F OUNDERS Jesus of Nazareth appeared to a man named Paul and told him to establish a Catholic Church. Based on how Jesus teachings
O RIGIN AND S PREAD OF A U NIVERSAL R ELIGION Spread from Middle East to Mediterranean (Greece) Spread to rest of Europe Spread South America and Asia into Africa through missionary work and colonization
T EACHERS OF C ATHOLICISM Please: there are also nuns, fathers and monks etc POPE VATICAN CITY BISHOPS IN DIOCESE (REGIONAL) PRIESTS IN PARISHES (LOCAL)
M AJOR B ELIEFS The trinity (father, son, holy spirit) is the head of one’s life Guardian angels are messengers for God and protect from danger Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus and queen of heaven. Highly revered Apostles for Christ Divine saints After death if you are “saved” or in other words accepted Christ as your savior and live a moral life you go to heaven. If not you go to hell. In protestant faiths you are go to heaven with faith alone.
C ONT. 7 sacraments: Baptism Eucharist Reconciliation Confirmation Marriage Holy Orders Anointing of the sick
U NIVERSAL DISTRIBUTION OF C ATHOLICS Over one billion followers all over the world
H OLY S ITES Galilee St. Paul Basilica Jesus’ burial tomb Vatican City
C ATHEDRAL ’ S WORLDWIDE Notre Dame Brazil Philippines New York City Cameroon
Judaism Founder: Abraham Key people: Moses, King David, King Solomon, Isaac Began in Canaan, known today as Israel Mainly practiced in Israel and the U.S. Ethnic religion because you are born Jewish and they don’t try to convert people to Judaism Approximately 14 million followers
Beliefs: God, Human kind was created in Devine image, Community, The Torah, The Land of Israel, The Coming Messiah, The Covenant Kosher: To preserve their bodies, they can’t eat flesh, organs, eggs and milk of forbidden animals, animals must be killed in accordance to the Jewish laws, utensils can’t mix between meat and dairy Burial: eyes are closed, body is on the floor covered with candles lit around, the body is left alone, the body is dressed in a plain shroud and is in a plain coffin, you can’t cremate a body, autopsies are discouraged.
Architecture Synagogue in Florence Spanish Synagogue
Sacred sites The Western Wall The Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock
Islam Islam is a universalizing religion Hearth is Mecca, Saudi Arabia Has a total world wide following of 1.3 billion people with 1.1 to 7 million followers in the US Early diffusion was spread through forced conversion but later diffusion was more peaceful.
Founders and teachers Islam’s founder Muhammad. He studied both New and Old Testaments of the Bible before starting Islam so many teachers are from the Old and New Testaments
Funeral/Afterlife Muslims bury the dead after cleaning and shrouding the body and a short prayer. Cremation is not approved of Funeral practices vary by region They believe in 8 gates of Jannah or Heaven and 7 layers of Jahannam or Hell
Hinduism No true founder – Influenced by Aryan invasion 4 Major Texts 950 million followers worldwide (14% world population) 1.1 million in US (0.5%) Dietary Restrictions – Beef – Varies with Sects
Ethnic Religion Clustered distribution Unknown origins Sites based on physical characteristics Seasonal Calendar
Beliefs Individualized ways of Worship Different paths to reach God – Path of Knowledge – Path of Renunciation – Path of Devotion – Path of Action Brahma (Creator) 68% worship Vishnu (Preserver) 27% worship Shiva (Destroyer) Shankara
Burial/Afterlife Cremation Closest relative lights pyre, oldest son Immerse ashes in Holy body of water ges) Ceremonial Meal & Gifts to poor Reincarnation Many different heavens and hells Not permanent in Heaven and Hell Cycles until one with Universal Soul
Symbols and Holy Sites Temple: – macrocosm (universe) – microcosm (inner space) Gopuram Lighting 4 Dhamas 7 Ancient Holy Towns 4 Maha Kumbha Mela There are thousands.
Universalizing religion because it is not limited to a particular region or race. Buddhists worship one person- Buddha. 360 million followers of Buddhism.
Buddha is the prophet, and monks are the teachers. MAJOR BELIEFS Reincarnation NIRVANA 4 noble truths, 8 fold path, 5 precepts. No God, live to end suffering but believe in heaven and hell Women can become nuns, but are regarded as distractions. Burial Practices : Mostly cremate, and ashes are left in urns. After death, the belief of rebirth is consecutive until they reach Nirvana (enlightenment).
Religious Sites Tree of Enlightenment -Bodh Gaya, India A temple where Siddhartha underwent spiritual transformation. Kushinagar, India,
Jesus Christ and his apostles 12 apostles spread the Gospel after his crucifixion Holy Site: Church of the Holy Sepulchre located in Jerusalem on the hill of Golgotha Began as eastern half of Christendom, the site of the former byzantine empire(Greece Turkey and nearby countries)
Ethnic or Universalizing religion?? Universalizing religion A man (Jesus Christ) founded this religion It is popular because it attempts to appeal to all people Number of members worldwide Second largest Christian communion after Roman Catholic Church About 300 million About 1 million in U.S.
Easter Orthodox relies on the writings of Greek fathers such as Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom and St. Basil the great. Believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God
Eastern Orthodox Church in Russia Eastern Orthodox Church in Greece Eastern Orthodox Church in Romania Eastern Orthodox Church in Belarus Eastern Orthodox Church in Poland
5 different funeral services for Layman(adults),children, Monks, Priests(Because of their important role as preachers of the Word, the funeral for priests has numerous Gospel readings in it. Right at the beginning of the funeral, Psalm 118 (Septuagint numbering; KJV: Psalm 119) is chanted. In the Orthodox Psalter this is known as the 17th Kathisma, and is the longest psalm in the Bible.
10 Gurus all together, 2 most prominent is Nanak Dev Ji (founder) and Gobind Singh (introduced baptism, turbans+ long hair, beards)
25 Million World Wide 22 Million in India, other 3 million spread across world England: 389,000 Canada: 278,415 United States: 200,000 Maylasia: 100,000
Monotheistic Equality Reincarnation until you find God Non-violent Good Deeds (rituals and superstition have no value) Amrit-Baptism to promise to uphold faith.
Everything is by God’s will. Death is natural. Prefer cremation, occasionally bury or submerge in sea No monuments erected for the deceased Heaven is attained and Reincarnation is broken when one finds God
Architecture changes according to location (ex Ornamented in India, influenced by Hinduism Progressive style of building, styles of buildings change over time. Domes are present in many of their buildings Majority of the buildings are large to hold services and mass prayers. Khanda is the main symbol found on their flags and architecture. The circle represents the universal and creative power of God.
Yay Mormons Universalizing Joseph Smith Brigham Young
Mormon Beliefs Articles of Faith ( 13 points that summerize beliefs) Words of Wisdom Ten Commandments God, Jesus Christ, Holy Ghost Believe they are sent to earth to learn good from evil Believe that they restored the true church on earth Family is the most important unit (explains big families) Seminary
Funerals/ Burials/life after death Bury people- believe in life after death. The Plan of Salvation: pre mortal life, mortal life, and life after death. After death the body goes to Spirit World- Spirit Paradise or Spirit Prison.
Holy Sites Salt Lake City- headquarters - the site of the Salt Lake Temple, Temple Square, and Mormon Tabernacle. Palmyra, New York- book of Mormon printed there Kirtland, Ohio- First Mormon temple
Dietary Restrictions Follows Words of Wisdom – No caffeine – No alcohol
Started in 19 th century Persia (today known as Iran) Started in present day Iran and diffused to neighboring countries Where it is practiced in the united states!
Simple Information… Founder -> Siyyid ‘Ali Muhammad Universal religion because it’s the second fastest growing religion and anyone can join. Consists of about 7 million followers Prophet-> Bahá’u’lláh & his son, ‘Abdu’l- Bahá who helped spread the message. Consumption of alcohol and halucigeons are prohibited. Religion is based on man and the calendar is based on his life – 19 months, with 19 days each
Beliefs… Monotheistic (one god) Three principles – Unity of God – Unity of mankind – Unity of humankind(one single race) God sporadically reveals his will through heavenly messengers, whose purpose is to transform the character of humankind and develop moral and spiritual qualities. Existence of god and the universe is eternal without a beginning or end. One of the disciples, Bahá, is a messenger from God.
After life and burial services… Cremation is forbidden Must be buried in an hours travel time from place of death All are placed in a cemetary Believe in a hell also – state of remoteness from God and a place to develop spiritually. When the body dies it is freed and enters a spiritual world – timeless extension of our own universe – Entry to the next life brings great joy
Religious Architectures… In the heart of Africa In New Delhi, India In Chicago, Illinois Sydney, Australia
Architectures continued… In Haifa, Israel Mount Carmel in Haifa and the majestic Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh are the major holy places of the Baha’i faith. These are located in Israel because this was his last resting place before death.
Symbolism… Five pointed star: represents the human body and the messengers of God. (symbol for religion) Nine pointed star: represents the greatest name which is Bahá’ Ringstone: representing perfection and the messengers of God.
Founder: none Mahavira: latest Tirthankaras (a person who achieves enlightenment.) Hearth: India Ethnic religion # of members: 4 million (most in India), 75,000 in US Prophets/Teachers: Monks Tirthankaras
Beliefs Four stages during their lifetime: Brahmacharya-ashrama: the life of a student Gruhasth-ashrama: family life Vanaprasth-ashrama: family and social services Sanyast-ashrama: life as a monk; a period of renunciation Vegetarian diet Every living being has a soul Karma- actions and the results they bring to the soul's path. 8 Hells The Three Jewels Right Faith Right Knowledge Right Conduct
Five abstinences Ahimsa (non-violence) Satya (truthfulness) Asteya (not stealing) Aparigraha (non-acquisition) Brahmacarya (chaste living) No Violence Text=Agamas Sects: Digambara Svetambara No Gods Beliefs
Funeral/Burial Reincarnated until liberation. Can ascend to heaven due to good karma, although most reincarnate. Karma & level of spiritual development determines another physical appearance. Cremate dead ASAP -Son lights the pyre -remains are collected in bags and put in the earth. Salt is sprinkled over it so it dissolves
Kochi, Kerala, India. Shatrunjaya hills, Gujurat- one of five holy mountains. Digambara Statues: Undecorated Svetambara decorate images.
Rajasthan, India Elmhurst, NY Mombasa, Kenya Ranakpur, India
Founder: There is no historical founder in the Shinto religion. Hearth and Diffusion: Originating in Japan, Shintoism has mildly spread to Southeastern Asia, like in parts of Cambodia. Universalizing VS. Ethnic: Shintoism is technically a universalizing religion because one can not be born a Shinto, and anyone can be apart of the Shinto religion.
Members and Prophets In Japan there are in between 3 million to 110 million followers Majority of followers in Japan. Almost all Japanese are Shinto. There are no true prophets, but Confucius was the closest figure to a prophet that Shintoism has because his teachings influenced a lot of Shinto text.
Beliefs Impurity-belief that certain actions have a "ritual impurity" and you should want to cleanse your self. they arent saying that impurity is bad but its good to cleanse yourself Purification(Harai or Oharai)- Vital. These rituals of purification are the lifeblood of the Shinto religion. they have been adapted to the modern life. Afterlife-compared to the Greek Hades. People go to a gloomy underground realm called Yomi Kami-reason for life and essence to the religion. Spiritualism-worshipping all spirits is a big part of Shintoism.
Burial Practices Planned and according to traditions. Over 20 procedures, ranging from an intense day of mourning, to giving an obituary gift of money to the family. The Shinto cremate and gather the ashes (called Kotsuage) and place them in an urn which is placed at the shrine for the priest bless their journey to the afterlife. Then the ashes are buried at the grave site. Not all ashes are buried, during one of the stages, the family gets to keep some of the ashes to put into home shrines. All ceremonies must abide by all of the traditional guidelines, meaning there is no room for personalization for each funeral. Ceremonies are held on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th,13 th, and 33 rd years following the death. Family offer food and pray to ancestors and deceased daily.
Architecture Because Shintoism is very focused on nature, shrines are placed near waterfalls, mountains, and caves. Shrines are single-dwelling styled houses and are made of entirely wood. Their roofs are created from strips of Hinoki bark. Each shrine contains a sanctuary made for only priests, and a worship hall for ancestral offerings.
Holy Site Ise Shrine-in Mei Perfecture, Japan. It’s the most sacred shrine because its home to most important diety of Shinto, Amaterasu omikami. Fushimi Inari Shrine- Oldest most revered Shinto shrines. Dedicated to the god,of rice, sake, and prosperity, Inari. Located in Fushimi, Japan.
Zoroaster (Zarathustra) 6 TH century B.C.E. in Persia Universalizing- Monotheistic Formerly one of world’s largest religions; today 150-200,000 Unknown contemporaries Adur Gushnasp
Beliefs Ahura Mazda Good thoughts/good deeds… Chaos… Happiness Angra Mainyu… Cosmic renovation Burial Practices/After Life Birds scavenge “unclean” parts of body ▪ Avoid contamination of sacred elements of earth, fire, water Remain dead until reunited with the savior at the end of time (both good and bad spirits)