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PHYTOCHEMICALS By: Anna Mancini. Definition  Phytochemicals consist of a large group of non- nutrient compounds that are biologically active in the body.

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Presentation on theme: "PHYTOCHEMICALS By: Anna Mancini. Definition  Phytochemicals consist of a large group of non- nutrient compounds that are biologically active in the body."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definition  Phytochemicals consist of a large group of non- nutrient compounds that are biologically active in the body  Found in plants, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, herbs, tea and spices

3 Polyphenols  Polyphenolic phytochemicals make up the largest group  The polyphenols, which include more than 8,000 compounds can be divided into a variety of classes

4 Classes of Phytochemicals  Flavonoids  Carotenoids  Terpenes  Organosulfides  Phenolic Acids  Lignans  Saponins  Phytosterols  Glucosinolates  Isothiocyanates

5 Flavonoids  Flavonoids are water soluble polyphenolic molecules containing 15 carbon atoms  The most important dietary sources of flavonoids are fruit, tea and soybean

6 Flavonoid Subclasses  Flavonols  Flavanols  Flavones  Flavanones  Anthocyanidins  Isoflavones

7 Health Benefits of Flavonoids  Antioxidant activity  Reduced risk of Cardiovascular Disease  Reduced risk of some cancers  Anti-allergenic  Anti-inflammatory

8 Green Tea  The antioxidants found in green tea are called catechins, which are in the flavanol subclass  The catechins scavenge free radicals that can damage DNA and contribute to cancer, blood clots, and atherosclerosis.  Green tea's EGCG regulates and inhibits cancer growth and kills cells that are growing inappropriately.

9 Green Tea  Researchers found that drinking at least four cups of green tea every day may be related to the reduced severity of coronary heart disease among the male participants.  Green tea and its extract have been shown to fight obesity and lower LDL "bad" cholesterol -- two risk factors for heart disease and diabetes -- but in very limited studies.

10 Common Dietary Flavonoids Flavonoid SubclassDietary FlavonoidsSome common food sources Anthocyanidins Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin Red, blue, and purple berries; red and purple grapes; red wine Flavanols Monomers (Catechins): Catechin, Epicatechin, Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate Dimers and Polymers: Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples Theaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong) Proanthocyanidins: Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine Flavanones Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol Citrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemons Flavonols Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin Widely distributed: yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas Flavones Apigenin, LuteolinParsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers, Isoflavones Daidzein, Genistein, GlyciteinSoybeans, soy foods, legumes

11 Carotenoids  Carotenoids are a widely distributed group of naturally occurring pigments, usually red, orange, or yellow in color.  They are known to be essential for plant growth and photosynthesis, and are a main dietary source of vitamin A in humans.

12 Common Carotenoids  β -carotene  α -carotene  Lycopene  Lutein  Zeaxanthin

13 Food Sources  The orange-colored fruits and vegetables including carrots, apricots, mangoes, squash, and sweet potatoes contain significant amounts of beta- carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin. carrotsapricotssquashsweet potatoes  Green vegetables, especially spinach, kale, and collard greens, also contain beta-carotene, and are the best sources of lutein.spinachkale collard greens  Lycopene is found in tomatoes, guava, and pink grapefruit. Salmon, shellfish, milk, and egg yolks also provide carotenoids.tomatoes grapefruitSalmonmilkegg yolks

14 Health Benefits  Antioxidant activity  Reduced risk of Cardiovascular disease  Prevents eye degeneration  Reduced risk of some cancers  Immune-enhancing activity  Prevent Vitamin A deficiency

15 Lycopene  Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of lycopene-containing vegetables is inversely associated with the incidence of certain types of cancer including digestive tract, prostate, and cervix.  A combination of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene dramatically inhibited prostate cancer development and increased disease-free survival.

16 Lycopene  Lycopene also strongly suppressed the growth of lung cancer cells and was found to be more potent than either α -carotene or β -carotene.

17 β-Carotene  Beta-carotene is converted to retinol, which is essential for vision and is subsequently converted to retinoic acid, which is used for processes involving growth and cell differentiation.  Beta-carotene/vitamin A supplements may have an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer and on the risk of death in smokers and asbestos exposed people or in those who ingest significant amounts of alcohol.

18 Recommendations  Add chopped fruit to cereal, oatmeal, and yogurt  Add fresh greens, carrots, celery, broccoli, beans, and peppers to soups and spaghetti sauce  Keep dried fruits like raisins, apricots, and prunes for snacking instead of chips  Try replacing sodas and sports drinks with green or black teas  Add salsa to eggs, and use it in place of creamy dips for raw vegetables  Replaced processed grains for whole grains. (Refining wheat reduces phytochemical content by %.)

19 Bibliography         Ruhul Amin A.R., Kucuk O., Khuri F.R., Shin D.M. (2009 June 1). Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds. Journal of Clinical Oncology, ; 27(16): 2712–2725.

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