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Phytochemicals By: Anna Mancini.

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1 Phytochemicals By: Anna Mancini

2 Definition Phytochemicals consist of a large group of non- nutrient compounds that are biologically active in the body Found in plants, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, herbs, tea and spices

3 Polyphenols Polyphenolic phytochemicals make up the largest group
The polyphenols, which include more than 8,000 compounds can be divided into a variety of classes

4 Classes of Phytochemicals
Flavonoids Lignans Carotenoids Saponins Terpenes Phytosterols Organosulfides Glucosinolates Phenolic Acids Isothiocyanates The flavonoids make up the largest group

5 Flavonoids Flavonoids are water soluble polyphenolic molecules containing 15 carbon atoms The most important dietary sources of flavonoids are fruit, tea and soybean

6 Flavonoid Subclasses Flavonols Flavanols Flavones Flavanones
Anthocyanidins Isoflavones

7 Health Benefits of Flavonoids
Antioxidant activity Reduced risk of Cardiovascular Disease Reduced risk of some cancers Anti-allergenic Anti-inflammatory

8 Green Tea The antioxidants found in green tea are called catechins, which are in the flavanol subclass The catechins scavenge free radicals that can damage DNA and contribute to cancer, blood clots, and atherosclerosis. Green tea's EGCG regulates and inhibits cancer growth and kills cells that are growing inappropriately. EGCG-epigallocatechin-3-gallate=catechin

9 Green Tea Researchers found that drinking at least four cups of green tea every day may be related to the reduced severity of coronary heart disease among the male participants. Green tea and its extract have been shown to fight obesity and lower LDL "bad" cholesterol -- two risk factors for heart disease and diabetes -- but in very limited studies. 1st bullet- study involved 500 japanese men and women 2nd bullet- One study in the Netherlands and a study in Japan showed that green tea did both.

10 Common Dietary Flavonoids
Flavonoid Subclass Dietary Flavonoids Some common food sources Anthocyanidins Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin Red, blue, and purple berries; red and purple grapes; red wine Flavanols Monomers (Catechins): Catechin, Epicatechin, Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate Dimers and Polymers: Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples Theaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong) Proanthocyanidins: Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine Flavanones Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol Citrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemons Flavonols Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin Widely distributed: yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas Flavones Apigenin, Luteolin Parsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers, Isoflavones Daidzein, Genistein, Glycitein Soybeans, soy foods, legumes

11 Carotenoids Carotenoids are a widely distributed group of naturally occurring pigments, usually red, orange, or yellow in color. They are known to be essential for plant growth and photosynthesis, and are a main dietary source of vitamin A in humans. Scientists altered the structure of the carotenes and carotenoid pigments in the watermelon

12 Common Carotenoids β-carotene α-carotene Lycopene Lutein Zeaxanthin
Alpha, beta, and gamma carotene are considered provitamins because they can be converted to active vitamin A

13 Food Sources The orange-colored fruits and vegetables including carrots, apricots, mangoes, squash, and sweet potatoes contain significant amounts of beta- carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin. Green vegetables, especially spinach, kale, and collard greens, also contain beta-carotene, and are the best sources of lutein. Lycopene is found in tomatoes, guava, and pink grapefruit. Salmon, shellfish, milk, and egg yolks also provide carotenoids.

14 Health Benefits Antioxidant activity
Reduced risk of Cardiovascular disease Prevents eye degeneration Reduced risk of some cancers Immune-enhancing activity Prevent Vitamin A deficiency

15 Lycopene Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of lycopene-containing vegetables is inversely associated with the incidence of certain types of cancer including digestive tract, prostate, and cervix. A combination of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene dramatically inhibited prostate cancer development and increased disease-free survival.

16 Lycopene Lycopene also strongly suppressed the growth of lung cancer cells and was found to be more potent than either α-carotene or β-carotene.

17 β-Carotene Beta-carotene is converted to retinol, which is essential for vision and is subsequently converted to retinoic acid, which is used for processes involving growth and cell differentiation. Beta-carotene/vitamin A supplements may have an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer and on the risk of death in smokers and asbestos exposed people or in those who ingest significant amounts of alcohol. Second bullet—beta carotene in normal amounts doesn’t seem to have the adverse effects Although diets high in fruits and vegetables that contain beta carotene reduce the incidence of some cancers, studies don’t yet support the claim

18 Recommendations Add chopped fruit to cereal, oatmeal, and yogurt
Add fresh greens, carrots, celery, broccoli, beans, and peppers to soups and spaghetti sauce Keep dried fruits like raisins, apricots, and prunes for snacking instead of chips Try replacing sodas and sports drinks with green or black teas Add salsa to eggs, and use it in place of creamy dips for raw vegetables Replaced processed grains for whole grains. (Refining wheat reduces phytochemical content by %.)

19 Bibliography Ruhul Amin A.R., Kucuk O., Khuri F.R., Shin D.M. (2009 June 1). Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds. Journal of Clinical Oncology, ; 27(16): 2712–2725.

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