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“A clever person solves a problem. A wise person avoids it.” Albert Einstein.

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Presentation on theme: "“A clever person solves a problem. A wise person avoids it.” Albert Einstein."— Presentation transcript:

1 “A clever person solves a problem. A wise person avoids it.” Albert Einstein

2 Unit period = All day Wednesday (2-26) 3 rd period = All day Thursday (2-27)

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4 Unit 6

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6 Team Thinks…

7 Q: Complete the pie chart Ways we dispose Municipal waste Choices: Incineration, Landfill, Other, Recycle/compost 4.5 Pounds of Waste are produced Per Person Per Day

8 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT We can manage the solid wastes we produce and reduce or prevent their production.

9 Solutions: Reducing Solid Waste Refuse: to buy items that we really don’t need. Reduce: consume less and live a simpler and less stressful life by practicing simplicity. Reuse: rely more on items that can be used over and over. Repurpose: use something for another purpose instead of throwing it away. Recycle: paper, glass, cans, plastics…and buy items made from recycled materials. Q: What are the 5 R’s in reducing waste?

10 Follow the five Rs of resource use: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, and Recycle. Buy products in concentrated form whenever possible. Read newspapers and magazines online. Use in place of conventional paper mail. Refill and reuse a bottled water container with tap water. Do not use throwaway paper and plastic plates, cups and eating utensils, and other disposable items when reusable or refillable versions are available. Buy things that are reusable, recyclable, or compostable, and be sure to reuse, recycle, and compost them. Rent, borrow, or barter goods and services when you can. Ask yourself whether you really need a particular item. What Can You Do? Solid Waste

11 REUSE Reusing products is an important way to reduce resource use, waste, and pollution Reusing can be hazardous in developing countries for poor who scavenge in open dumps. They can be exposed to toxins or infectious diseases.

12 Case Study: Using Refillable Containers Refilling and reusing containers uses fewer resources and less energy, produces less waste, saves money. – In Denmark and Canada’s Price Edward’s Island there is a ban on all beverage containers that cannot be reused. – In Finland 95% of soft drink and alcoholic beverages are refillable (Germany 75%).

13 REUSE Reducing resource waste: energy consumption for different types of 350-ml (12-oz) beverage containers.

14 Solutions: Other Ways to Reuse Things We can use reusable shopping bags, food containers, and shipping pallets, and borrow tools from tool libraries. – Many countries in Europe and Asia charge shoppers for plastic bags.

15 Buy beverages in refillable glass containers instead of cans or throwaway bottles. Give or sell items you no longer use to others. Buy used furniture, computers, cars, and other items. Use reusable sponges and washable cloth napkins, dishtowels, and handkerchiefs instead of throwaway paper ones. Carry groceries and other items in a reusable basket, a canvas or string bag, or a small cart. Use rechargeable batteries and recycle them when their useful life is over. Carry sandwiches and store food in the refrigerator in reusable containers instead of wrapping them in aluminum foil or plastic wrap Use reusable plastic or metal lunchboxes. What Can You Do? Reuse

16 RECYCLING Primary (closed loop) recycling: materials are turned into new products of the same type. Secondary recycling: materials are converted into different products. – Used tires shredded and converted into rubberized road surface. – Newspapers transformed into cellulose insulation. Can have environmental & economic benefits

17 RECYCLING Composting biodegradable organic waste mimics nature by recycling plant nutrients to the soil. What type of respiration takes place in the composting process by microbes? Aerobic respiration

18 RECYCLING Recycling many plastics is chemically and economically difficult. – Many plastics are hard to isolate from other wastes. – Recovering individual plastic resins does not yield much material. – The cost of virgin plastic resins is lower than recycled resins due to low fossil fuel costs. – There are new technologies that are making plastics biodegradable.

19 RECYCLING & EXTERNALITIES Reuse and recycling are hindered by prices of goods that do not reflect their harmful environmental impacts, too few government subsidies and tax breaks, and price fluctuations.

20 Q: Landfills 1.Explain the design of a landfill. (Discuss monitoring, methane, structure). 2.Advantages and Disadvantages 3.What is leachate? 4.How do landfill designs accommodate leachate? 5.What effect might leachate from a landfill have on drinking water or water quality in general?

21 27% Recycled 16% Burned 57% Landfilled 4.5 Pounds of Trash are produced Per Person Per Day Where Does our Trash Go? Nationally:

22 History of a Landfill Before 1960’s Most waste was burned in open dumps. produced clouds of smoke produced a bad oder created a breeding ground for flies and rats Before and early 1960’s Waste burned in incinerators and combustion facilities (high temperatures burn waste more completely than in open burns) prime sources of air pollution 1960’s and 1970’s Laws passed regulating air pollution 1970’s Dumps converted to full operating landfills Number of landfills decline from 8,000 to 1,858 – because landfill size and recycling have increased and regulations are tighter.

23 Sand When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Leachate storage tank Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Electricity generator building Leachate treatment system Methane gas recovery well Compacted solid waste Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tank for safe disposal Groundwater Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Topsoil Sand Clay Subsoil Probes to detect methane leaks Garbage Synthetic liner Sand Clay Pipes collect explosive methane as used as fuel to generate electricity What type of respiration takes place in the decomposing process in landfills ? Anaerobic respiration

24 Landfill: Design = Function Challenges of a Landfill groundwater contamination from liquids produced in landfill methane production from anerobic decomposition of trash incomplete decomposition (newspapers in a landfill have been found to be up to 100 years old!) as trash decomposes it compacts and settles causting landfills to sink most neighborhoods oppose having a landfill built in their vicinity

25 Garbage to Green Buffalo NY Virginia BeachMillennium Park MASSChambers Gully Australia Caesar Chavez Park, Berkeley

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27 Q: Video referred to “superfund” often… and a few other laws Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Toxic Substances Control Act Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) aka Superfund Governs disposal of solid and hazardous waste Protecting human health & natural environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal. Reducing the amount of waste generated, through source reduction and recycling Ensuring the management of waste in an environmentally sound manner Objective is to allow EPA to regulate new commercial chemicals before they enter the market, to regulate existing chemicals (1976) when they pose an unreasonable risk to health or to the environment, and to regulate their distribution and use. Created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries which helped Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances Sets bans and requirements concerning closed and abandoned hazardous waste sites; Established a trust fund to provide for cleanup when no responsible party could be identified. (BROWNFIELDS)

28 Q: What are highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons that are contained in herbicides and are produced during certain industrial processes? DIOXINS!

29 BURNING SOLID WASTE Globally, MSW is burned in over 1,000 large waste-to-energy incinerators, which boil water to make steam for heating water, or space, or for production of electricity.

30 Reduces trash volume Can compete with recycling for burnable materials such as newspaper Output approach that encourages waste production Older or poorly managed facilities can release large amounts of air pollution Some air pollution Difficult to site because of citizen opposition Costs more than short-distance hauling to landfills Expensive to build Some facilities recover and sell metals Modern controls reduce air pollution Sale of energy reduces cost Concentrates hazardous substances into ash for burial or use as landfill cover Low water pollution Less need for landfills Trade-Offs Incineration AdvantagesDisadvantages

31 Dioxin emission that results from the production of paper is a good example of a negative externality because self-interested paper producers will not consider the full cost of the dioxin pollution they create.

32 Q: Define “Hazardous Waste” Any discarded solid or liquid material that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive, or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes. The two largest classes of hazardous wastes are organic compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, dioxins) and toxic heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury, arsenic).

33 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT We can manage the solid wastes we produce and reduce or prevent their production.

34 Solutions: Reducing Solid Waste Refuse: to buy items that we really don’t need. Reduce: consume less and live a simpler and less stressful life by practicing simplicity. Reuse: rely more on items that can be used over and over. Repurpose: use something for another purpose instead of throwing it away. Recycle: paper, glass, cans, plastics…and buy items made from recycled materials. What are the 5 R’s in reducing waste?

35 Unit 6


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