2DefinitionPhytochemicals consist of a large group of non- nutrient compounds that are biologically active in the bodyFound in plants, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, herbs, tea and spices
3Polyphenols Polyphenolic phytochemicals make up the largest group The polyphenols, which include more than 8,000 compounds can be divided into a variety of classes
4Classes of Phytochemicals FlavonoidsLignansCarotenoidsSaponinsTerpenesPhytosterolsOrganosulfidesGlucosinolatesPhenolic AcidsIsothiocyanatesThe flavonoids make up the largest group
5FlavonoidsFlavonoids are water soluble polyphenolic molecules containing 15 carbon atomsThe most important dietary sources of flavonoids are fruit, tea and soybean
7Health Benefits of Flavonoids Antioxidant activityReduced risk of Cardiovascular DiseaseReduced risk of some cancersAnti-allergenicAnti-inflammatory
8Green TeaThe antioxidants found in green tea are called catechins, which are in the flavanol subclassThe catechins scavenge free radicals that can damage DNA and contribute to cancer, blood clots, and atherosclerosis.Green tea's EGCG regulates and inhibits cancer growth and kills cells that are growing inappropriately.EGCG-epigallocatechin-3-gallate=catechin
9Green TeaResearchers found that drinking at least four cups of green tea every day may be related to the reduced severity of coronary heart disease among the male participants.Green tea and its extract have been shown to fight obesity and lower LDL "bad" cholesterol -- two risk factors for heart disease and diabetes -- but in very limited studies.1st bullet- study involved 500 japanese men and women2nd bullet- One study in the Netherlands and a study in Japan showed that green tea did both.
10Common Dietary Flavonoids Flavonoid SubclassDietary FlavonoidsSome common food sourcesAnthocyanidinsCyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, PetunidinRed, blue, and purple berries; red and purple grapes; red wineFlavanolsMonomers (Catechins): Catechin, Epicatechin, Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate Dimers and Polymers: Theaflavins, Thearubigins, ProanthocyanidinsCatechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples Theaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong) Proanthocyanidins: Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wineFlavanonesHesperetin, Naringenin, EriodictyolCitrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemonsFlavonolsQuercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, IsorhamnetinWidely distributed: yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teasFlavonesApigenin, LuteolinParsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers,IsoflavonesDaidzein, Genistein, GlyciteinSoybeans, soy foods, legumes
11CarotenoidsCarotenoids are a widely distributed group of naturally occurring pigments, usually red, orange, or yellow in color.They are known to be essential for plant growth and photosynthesis, and are a main dietary source of vitamin A in humans.Scientists altered the structure of the carotenes and carotenoid pigments in the watermelon
12Common Carotenoids β-carotene α-carotene Lycopene Lutein Zeaxanthin Alpha, beta, and gamma carotene are considered provitamins because they can be converted to active vitamin A
13Food SourcesThe orange-colored fruits and vegetables including carrots, apricots, mangoes, squash, and sweet potatoes contain significant amounts of beta- carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin.Green vegetables, especially spinach, kale, and collard greens, also contain beta-carotene, and are the best sources of lutein.Lycopene is found in tomatoes, guava, and pink grapefruit. Salmon, shellfish, milk, and egg yolks also provide carotenoids.
14Health Benefits Antioxidant activity Reduced risk of Cardiovascular diseasePrevents eye degenerationReduced risk of some cancersImmune-enhancing activityPrevent Vitamin A deficiency
15LycopeneEpidemiological studies have shown that high intake of lycopene-containing vegetables is inversely associated with the incidence of certain types of cancer including digestive tract, prostate, and cervix.A combination of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene dramatically inhibited prostate cancer development and increased disease-free survival.
16LycopeneLycopene also strongly suppressed the growth of lung cancer cells and was found to be more potent than either α-carotene or β-carotene.
17β-CaroteneBeta-carotene is converted to retinol, which is essential for vision and is subsequently converted to retinoic acid, which is used for processes involving growth and cell differentiation.Beta-carotene/vitamin A supplements may have an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer and on the risk of death in smokers and asbestos exposed people or in those who ingest significant amounts of alcohol.Second bullet—beta carotene in normal amounts doesn’t seem to have the adverse effectsAlthough diets high in fruits and vegetables that contain beta carotene reduce the incidence of some cancers, studies don’t yet support the claim
18Recommendations Add chopped fruit to cereal, oatmeal, and yogurt Add fresh greens, carrots, celery, broccoli, beans, and peppers to soups and spaghetti sauceKeep dried fruits like raisins, apricots, and prunes for snacking instead of chipsTry replacing sodas and sports drinks with green or black teasAdd salsa to eggs, and use it in place of creamy dips for raw vegetablesReplaced processed grains for whole grains. (Refining wheat reduces phytochemical content by %.)
19BibliographyRuhul Amin A.R., Kucuk O., Khuri F.R., Shin D.M. (2009 June 1). Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds. Journal of Clinical Oncology, ; 27(16): 2712–2725.