to use the money deposited with them for loans & investments Birth of banking

5 FC.76 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND ITS IMPACT (c ) Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment building on Renaissance research & paving the way for the Industrial Revolution (FC.97) Printing press spreads ideas quickly & accurately (FC.74) Contact with Muslim & Byzantine civ’s (FC.62) Money for patronizing the arts (FC.75) Protestant Reformation which broke Chr. unity in W. Europe  New patterns of social, political, economic & scientific thought (FC.84) Rev. in Painting  Much more accurate eye for detail (FC.77A) Age of Exploration Drawing on ancient Grk. geogr. texts  individuals challenge old theories & try to create an accurate world map (FC.81) Italians such as Petrarch & Dante revive Roman & Grk studies in 1300s Thriving urban culture in Northern Italy to support the Renaissance Relative freedom of expression in Ital. cities Italy located on top old Roman civilization Florentine banking family, Medici, especially patronizes the arts  Florence the early center of Italian Renaissance Secularism : Belief this world & life are worth studying & living for now, not just as preparation for afterlife Humanism: Belief that humans are not helpless pawns in the divine plan, but capable of their own great accomplishments Individualism: Belief that the individual alone, not just groups of people (e.g., guilds), can accomplish great things on their own Skepticism: Belief in the need to challenge accepted authorities” views Literature (e.g., history & polit. science) promoting more secular view of the world Architecture using classical forms, e.g, dome  Sta Maria del Fiore in Florence & St. Peter’s in Rome Renaissance largely defined by four new ideas  Transition from medieval to modern civilization

6 FC.77 AN OVERVIEW OF WESTERN PAINTING (c ) Two new schools of art in 1800s: Romanticism stressing color, emotion & contemp. themes (e.g.,Delacroix) Neo-classicism stressing line, form & classical themes (e.g., David) Renaissance Art (c ): more secular & realistic (shading, perspective, close attention to detail) (FC77A) Baroque art (1600s) using dramatic motion & common life themes (e.g., Vermeer, Caravaggio, Rembrandt) Prot. Ref. (FC84) Relig. Wars ( ) Discredit relig. (FC87) Relig. Wars ( )  Desire for stability (FC87) Enlightenment (c ) stresses reason & secular themes (FC99) Absolutism (c )  Dominance of noble values (FC95) Rococco art (1700s) w/lighter themes to suit nobles’ tastes (e.g., Fragonard, Watteau) Fr. Rev. radically changes cultural values (FC105) “Rubber band theory” (FC1) Prot. Ref. (FC84) Realism (mid 1800s) combining realistic tech’s of Neo-Classicism with contemporary themes of Romanticism (e.g., Courbet) Ind. Rev. (FC117) Impressionism (c ) Focus on light, not form, to capture moment (Monet, Renoir) Post-impressionists (late 1800s) further explore new themes & tech’s (e.g., Van Gogh & Gaugin)  Ind. Rev. (FC117) ART IN 1800s ART IN 1800S Art in 1900s reflects disillusionment & rejects old standards: Cubism Using geom. & mult. perspectives (Picasso) Increasingly radical & abstract art (Dadaists, Miro, Leger) Surrealists explore the subconscious (Dali, Magritte) Ital. Ren (FC76) Disgust w/ Enl’s cold rationality Disgust w/selfish noble values Ital. Ren (FC76) WWI (FC127) Depression (FC132) WWII (FC136) WWI (FC127) Depression (FC132) WWII (FC136) Expressionists explore psych. Themes (e.g., Munch)Scientif. or geom. approach (e.g., Cezanne & Seurat) Paint tin tube  Can Paint on location Camera  Less need for exact ptgs.

7 FC.77A THE REVOLUTION IN RENAISSANCE PAINTING (c ) Affects the Scientific Revolution with its emphasis on details (FC.97) Brunelleschi discovers linear perspective (FC.76) Renaissance stresses secular details & proportion (FC.76) Broader range of topics Several advantages: More vibrant & realistic paintings Must carefully plan ptgs  Less spontaneous FRESCOES painted on wet plaster TEMPERA (egg - based paints) Adopt use of canvas  Cheaper, smaller, & portable Adopt use of oil paints  Dry slowly & can be mixed Expands mkt beyond rich patrons w/walls Use in studio’s privacy  Can attract models Broader palette of colors  Better shading Painters can be more spontaneous Several advantages: Revolution in painting during the Italian Renaissance Several problems: Medieval art using: Need rich patrons w/big walls  Ltd mkt of kings, church, & nobles Dry quickly  Can’t afford mistakes Light colors & can’t be mixed  Ltd range of colors & shading

8 FC.78 THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE AND ITS IMPACT (c ) Scientific Revolution Breaks Church monopoly on learning  Scientific Revolution (FC.97) Northern Renaissance (c ) which differs from Italian Ren. in two ways: More religious fervor than in Italy  Scholars study Bible in original Greek & Hebrew Towns & trade revive in NW Europe after 1450 (FC.75) Money from colonies after 1550 (FC.81) Church loses some, but not all influence More money for patronizing the arts Trade & contact with ideas of the Italian Renaissance Opens way for more secular ideas of the state, including democracy (FC.85.1) Ren. Learning, rising power of kings vs. popes, religious fervor, & anger at Church abuses  Protestant Reformation (FC.84) Opens way for new ideas about money  Rise of capitalism (FC.75) Rise of national monarchies by 1500 (FC.79) Each nation’s Ren. is unique (e.g., literature written in vernacular, not Latin) Printing press spreads Ren. ideas (FC.74) French invade Italy in 1494 (FC.79)

9 FC.78A THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN THEATER Greek tragic drama and comedy (FC.23) Religious miracle plays to teach common people about their religion Plautus & Terence carry on Greek New comedy of Menander while Seneca continues Greek tragic forms during Pax Romana (FC.33) Fall of Roman Emp.  (FC.36) Rise of towns  More secular outlook (FC.64) Morality plays w/dialogue & sometimes with secular themes Plays known as interludes with increasingly secular and even comedic themes Tudor drama of Henry VIII’s time with lower class characters and ludicrous, and at times comedic plots Italian Ren.  Rediscovery of Seneca & other ancient dramas (FC.76) Italian Ren.  Rediscovery of Seneca & other ancient dramas (FC.76) Elizabethan drama which esp. flourishes after 1580 & is characterized by several features: Written in blank verse instead of rhymed verse Plots largely influenced &/or based on plays by Seneca & Menander Public performances open to all classes Permanent playhouses w/stages & curtains replace inn courtyards Roman theater becomes increasingly sensational Latin increasingly unintelligible to most people  Liturgical drama: acting out scenes during mass so people can understand their religion Rise of the Chr. Church (FC.37) Classical drama outlawed & forgotten Fall of Roman Emp.  (FC.36) Rise of the Chr. Church (FC.37) Traveling shows w/jugglers, etc. & some skits

10 FC. 79 THE RISE OF THE NATION STATE (c ) Fr. Kings recover Burgundy & Picardy (1477), Anjou (1481), & Brittany (1491) Mercenary armies & artillery  Only king can afford MC bur’s paid w/$  Literate, loyal, & easier to control Strengths of the nation states: Quasi-national churches  More royal control Growing revenues from rising money economy Tendency by kings to overspend  Chronically in debt Medieval mentality linking religion & politics  Wars Weaknesses of the nation states: Continued power & prestige of nobility Patrimonial (I.e.,hereditary) offices continue France torn by feudal separatism, civil strife, & 100 Years War (FC.73) England torn by civil war ( ) after its defeat in 100 Yrs War Tudors triumph & restore order through new govt. institutions Austrian Hapsburgs control imperial elections & Burgundy through marriage Feudal strife & Popes’ struggle vs. emperors fragment Ger. (FC.70) Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile to unite their kgd’s Spain unified when Moors are driven from Granada in 1492 Towns & Mid. Class ally with kings Seriously weakens nobles & Church Rise of nation-states in W. Eur. by 1500 Powerful states can expand beyond “national” boundaries  Charles VIII of France invades Italy to claim inheritance (1494) Marriage alliance of Austria & Spain  Hapsburg Emp. of Charles V controlling American colonies & half of W. Europe Perm. resident ambassadors to spy on other states Many marriage alliances  Interlocking & rival claims Series of European-wide wars to maintain balance of power & showing Europe operating as integrated political system where 1 state’s actions affect everyone Black Death  political, economic, & social turmoil (c ) (FC.71) Borrow $ & sell offices & titles Kings heavily in debt

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12 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Eur. & Eur. derived cultures control 85% globe by 1900 (FC.122) W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Money & resources for the Industrial Revolution (FC.111) W. Europe the center of a world economy Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

13 FC.4 THE BIRTH OF AGRICULTURE & ITS EFFECTS Rise of hydraulic civ. in Mesopotamia  More priv. prop.  More conflict & sep. of gender roles (FC.6) Agr develops first in Fertile Crescent because: Permanent villages w/stable grain supplies which allow: Cities & civiliz. can develop & spread rapidly from 1 center (FC.6) WHY AGR. & CIV. 1ST DEVELOP IN EURASIA (ESP.NEAR EAST) Better hunting & gathering tech., esp sickles & baskets (FC.2) Less coop. & sharing  Priv. prop.  Soc. classes & more conflict  Start of status gap b/w genders Dev. new agricultural techniques: 2-field system, crop rotation)  popul.  Population growth Depletes H&G resources Need for more food Heavier reliance on agr. Young children can eat grains  Women wean children earlier  Shorter gaps b/w pregnancies Time to watch seeds grow  discovery of agric. (c.8000 B.C.E.) Women don’t carry kids so far  Less need to control pop. growth Warmer, wetter climate (c,10,000 BCE)  Wild grains spread in mid East Rising pop  Need more food, but won’t abandon easier H&G lifestyle  Casual agriculture mixed with hunting & gathering It has many self pollinating cereals  Don’t breed w/other plants  Don’t lose valued recessive traits Eventually settle down to full-time agric. with important results: Hot dry summers  Big seeds for fast growth  No woody stems  Big nutritious grains & easy harvest Eurasia‘s E-W axis  Plants share same climate, & seasonal variations of sunlight Domestic crops & intensive agric. can spread rapidly from one center

14 Better hunting & gathering  More settled lifestyle (FC.2) Abiltiy to keep & domesticate animals that are: Herbivourous & fast growing  Need less food Live in herds w/strict soc. hierarchy that humans can take over Tame & willing to breed in captivity Chronic clashes throughout history b/w nomads grazing their herds in dry grasslands & settled farmers in well watered areas (FC.9) Sheep & goats (c.8000 B.C.E.) that are easily tamed  Meat & milk for food Can digest cellulose  Make hilly land useful Wool for clothing Most animals suitable for domestication were found exclusively in Eurasia & esp. the Fertile Crescent Pigs (c.7000 B.C.E.) that scavenge  : Reduce waste Need less supervision Cheap to keep Horses (c.3000 B.C.E.) when tamed & bred up in size  New source of energy Faster comm’s  Bigger emp’s More mobile armies Cows (c.6500 B.C.E.) - hard to tame but can: Digest cellulose Pull plows  Farm more land Herd animals’ diseases often infect humans  Eurasian civ’s adapt  Advantage vs. cultures not previously exposed (FC.9) FC.5 ANIMAL DOMESTICATION AND ITS EFFECTS Give meat, milk & hides

15 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Geographic unity of W. Europe?

16 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Alps Pyrenees Baltic Sea North Sea Eng. Channel W. Europe’s climates & resources?

17 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Pieter Brueghel’s “Hunters in the Snow” suggests much colder winters in the Low Countries during the 1500s than Amsterdam’s current average daily range in January (31º-40ºF).

18 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Political unity of Western Europe?

19 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Control of important resources?

20 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Their relationship to one another?

21 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources

22 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources

23 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources

24 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources

25 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources

26 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources

27 Outside of Europe, larger empires controlled all or most of their respective cultural/ethnic regions both politically and economically

28 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Class that benefits and how?

29 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Balance of power?

30 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Impact on new technology & ideas?

31 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Economic system that benefits & its impact on new tech?

32 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Defensive developments?

33 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies More sophisticated fortifications  Impact on Eur’s Balance of Power?

34 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

35 The early response to the destructive power of gunpowder was to strengthen existing medieval fortifications such as Castello Nuovo in Naples. Along with bolstering the old towers, a low wall level with the moat was erected as a stable firing platform for artillery.

36 In the late 1400s, the Italians developed angled bastions that provided flanking fire that covered the entire face of the intervening wall. Artillery posted on the side of the bastions was also relatively safe from direct fire of the besiegers’ guns. The wide platforms at the tops of the bastions allowed defenders to post additional artillery. Fortifications were also built at a sloping angle to minimize damage from enemy artillery, since it made it harder to hit the walls at a direct perpendicular angle.

37 A siege was largely a race against time, with the attackers needing to take a fortress before combat, desertion, and especially disease had decimated their ranks, their supplies ran out, and/or an army showed up to relieve the defenders. Therefore, over time, defenders added different types of fortifications in front of the moat to further delay the besiegers’ progress and ensure their own survival.

38 Neuf Brisach near France’s frontier with Switzerland, was a model example of town fortifications designed in the late 1600s by the great French military engineer, Vauban. As the picture below shows, it still maintains those fortifications.

39 Model of the fortifications built around Perpignan, France

40 Venice’s fortress at Rethymno on Crete’s north coast shows how European fortifications spread into the Eastern Mediterranean in the ongoing wars against the Ottoman Turks.

41 The Dutch fortress of s’Hertengobosch, showing how waterways could be incorporated into fortress defenses.

42 Imperial troops storm a breach in the walls of Parma in Defenders put up an especially ferocious fight at this stage of a siege, because if the city fell, the attackers, usually brutal mercenaries who had just endured the hardships of an extended siege, were typically allowed three days of murder, rape, and pillage. This often encouraged a negotiated surrender by towns to avoid such a fate. Conversely, the attackers knew the defenders would be especially fierce in defending their town and were often hard to induce to make the final assault.

43 A map showing the spread of the heavy fortifications developed to withstand the destructive force of the new artillery during the Renaissance, thus protecting smaller European states and maintaining the balance of power by slowing the pace of warfare.

44 Such forts, when built overseas, helped small European forces hold large colonial empires against native forces unfamiliar with European warfare and fortifications.

45 Left and Below: Fort Niagara in upstate New York

46 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies New military techniques?

47 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Impact?

48 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

49 Maurice of Nassau, whose adoption of the Roman drill & march helped save the Dutch cause & transform European armies into the most effective fighting forces on the planet

50 The problem Maurice solved was how to get a faster rate of fire despite the long time it took to load the matchlock musket. The solution, based on the ancient Romans, was two-fold. First, Maurice adapted the Roman counter-march (illustrated below), whereby fresh troops could move up through gaps in the line to replace their comrades in front. The troops in back could now reload and be ready to fire by the time it was their turn to fire again. By constantly rotating his musketeers in this manner, Maurice’s troops could maintain a rate of fire three times that of their opponents.

51 Second, Maurice adopted the Roman drill and march. By constantly drilling his troops in the countermarch and reloading their muskets, they could function like virtual automatons on the battlefield. This had a second, possibly more significant effect. The constant rhythm and cadence of the drill and march stimulated a pleasure center in the inner ear that likes a beat. This, in turn, created a psychological bond between men in the ranks. This proved to be a powerful glue holding together European armies, such as Frederick William I‘s Prussian army seen here, and gave them a decisive edge over non-Western armies in the coming centuries.

52 There is evidence of parallel development of the drill and march in China as far back as 500 B.C.E., the first drill instructor being none other than Sun Tzu, the author of "The Art of War.” Working for King Helu of Wu, he supposedly demonstrated the effectiveness of his methods by training a contingent of one hundred-eighty palace women in close order drill with pole arms. Sun Tzu organized them into two units, with the king's two favorite concubines as leaders and gave them basic instructions on moving right, left, about face, etc. When the women did not follow his orders, and laughed instead, he beheaded their unit leaders, which adjusted their attitude appropriately. Having trained them to a peak of efficiency Sun Tzu presented them to the king saying they were properly drilled and disciplined and ready to go through fire and water for him. Although depressed by losing his two favorite concubines, Helu retained the services of Sun Tzu, who trained Wu’s armies and led them to victory over its arch rival, Chu. However, the Chinese did not institutionalize the drill and march like the Romans did, since they came to rely more on cavalry to meet the nomads from the North, and horses don’t march well.

53 In 1757, the British general, Robert Clive, showed it wasn’t just Europeans who could used these techniques. Leading a small army consisting mostly of European trained and equipped Indian troops, he decisively defeated an Indian army twelve times its size at Plassey, showing the effectiveness of the European drill and march. Even today, when close order marching on the battlefield would be suicidal, it still is extensively used in basic training to forge today’s modern armies.

54 In the spirit of the Renaissance, rulers also tried to emulate the Roman legions of antiquity by such measures as laying camps out in an organized grid. Francis I of France even tried to raise 7 regional legions each with 6,000 conscripts.

55 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocen voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Navies?

56 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

57 The rough waters of the Atlantic forced European explorers to build bulkier ships to withstand the storms of the open seas. Such ships, being broader in the beam, allowed Europeans to load and fire guns from the broadside without the recoil capsizing the ship. This gave European navies an overwhelming advantage against Arab fleets in the Indian Ocean, not to mention the mere canoes they might run up against in the Americas.

58 The Santissima Trinidad, a Spanish warship (c. 1800), weighed 1400 tons and had a 2’ thick hull that stood as high as a five story building. It also had four gun decks, and 144 guns, 30 of which could hurl a 32lb. cannon ball through a 3’ hull at a range of 1.5 miles. Such a ship required 5,000 trees to build, with each tree yielding 800 board feet.

59 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Impact of these military developments on political pluralism in Europe?

60 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

61 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

62 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

63 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

64 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

65 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

66 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

67 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

68 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies What did this allow Eur’s to do?

69 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

70 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

71 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

72 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

73 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

74 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

75 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

76 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

77 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

78 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

79 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

80 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

81 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

82 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

83 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

84 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) W. Europe the center of a world economy Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

85 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) W. Europe the center of a world economy Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Money & resources to do what?

86 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Money & resources for the Industrial Revolution (FC.111) W. Europe the center of a world economy Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

87 FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c ) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Eur. & Eur. derived cultures control 85% globe by 1900 (FC.122) W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Most powerful armies on earth Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Money & resources for the Industrial Revolution (FC.111) W. Europe the center of a world economy Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe Large bulky ships for ocean voyages  Excellent gun platforms  Very powerful navies More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies

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